(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Electric railway journal"

554 




L j 
_ 



Electric Railway Journal 




I 2 C j 

Volume 53 

January to June, 1919 



McGraw-Hill Company, Inc. 

Tenth Avenue at Thirty-sixth Street 
New York City 



Instructions for Use of Index 



This index is essentially a subject index, 
not an index of titles, and articles treating 
a number of different subjects are indexed 
under each of thera. In addition, a geo- 
graphical reference is published wherever 
the article relates to any particular railway 
company, or to the State matters cf any 
particular State. The geographical method 
of grouping serves to locate in the 
index any article descriptive of prac- 
tices, conditions, events, etc., when the 
searcher knows the electric railway, city or 
State to which the article applies. Group- 
ings are made under the name of the city 
in which the niain office of wie company is 
located, but art^ex'ception is made in the case 
of electrified sections of steam railroads, 
such entries being made direct under the 
name of the railroad. City or State affairs 
appear direct under the names of the city or 
State involved. 

In the subject index, the alphabetical 
method is followed, and if there is a choice 
of two or three keywords the one most gen- 
erally used has been selected, cross refer- 
ences being supplied. Below will be found 



a list of the common keywords used in the 
index to this volume. This list has been sub- 
divided for convenience into sixteen general 
subjects, but the general subject headings, 
shown in capital letters, do not appear in 
the body of the index. As an example, if a 
reader wished to locate an article on power- 
driven tower wagons he would obviously look 
in the list under the general subject "ve- 
hicles," and of the two keywords that appear 
under this caption, only "Service and tower 
wagons" could apply to the article in ques- 
tion. The reader would therefore refer to 
this keyword under "S" in the body of the 
index. 

In addition to the groups of articles cov- 
ered by these headings the papers and re- 
ports from railway associations are grouped 
under the names of the various organiza- 
tions. Proceedings of other societies are 
indexed only in accordance with the subject 
discussed. Short descriptions of machine 
tools appear only under the heading "Repi/r 
Shop Equipment" and are not indexed alpha 
betically, because of the wide choice in most 
cases of the proper keyword. 



CLASSIFIED Li ST OK KEYWORDS 



CARS AND OTHER 
VEHICLES 
Car design 
Cars (descriptive) 
Motor buses 
Motor cars, gasoline 
One-man cars 
Work and wrecking cars 

CAR EQUIPMENT 

Axles 

Bearing metais 

Brakes and compressors 

Controllers 

l Jurrent collection 

Gears and pinions 

Motors 

Trucks 

Wheels 

EMPLOYEES 
Employees 
Labor 

Wages 

FARES 

Fare collection (including ap- 
paratus) 
Fares 

Fare increases 
Zone fare system 



FINANCIAL AND LEGAL 
Franchises 



Operating records and costs 
Public service and regulative 
commissions 

HEAVY ELECTRIC TRACTION 
Heavy electric traction (gen- 
eral) 

High-voltage d.c. railways 
Locomotives 

MAINTENANCE OF 
EQUIPMENT 
Paints and painting 
Repair shop equipment 
Repair shop practice 
Repair shops 
Tests of equipment 
Welding, special methods 

POWER 
Energy consuniDtion 
Feeders 

Overhead contact system 
Poles 



Power distribution 
Power stations and equipment 
Power station practice 
Substations and equipment 
Substations, automatic 
Third-rail contact system 
Transmission lines 

TRACK AND OTHER 
STRUCTURES 

Bridges 

Power stations and equipment 
Rails 

Repair- shops 
Special work 
Ties 

Track construction 
Track maintenance 
Waiting stations 

TRANSPORTATION AND 
TRAFFIC 
Freight and express 
Operating records and costs 
Publicity 
Signals 

Stopping of cars 
Traffic improvement 
Train operating practice 



INDEX TO VOLUME 53 



PAGES BY WEEKS 

January 4 1 to 80 

January 11 81 to 124 

January 18 125 to 168 

January 25 169 to 214 

February 1 215 to 262 

February 8 263 to 304 

February 15 305 to 350 

February 22 351 to 392 

March 1 393 to 442 

March 8 443 to 494 

March 15 495 to 550 

March 22 551 to 628 

March 29 629 to 676 

April 5 677 to 722 

April 12 723 to 766 

April 19 767 to 810 

April 26 811 to 850 

May 3 851 to 898 

May 10 899 to 944 

May 17 945 to 990 

May 24 991 to 1034 

May 31 1035 to 1078 

June 7 079 to 1130 

June 14 1131 to 1200 

June 21 1201 to 1254 

June 28 1255 to 1300 



Aberdeen Corporation Tramways isee Great 

Britain) 
Akron, Ohio: 

—Northern Ohio Tr. & Lt. Co.: 

Franchise negotiations, 427 

New terminal at Akron, *681 
Albany, N. Y.: 
— United Traction Co.: 

Electric railways hard hit by war (Weather 
wax), 1177 

Wheel grinder, 963 
Allentown, Pa.: 
—Lehigh Valley Transit Co.: 

Annual report, 799 

Snow fighting equipment, *1 93 

Value of appreciated employees [Spring], 
475 

Alloys for bearings discussed, 699 
American Electric Railway Assn.: 
— Bureau of information and statistics, 880 
— Committee appointments, 284 
— Committee of One Hundred, 1224; 1379 
— Company section meetings: 

Connecticut company, 284; 655; 



Anderson, Ind. : 

— Union Traction Co.: 
Annual report, 618 
Cinder ballast [Mitchell], 106 
Cleaning and saturating waste, 



•70-. 



Ill 



925; 



Chicago Elevated Rys., 244; 532; 704 

Manila, 196; 532; 834 

Public Service Railway, 373; 926 

Rhode Island, 794 

Toledo, 285 

—Executive committee meetings, 521; 1180 
— Mid-year meeting, Proceedings, 516; Papers 
[Taylor], 498; [Crowell], 500; [Gruhl], 
502; [Sisson], 506; [Elmquist], 509; 
[Kealy], 511; [Drum], 513; [Ainey], 514 
American Electric Railway Engineering Assn.: 
— Executive committee meeting, 196 
— Committee assignments and appointments, 609 
American Electric Railway Transportation & 

Traffic Assn.: 
— Executive committee meeting, 244 
— Committee appointments, 610 
American Engineering Standards Assn.: 
—Constitution, 407; 859; 1100 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers: 
—Heavy electric traction discussed, 605 
— Welding discussed, 370 
American Railway Association: 

Engineering Section convention at Chicago, 



649 

—Mechanical Sections conventi 

City, *1232; 1268 
American Short Line Railroad Assn. 
— Convention at Washington, 1172 



at Atlantic 



IK ten 



ll« 'III 



•1234 
1234 

Power house economies [Kelsay], *455 
Artificial price standards discussed, 764 
Ash pit door (American Steam Conveyor Corp.), 

789 

Atlanta, Ga. : 

f. &. Pr. Co.: 

22; 715; 843 
Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Ry. (see Wheaton, 111.) 
Automatic substations (see Substations, auto- 



ce at Belfast [Ve 



Baltimore, Md. : 
—United Rys. & Elec. Co.: 
Annual report, 1067 

Rerouting in business district [Palmer], 
*1082 
Bangor, Me. : 

— Chamber of Commerce urges study of utility 

question, 333 
Bay State Street Ry. (see Boston, Mass.) 
Bearing metals discussed, 699 
Belfast City Tramways (see Great Britain) 
Belgium : 

— Governmental plans for electrification, 9y8 

— Plundered tramways, 746 

Berkshire Street Ry. (see Pittsfield, Mass.) 

Binghamton, N. Y.: 

— Binghamton Railway: 

Plea for fare increase, 343 
Birmingham, Ala.: 
—Birmingham Ry., Lt. & Pr. Co.: 

Receivership, 250 

Results of publicity, 1064 
Boilers: 

— Superheater for existing boilers (Locomotive 

Superheater Co.), *696 
Boston, Mass.: 
—Bay State Street Ry.: 

(Name changed to Eastern Massachusetts 
Street Ry.) 

Equipment inspection on kilowutt-hour bsisis 
[Bolt], *575; *789 

Metal tokens introduced, 831 

New fare schedule, 161; 488; 831 

Reorganization plan, 538 

Sale of property, 839 

Service-at-cost plan, Trustees named, 210 
Strike, 1283 
— Boston Elevated Ry.: 

Capital expenditures projected, 367 
Financial problem, 477 

Financial reports, 431; 666; 842; 1067; 
1289 

Metal tokens satisfactory. 543 

Service improvements, 984 

Zone fares, Report by A. S. Richey, * 1 34 
— Boston & Worcester Street Ry.: 

Annual report, 203 
Brakes and compressors: 

— Air compressor lubrication [Conrad], 424 

— Compressor maintenance, *569 

— New type of compressor ( Ingersoll-Rand) , 

*790 
Brazil: 

— Pernambuco Tr. & Pr. Co.: 

Emergency gear construction [Butler J. 331 
Bridges: 

— Maintenance discussed [Cram], *952 

Bridgeport, Conn.: 

— Connecticut Company: 

Demand for segregation of local lines, 543 

Safety cars, Experiences, *316; 428 
British Columbia Elec. Ry. (see Vancouver, 

Can.) 
Brooklyn, N. Y.: 
— Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co.: 

Butterfly turnbuckle for sprocket chain re- 
pairs, *577 

Choice of rail bonds [McKelway], *591 

Compromise joints, *1 1 08 

Copper-clad span wire [McKelway], 332 

Electric railway bridge maintenance [Cram], 
*952 

Lighter cars needed [Cram], 1182 
Machine for testing car jacks [Pike], *587 
One-man car service commenced, 418 
Pressure oil can, *656 

Prevention of rail-bond thefts [McKelway], 

Rack for air-brake hose, *960 
Receivership, 68; 156; 202; 251; 292 



Brooklyn, N. Y. i Continued) 

— Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co. (Continued) 

Rust prevention [O'Brien], 243 

Sewer construction, *1279 

Soldering tongs, *768 

Standardizing armature end-play, *1231 
Strike, 749; 797 

Substation operators' training, *919 
Third-rail bonding [McKelway], M154 
Tie renewal discussed [Cram], *308 
Timber preservation discussed [Cram], 597 
Trolley station signs, *878 
Welding worn contact shoes, *651 

Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester Ry. (see Roches- 
ter, N. yT) 

Buffalo, N. Y.: 

— -International Railway: 

Buffalo-Niagara high-speed line successful, 
*1103 

Commission's report on traffic conditions, 
254 

Franchise negotiations, 246; 378; 426; 613; 
796; 882; 1020; 1063; 1113 

Snow sweepers made from open cars 

[Hulme], *148 
Bureau rjf .Statistics and Information, Report, 611 
Butte, Vi-onf,': 
—Butte Electric Ry.: 



[Nash J, 



Cables: 

—Connector, without solder (Dossert), *744 

—Stresses on cable wires [Sahm], *786 

— Stress on stranded conductor cores [Harte], 

Canada: 

— Electric lines near breaking point [Freder- 
icks], 91 

— British Columbia passes strong public utility 
act, 876 

Car ailments, 143; 329; 593; 783; *965; 1229 
Car design: 

— Recent developments [Johnson], 229 

— Seatless design tried in Japan, 1111 

— Seats should be reduced to increase capacity 

[Wing], 1110 
— Seatless type advocated [Observer], 1182 
Cars: 

— Concrete gondola car, *698 

— Front-entrance, center-exit type for Philadel- 
phia, *861 

— H. Ford's gas-driven street car, *738; 767; 

794, 797; 829; 851; 869; 1110 
— Light open type at St. Louis, *879 
—New York Central R. R., *1134 

— Self-propelled for branch lines [Prot.zeller] , 
*1149 

Casual riders' fares on commutation principle, 

693; 747; 793 
Central Electric Railway Assn.: 
— Accountants' Assn. meeting. 372 
—Cleveland meeting. 421: Papers [Sullivan], 

413; Comment, 394; [Kelsay], *455 ; [Cole], 

460; Discussion, 463 
— Committee appointments, 736 
—Report of Traffic Assn., 138 
Census for electric railways, 423; 522; ; " 

877; Comment, 813; 1037; 1081 
Circuit breakers (see Substations and cauip- 

ment) 

Chamber of Commerce of the United States: 

—Committee on public utilities, 792 

—Electric railways discussed, 870; 915; 1057; 

1093; Comment. 851 
—Hearing at Washington, 1222 
Charles City, la.: 
— Charles City Western Ry.: 

Women operators for one-man cars, * 1 78 
Chattanooga, Tenn.: 
— Chattanooga Ry. & Lt. Co.: 

Receivership, 886 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Ry.: 
— Data on regeneration, "1218 
Chicago, 111.: 

— Electrification again considered, 108 

— Fare case decision, 891; Comment, 851 

■ — Chicago Elevated Rys.: 

Air-brake testing room, *374 

Annual report, 155; 710 

Banquet to returned service men, *529 

Boring machine home made. *74S 

Fare increase upheld, 208; Comment, 215 

Hydraulic jack made from axle, *365 

Mechanical developments [Johnson], 229 

— Chicago Surface Lines: 
Annual report. 980 
Track standards successful, *865 

Chicago, North Shore & Milwaukee R. R. (see 
Highwood, 111.) 

Cleaning of cars: 

— Washing cars at East St. Louis, *878 



•Illustrated. 

READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OP THE INDEX 



IV 



INDEX 



{Vol. 53 



Cleveland, Ohio: 

— Cleveland Railway: 

Annual report, 755 

Battery charging practice, *366 

Decision not to employ women conductors, 
749 

Franchise negotiations, 426; 614; 975 

Portable coal conveyor, *332 
— Lake Shore Electric Ry. : 

New wheel press design, 196 
Cincinnati. Ohio: 
— Cincinnati Traction Co.: 

Annual report, 431 
Columbus, Ohio: 
—Columbus Ry., Pr. & Lt. Co.: 

Fare-increase problem, 203; 248; 434; 844: 
Comment, 853 

Receivership hearing, 203 

Reorganization, 158 

Supreme court decision against abandon- 
ment of franchise, 828 
Commission to investigate electric railways of 

United States (see Federal Commission 
for Electric Railways) 
Commutation principle for fares (see Casual 

riders fares.) 
Compensation for engineers, 960 , \ 
Congestion relief (see Terminal s^'Jo .is and 

terminals) i' . 

Connecticut: *' . '■' 

— Proposed aid by State to electric railways, 

707; 882 

Connecticut Company (see Bridgeport, Conn., 

and New Haven, Conn.) 
Cooperstown, N. Y.: 

—Southern New York Pr. & Ry. Corp.: 

Fare of 4 cents per mile allowed, 116 
Controllers: 

—Increasing life of contact segments and fin- 
gers [Beers], *697 

— Storage battery, Edison type, Maintenance 
[Gottschalk], 315 

— Treatment of loose drum controller cylinders 
[Beers], *319 

Converters (see Substations and equipment) 

Conveyor of portable type (Portable Machinery 
Co), *700 

Croyden Corp. Tramways (see Great Britain) 
Cumberland County Lt. & Pr. Co. (see Port- 
land, Me.) 
Current collection: 

— Pantograph shoes of Denver & Interurban 
Ry., *1212 



Dallas, Tex.: 

— Dallas Railway: 

Annual leport, 381 

Jitr.eys eliminated by ordinance, 385 

Skip stops save time, 181 

Unsatisfactory situation under seirvice-at- 
cost franchise, 981 

Denver, Col.: 

— Denver & Interurban R. R. : 
Pantograph shoes, * 1212 
• (See also Fort Collins, Col.) 
— L -er Tramway: 

uonus system to save coal [Casey and 

Weber], *267 
Fare controversy, 1183 

Mechanical pusher for flat-car unloading 

[Whitlock], *924 
Modern appliances in track construction 

[Whitlock], *99S 
Return to 6-cent fare, 206 
Safety carrier for motors, * 1 92 
Shop routing system, *328 
Detroit, Mich.: 
— City Council acts, 1285 

—Municipal ownership project, 287; 378; 427; 

477; 5:s:j; 614; 059; 706; 739; 885; Com- 
ment, 496. 
—Detroit United Railway: 

Annual report, 1118 

Coal handling plant, *282 

Economies of skip stops, 185 

Improvements outlined, 977 

Interurban section-men's cars, *590 

New shop equipment, 183 

Pony truck for broken- axle repairs, *785 

Railway's problem, 797 

Skip stops found safe [Burdick], *97 

Stone crushing plant, *726 

Strike, 1184 

Supreme court decision on franchise, 149 
Wage and fare problem, 1114 
Wage settlement, 1237; Comment, 1203 
Zone fare system on suburban line, * 1 107 
Des Moines, la.: 

— Decision covering service determined bv fare, 
343; Comment, 395; Service reduction at- 
tempted, 488; 544; 623; 669 



Differential gears. Maintenance costs, Hudders- 

field (England) Tramways, *133 
Door operating machines, Maintenance [Oakley], 

Dublin United Tramways (see Great Britain) 



ast St. Louis, 111.: 

-East St. Louis & Suburban Ry. : 

Car washing practice, *878 
-East St. Louis Ry. : 

Six-cent fare decision appealed, 935 



vays (see Great 



Jectnc railways: 

-Agents of public [Clark], 1011 

-Effect of war [Weatherwax], 1177 

-Elements of cost of service, 1220 

-Fare-increase problem discussed by civic lead- 
ers, 361; 408; 639; Comment, 724; 747 

-Financial returns, 69; 251; 430; 664; 840 

-Governors' messages extracted, 101 

-Prospects for 1919 [Gadsden], 4; [Renshaw], 
60; Comment, 3 

-Statistics for 1918, 49; 52; 54; 55; 59; 150 

-(See also Census of electric railways; 
Chamber of Commerce of the United States; 
Federal Commission for Electric Railways) 

lectrolysis: 

-Pipe drainage discussed, 701 
-Resistance of electric railway roadbeds [Shep- 
ard], *172 



Iowa described [Ray- 
: Girardville, Pa., un- 



— Return-circuit studies on Milwaukee, *770 
Employees: 

— Board of Conciliation 

mond], 1275 
— Contract with Union 

enforceable, 1064 
— Draft status of electric railway employees, 529 
— Promotion of co-operation, Comment, 725 
— Self-insurance for workmen's compensation 

[Browne], 1176 
— Substation operators' training in Brooklyn, 

*919 

— Suggestions for improvements made by Con- 
necticut Co.'s men, 908 

— Training platform men [Clarke], 1056 

— Value of appreciation of employees' efforts 
[Spring], 475 

— Wage standardization, Comment, 127 

— Women on cars: 

Decision against women in Detroit, 197 
Eliminated by New York welfare legislation, 

1019; Comment. 991 
Women operators for one-man cars at Charles 

City, la., *178 
Successful service at Vancouver, 360 

— (See also Labor and War Labor Board) 

Energy consumption: 

—Curve resistance, Comment, 126 

— Energy saving by use of rails, 1079 

— Importance of [Castiglioni] , - 1181 



bare collection: 

— Metal tokens appreciated in Boston, 543 

— Practice in Great Britain with zone system 

(see Zone fare system) 
— Public Service Ry. zone fare plan, '523; 

•598; 644; 1122; Comment, 497; 630 
— Register for zone fares (Ohmer), *695 
Fare increases: 

— Lists, supplementary, of cities granting in- 
creases, 116; 715; 1193 
Fares : 

— Aid by taxation recommended by Massachu- 
setts commission, 377; 419 
— Basis of stand-by and operating charges, Pub- 
lic Service Ry., *523; 598; 644; Comment, 
497; 630 U 
— Ethical aspects of the situation [Sullivan], 

413; Comment, 394 
—Effect of higher fares on revenue, 113 
—Effect of 7-cent fare in New Jersey, 380 
— Four cents per mile allowed New York rail- 
way, 116 

—Increases discussed bv W. H. Taft, 1169; 
1225; 1248 

— Increases not producing results in Massachu- 
setts, 186 

— Increases essential [Conway], 1157 

— Opinions of civic leaders as to fare-increase 

problem, 361; 408; 639; Comment, 724, 747 
— Predicting effects of increases [Schutt], *741 
— Proposed commutation plan for placing load 

on casual rider, 693; 747; 793 
■ — Results of 6-cent fare in St. Louis, 293 
— Results of increase in Pittsburgh, 1284 



Pares (Continued) 

— Status of fare increases in country, 297 

— Sliding scale with combined utility services, 

*684 

— Ten cents allowed in Pittsburgh, 1293 
Federal Commission for Electric Railways: 
— Hearing in New York, 1225 
— How Commission may help [Shoup], 1277 
—Organization, 1015; 1107; 1161; Comment, 
1035; 1201 

—Personnel of Committee of One Hundred, 

1224; meeting- of, 1278 
Feeders: 

— Double insulator construction, *920 
— (See also Cables) 

Fender of light weight for one-man car [Maize], 

*596 

Ford (Henry) gasoline-driven surface car, *738; 

767; 794; 797; 829; 851; 869; 1110 
Fort Collins, Col.: 
—Denver & Interurban R. R.: 

Municipal ownership project, 204; 248 
France : 

— Rehabilitation of war-zone tramways [Pierce], 
*1101 

Franchises : 

■ — Indeterminate [Erikson], 1266 

— Reproduction cost fair basis for valuation 
[Crowell], 500 

— Service-at-cost plan: 

Advantages [Clark], 1219 
Characteristics discussed [Nash], 15 
Maintenance and depreciation allowances 

[Drum], 513 
Opposed by Cleveland mayor, 426 
Proposed for Youngstown, O., 99 
Rate of return [Gruhl], 502 
Valuation, Compromises necessary, Com- 
ment, 551 

Freight and express: 

— Development of feeders on Sacramento North- 
ern R. R., *1045 
— Freight haulage an economic duty [Cole], *39 
— Hints for the freight operator [Cole], *397 
— Merchandising of transportation [Cole], 460 
— Parcel carriage inaugurated in Glasgow, 360 
—Requirements and costs Of handling freight 

[Cole], *219 
— Results of governmental control of express 
[Henry], *927 



—Galveston Electric Co.: 

Fare reduction protested, 1192 
Gary, 111.: 
— Gary Street Ry. 

One-man cars successful, *967 



Gasoline motor cars (see Motor cars, gasoline) 

Gears and pinions: 

— Long life of gears at Glasgow, 424 

— Making emergency gears [Butler], *331 

— -Pinion heating practice at St. Louis, *787 

Gears for turbine speed reduction (Terry), "789- 

Georgia Ry. & Pr. Co. (see Atlanta, Ga.) 

Girardville, Pa.: 

—Schuylkill Railway: 

Union contract unenforceable, 1064 
Glasgow Corp. Tramways (see Great Britain). 
Governors' and Mayors' Conference recognizes 

electric railway needs, 480 
Grafton & Upton R. R. (see Milford, Mass.) 
Grand Rapids, Mich.: 
—United Lt. & Rys. Co.: 

Plan to place load on casual riders, 693; 
747; 793 
Great ETitain: 

— Aberdeen Corporation Tramways: 
Car maintenance data, 604 
Zone fare system [Jackson], *814 

— Belfast City Tramways: 

Maintenance of carbodies [Williamson], 
*1058 

Wheel and axle practice [Vernon], *961; 
971 

Zone fare system [Jackson], 909; *100S 
— Croyden Corp. Tramways: 

Shop notes, *1281 
— Dublin United Tramways: 

Annual report, 482 

Zone fare system [Jackson], *1038; 1087 
— Edinburgh & District Tramways: 

Zone fare practice [Jackson], *854 
— Huddersfield Tramways: 

Differential gear maintenance, *133 
— Glasgow Corporation Tramways: 

Long lived gears, 424 

Parcel carriage inaugurated, 360 

Shop practices of Glasgow Corporation 
Tramways, 286 



•Illustrated. 

READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OP THE INDEX 



January-June, 1919] 



INDEX 



V 



Great Britain ( Continued ) 

— Glasgow Corporation Tramways (Continued) 

Zone fare system investigated [Jackson], 
*355 ; *446; *632 
. — Heavy electric traction in [Dawson], *1160 
— Letters from London correspondent, 64; 245; 

425; 705; 881; 1112 
— London County Council Tramways: 

Suggestions for mechanical ticket issue 
[Thomas], 1109 
— -London Underground Electric Rys. : 

Annual report, 754 

Maps for patrons' use, * 1 104 

Publicity on rules for travelers' conduct, 
*735 

Strike, 478 
— London & Southwestern Ry. : 

Traffic increase from electrification, 923 
— One-man control for public utilities, 750 
— Reading Corporation Tramways: 

Welding truck frames [Calder], *586 
Zone fare system I Jackson 1, "1258 
—Track without ties, *743 
— West Hnm Corporation Tramways: 

Zone fare system [Jackson], '1 163 
Great Northern R. R. : 

—Operating data for 1918 for Cascade Tunnel 
[Marshall], * 1 217 



H 



Halifax, Can.: 

—Nova Scotia Tr. & Pr. Co.: 

Finishing welded compressor cylinders 
[Pride], *788 
Harrisburg, Pa.: 
— Harrisburg Railways: 

Bond and joint maintenance [Moist], *573 
Hastings (N. Y.) walks free of charge, 938 
Heavy electric traction: 

— Constant speed motors, comment. 1201 

—Data for 1918 for Cascade Tunnel [Mar- 
shall], *1217 

— Discussion by A. I. E. E.. 605 

—Discussed at Western Railway Club [Potter 
and Dodd], 825 

— Future of [Dawson], 1160 

— Heating passenger trains, 1268 



International Tramway & Light Railway Assn.: 
■ — Meetings resumed after war, 1055; Comment, 
1936 

Iowa Electric Railway Assn: 
— Meeting: at Colfax, 1216; 1271 
Iowa State Board of Conciliation described [Ray- 
mond] . 1275 



Kansas City, Mo.: 

—Kansas City Railways: 

Emergency special work made up with arc 

welder, 1060 
Recent substation design [Grauten], *326 
Safety cars satisfactory [Kealy], 1170 
Strikes, 109; 288; 470; 535 ; 659 

Kentucky Traction & Terminal Co. (see Lexing- 
ton, Ky.) 



Labor: 

— Cost of labor turnover, 279 

— Supply and demand in various cities, 65 

— Women conductors, Comment, 2. 

— Women on steam railroads, 102 

— (See also Employes. Women on ears) 
Lake Shore Electric Ry. (see Cleveland, O.) 
Lehigh Valley Transit Co. (see Allentown, Pa.) 
Legal: 

— Franchise is binding contract. Supreme court 

decision in Columbus (Ohio) case, 828; 
Comment, 853 
— New Jersey decision approving fare increases 
to prevent deficits, 486 

— Ruling in lies Moines that service may be 

limited to that warranted by fare, 343; Com- 
ment, 395; Service reduction attempted, 488; 
544; 623, 669 
— Supreme court decision on Detroit franchise, 
149 

on emergency rates, 759 



High-voltage d.c. railways 
— Power regeneration on 



C. M. 



P. Ry. 



Highwood, 111. j 

—Chicago North Shore & Milwaukee R. R. : 
Annual report, 887 

Automatic substation operation [Jones], *84 

Co-operation in safety work [Scott], 359 
Holyoke, Mass.: 
— Holyoke Street Ry.: 

Armature handling [Pellissier], *95 
Houston, Tex. : 
— Houston Electric Co.: 

Fare relief case, 254, 716 
Huddersfield Tramways (see Great Britain) 



Illinois : 

Illinois Electric Railway Ass'n: 
—Annual meeting, 179, 229 
— Officers and committeemen, 612 
Illinois Traction System (see Peoria, 111.) 
Indiana : 

— Fare increases to interurbans, 117 
— Interline express rates requested by inter- 
urbans, 1028 
Indianapolis, Ind. : 

— Merger of Street Railway and Traction & 

Terminal Co., 1119; 1243 
— Indianapolis & Cincinnati Tr. Co. • 

Results of government-operated express 
[Henry], *927 

Tube puller for stationary boilers, *194 
—Indianapolis Street Ry. : 

Plan for reorganization, 1068 
— Indianapolis Tr. & Term. Co.: 

Annual report, 888 

Earnings increased, 844 

Emergency special work [McMath], *145 
Industrial department for public utilities 

[Whelan], 655 
Inspection of cars: 
— Inspection on kilowatt-hour basis: 

Bay State Street Ry. [Bolt], 575 

Equipment for (Economy Electric Devices'), 
*789 

— Temporary facilities for New York subways 

[Glaser], *184 
Inte'borough Rapid Transit Co. (see New York 

City) 

International Railway Co. (see Buffalo, N. Y.) 



Lexington, Ky. : 

— Kentucky Traction & Terminal Co.: 

Annual report, 155 
Lincoln, Neb.: 
— Lincoln Traction Co.: 

Diesel engine [Shaw], *902 
Locomotives : 

—Design discussed [Potter and Dodd], 826 

— Designs for moderate capacity [Cole], * 1 1 52 

— Performance characteristics [Babcock], 1139; 
Comment, 1131 

— Single-phase type for Swiss Federal Rys., 
*1141 

London, Can.: 

— London Street Ry. : 
Annual report, 711 

London, England (see Great Britain) 

Los Angeles, Cal. : 

— Pacific Electric Ry. : 

Eliminating ground-squirrel pest, * 1 05 
Employees "vacation hours." 1159 
Interurban stations and shelters [Elliott], 
*733 

Smoke-stack removed and reinstalled [El- 
liott], 580 

Tool list as aid in economical maintenance 
of way [Elliott], 271 
Louisville, Ky.: 
— Louisville Railway: 

Annual report, 484 



M 



Mahoning & Shenango Ry. & Lt. Co. (see 

Youngstown, O.) 
Mail: 

— Compensation for electric railway carriers, 

1180; 1235 Comment, 947 
— (See also Postal zone law) 

Maps on cars for patrons' use, London Under- 
ground Ry., "1104; Paris Tramway, 1182 

Markets: 

— Automatic substations, 988 
—Bell cord, 390; 1128 
— British situation, 720 
—Car seatings, 1128 
—Coal, 123 

— Construction reports, 548 

—Copper, 303; 1128 

—Copper wire, 123; 675 

— Copper goods, 492 

—Curtains, 1033 

— Electrical equipment, 166 

—Electrical supplies, 348 

— Export railway material, 440; 626 

—Fare registers, 390 



Markets i Continued) 

—Fenders, 848 

—Fibre conduit, 1197 

— General sales situation, 1252 

— General supplies. Costs and quantities com- 
pared 1914 and 1918, 440 
— Hewn ties, 942 
— Insulating material, 1299 
— Journal box packing, 1298 
— Machine tools. 1298 
—Maintenance material, 492; 764 
—Paints, 674 
—Poles, 212 

— Price levels fsce Prices) 

— Rail bonds, 260; 848; 1197 
—Review for 1918, 78 

— Track supplies, 302 
—Transformers, 548 
—Transformer materials, 1032 
—Scrap, 123 
—Slack adjusters, 896 
—Special work, 808; 1032 
—Steel, 674, 942 

— Steel equipment. 720 
—Steel poles, 1128; 1197 
—Supplies, 626 
—Wire, 260, 1076 
—Wheels, 848; 1032 
Massachusetts: 

— Public Service Commission: 

Report on effect of increased fares, 186 
Taxation to aid electric lines recommended, 
377; 419 

— Railway legislation for public ownership dis- 

continued. 885 

Master Car Builders' Assn. (see American 
Railway Assn.) 

Master Mechanics' Assn. (see American Rail- 
way Assn.) 

Memphis, Tenn.: 

— Memphis Street Ry.: 

Contact wire replacement, *189 

Merrill. Wis.: 

— Local line offered to city for $1, 974 
Milford, Mass.: 
—Grafton & Upton R. R. : 

Trial of zone system. 344 
Milwaukee, Wis.: 

—Milwaukee Elec. Ry. & Lt. Co.: 
Annual report, 711 
Fare hearings, 803 

Return circuit studies [Shepard], 770 

Research bureau for operation, 373 

Strike, 247; 976 
Minneapolis, Minn.: 
—Twin City Rapid Transit Co.: 

Annual report, 1289 

Fare situation, 752 

Hollow axles, 1232 

New franchise discussion, 336; 1069 

Valuation figures, 293; 1120 

Results with coasting recorders, 703 
Minnesota Northwestern Elec. Ry. (see Thief 

River Falls, Minn.) 
Mobile, Ala.: / 
—Mobile Lt. & R. R. Co.: 

Plea for 6-cent fare withdrawn, 1247 
Montreal, Can.: 
— Montreal Tramways: 

Welding manganese special work [Scott 1 

♦1227 
Motor buses: 

— Long-haul service, Comment, 351 
Motor cars, gasoline-steam (Unit Railway Car), 
*1233 

Motor cars, gasoline: 

— Minnesota North Western Elee. Ry. [Prot- 

zeller], *1149 
Motors : 

— Armature coil winding practice, *578 
— Constant speed, Comment, 1201 
— Device for preventing rubbing of armature on 
poles, *971 

— Electrical vs. mechanical troubles [Dean], 

*6S7 

-Manufacturers' tests [Dean], *777 
-Standardizing armature end play, * 123 1 
-Welding cracked shells, *581 



N 



National Electrical Code, Correction, 1236 
National Electric Light Assn.: 
—Annual convention, 999; 1053 
Resuscitation chart, *1267 
Newark, N. T.: 
—Public Service Corp.: 

Annual report, 1023 
— Public Service Ry. : 

Annual report. 710 

fare case hearings. 802; 844; 892: >XW; 

1028: 1122; 1192; 1292 
March finances, 886 
New financing plan, 250 



•Illustrated. 

READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OP THE INDEX 



VI 



INDEX 



[Vol. 53 



Newark. N J. i Continued) • 

— Public Service Ry. (Continued) 
Strike, 479; 533; 613 
Traffic improvement [Jackson], 1049 
Zone fare plan, *523; *598; 644; 1122; Com- 
ment, 497, 630 

New Brighton, N. Y. : 

— Richmond Lt. & R. R. Co: 

Maintenance of car lamps [Gottschalk], 282 
Maintenance of Edison-type batteries [Gotts- 
chalk], 315 

New Brunswick Power Co. (see St. Johns, Can.) 

New England Electric Freight Assn. : 

— Worcester meeting, 863 

New England Street Railway Club: 

— February meeting, 467 

— March meeting, 656 

New Hampshire: 

— Public Service Commission: 

Report on fare situation, 199 
New Haven, Conn.: 
— Connecticut Company: 

Educating public for safety-car operation, 
914 

Employees suggest improvements, 908 
Extending life of poles [Harte], *554 
Increased revenue needed [Storrs], 237 
Pole guys [Harte], *321 
Pole top fittings [Harte], *1204 
Results from rail conservation [Dunham], 
*562 

Track reclamation by welding and grinding 

[Tippett], *773 
(See also Eridgeport, Conn.) 

,es, 486 
New Orleans, La. : 
—New Orleans Ry. & Lt. Co.: 

Receivership, 157 
New York Central R. R. : 
—Motor cars, "1134 
New York City: 

— Closed vestibules for cars ordered, 545 

—Fare situation, 333; 340; 751; 1249 

— New subway line opened, *795 

— Public Service Commission reorganized, 928 

— Temporary inspection facilities for dual sub- 
way equipment [Glaser], *184 

— lnterborough Consolidated Corp.: 
Receivership, 663; 800 

— lnterborough Rapid Transit Co. : 
Eight-cent fare refused. 162 
Turbo-generator, 60,000 kw., [Finlay], *906 

— New York Railways: 
Receivership, 619 

—Third Avenue Ry. : 
Annual report, 432 

—(see also Brooklyn, N. Y.) 

New York Electric Railway Assn. : 

—Annual meeting, *T173 

New York State: 

— Public Service Commission: 

Annual report, 152; Comment, 496 
Hearing on jurisdiction over service, 487; 
542 

Investigation of fare increases, 1292 
— Supreme court decision on Buffalo interurban 

fare case, 1027 
New York State Rys. (See Rochester, N. Y. ; 

Syracuse, N. Y.) 
Norfolk & Western Ry. : 
— Notes on recent operation, 522 
Northern Ohio Tr. & Lt. Co. (see Akron, Ohio) 
Nova Scotia Tr. & Pr. Co. (see Halifax, Can.) 



Oakland, Cal.: 

— -Oakland Antioch & Eastern Ry. : 

Reorganization plan, 981 
— San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Rys.: 

Annual report, 1244 
Omaha, Neb.: 

—Omaha & Council Bluffs St. Ry. : 
Fare case, 803 

Glass chipping and sand-blasting, *62 

Stone crusher operation, *279 
Oils, Dielectric strength testing device (West- 

inghouse), *325 
One-man cars: 

- — Device for insuring proper position of trolley 

pole [Copley], '968 
— Discussion at New England Street Railway 

Club, 467 

— Discussed by Westinghouse representatives, 
1179 

— Discussed by Iowa Eleotric Railway Asso.. 
1272 

— Effects of small size. Comment, 1202 

— Experiences in Bridgeport, Conn., *316; 428 

— Experience in Terre Haute. * 126.3: 1282 

— Field for, Comment. 1080 

— Inaugurated at Ogden, Utah, 1057 



ine-man cars I Continued I 
—Live proposition [Kealy], 1170 
— Operating records and statistics from various 

cities [Andrews], 652 
—Operating results in Seattle, 466 
— Opposition by Amalgamated Association's 

president, 929; Comment, 946 
— Prepayment areas desirable. Comment, 1257 
— Proposed lor interurban service L Hershberger I , 
1270 

— Skip stops important, [Walker], 1282 
— Successful at Gary, Ind., *967 
Operating records and costs: 

— Car performance predetermined from test 

results [Squier], *1209 
—Data for 1918 for Cascade Tunnel [Mar- 
shall], *1217 
— Costs of handling freight [Cole], *219 
— Economies at San Diego, Cal., *273 
— Effect of increased fares on revenue, 113 
— Graphic records for interurban train sched- 
ules, *683 

—Traffic characteristic graphs [Dewhurst], *694 
Oshkosh, Wis.: 

— Public support to local traction line, 296 
Ottawa, Can.: 
—Ottawa Electric Ry.: 

Property offered to city, 298; 337 
Overhead contact system: 

— Copper-clad wire for spans [McKelway], 332 

—Steel trolley wire at Los Angeles, 778 

— Tension device for stringing new trolley wire 

at Memphis, * 189 
— Trolley hanger design [Bolus], *S95 
— Trolley pole erection on C. M. & St. P. Ry., 

1110 

—Trolley wire insulator (General Electric), 
*791 



Pacific Electric Ry. (see Los Angeles, Cal.) 

Paints and Painting: 

— Economies, Comment, 39.5 

— "Selling" value of car painting. Comment, 

1203 
Pavement : 

— Brick discussed, 1271 
Pennsylvania: 

— Public Service Commission approves first o 

cent fare case, 207 
Peoria, 111.: 

—Illinois Traction System: 

Graphic records for interurban schedules. 
*683 

Storage for scrap, *833 
Pernambuco Tr. & Pr. Co. (see Brazil) 
Philadelphia, Pa.: 

— Agreement for unified operation blocked, 199; 
247 

—Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co.: 

Annual report, 339; 662 

Front-entrance, center-exit cars, *861 

Publicity for skip-stop. *233 

Record for nine years, 484 

Tax decision for leased lines, 382 
Pitt-burgh, Pa.: 

— Citizen sues Amalgamated Assn. for strike 

damages, 1183 
— Pittsburgh Railways: 

Annual report, 537 

Distribution of materials and supplies 

[Yunprbluthl. 473 
Pare hearing, 1284 

Segregation of citv lines possible, 1119 

Strike. 977; 1020: 1183 

Ten-cent fare, 1293 
Pittsfield, Mass.: 
—Berkshire Street Ry.: 

Consideration of service on abandoned line. 
1122 

Plea for subsidy, 1071 
Poles: 

—Extending life of [Harte], *554 
—Fittings for [Harte], *1204 
—Practice in guying [Harte], M39; *321 
Portland, Me.: 

—Cumberland County Lt. & Pr. Co.: 

Fare readjustment, 206 

Zone tickets adopted, *728 
Portland, Ore.: 

—Portland Ry., Lt. & Pr. Co.: 

Fender for one-man car [Maize], *596 
Postal zone law 

— Effect on subscription costs, *1084 
Power distribution: 

—Conduit construction discussed by N. E. L. A., 
1018 

— (See also Cables) 

Power stations and equipment: 

1 See also 1 toiler* > 

—Diesel engines at Lincoln [Shaw], *902; Com- 
ment, 900 

—Turbogenerators discussed by N. E. L. A., 999 
—Turbogenerator, 60.000 kw., for Interborr—h 
Rapid Transit Co. [Finlay], *906; Com- 
ment, 900 



Power station practice: 

— Boiler room practice discussed by N. E. L. A., 
1001 

— Bonus system to save coal at Denver [Casey 

& Weber], "267 
— Possible economies [Kelsay], *455 
— Scraping boiler tubes, *791 

— Stoker placed under mud-drum at Cleveland, 

*972 

Price levels of future: 

— "Goods dollar" plan as applied to industry 

[Fisher], 1094 
— National Prosperity Campaign publicity, 

832; 862: Comment, 852 

Price levels of present should applv to fares 
[Holden], 1095 



Providence, R. I.: 

—Rhode Island Co.: 

Annual report, 203; 538 
Company's leases set aside, 1023 
Experimental long-haul fare reduction, 758 
Portable painter's table, *320 
Proposed reorganization, 662 
Receivership, 250; 292; 539- 1242 

Public, Relations with: 

— Advice from Illinois Commission, 384; Com- 
ment, 394 

— Courtesy campaign in Springfield, Mass., "541 
— Electric railway situation discussed by civic 

leaders, 361; 408; 639 
— Salesmanship of transportation bv employees, 

1106; Comment, 1080 
Publicity: 

— London (Eng.) rules lor travelers' conduct 
*735 

— Maps for patrons of London Underground 
Ry., *1104 

— Price stabilization posters, *832 

—Springfield (111.) campaign for higher rail- 
way fares, *740 

Public service and regulative commissions- 

—British Columbia legislation, 876 

Public Service Ry. (see Newark, N. J.) 

Puget Sound Tr., Lt. & Pr. Co. (see Seattle, 
Wash.) 

Punch, hand operated (Koch), *923 



Rails: 

—Discussion of A. E. R. A. standard sections, 
724 

— Effect of vibrations on failures [Pegram], 
1111 

—Results from rail-conservation [Dunham], "562 
Rail joints and bonds: 

— Choice of rail bonds [McKelway], *S91 

— Electrically-welded rail joints at St. Louis, 

*182 

— Hardening ioints on Southern Pacific R. R. 
1148 

— Relation between bond and joint maintenance 

[Moist], *573 
— Theft prevention [McKelway J, "375 
— Track reclamation by welding and grinding 

[Tippett], «773 
—Welding special-alloy steei rails [Hulbeit], 

973 



Reading Corp. Tramways (see Great Britain) 
Regulations for public utilities [Jackson], 230 
Repair shop equipment: 

— Auxiliary hoist for crane [Payne], "744 

—Butterfly turnbuckle, *577 

— Portable fuse tester, *190 

—Portable painter's table, *320 

—Saw bench [Wallace], *700 

—Spreader for crane hooks, *879 

— Tester for car jacks [Pike], *587 

— Tool-tempering electric furnace [Westine- 

house], 790 
Repair shop practice: 
— Armature coil winding, *578 
—Battery charging practice at Cleveland, *366 
— Compressor maintenance, *569 
—Controller shaft renewals [Beers], *61 

— Finishing welded compressor cylinders [Pride], 
*788 

— Flashovers reduced by low-voltage circuit 

breaker, 144 
— Gage for sorting wood screws, 285 
— Glass chipping and sand blasting, *62 
— Ice on control contacts remedied, 143 
— Inspection on a kw.-hr. basis. "789 
—Maintenance of car lamps [Gottschalk], 2i?2 
— Maintenance of door machines [Oakley], 58 8 



•Illustrated. 

READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE INDEX 



January-June, 1919] 



INDEX 



VII 



Repair shop practice (Continued) 
—Maintenance of Edison storage batteries 

[Gottschalk], 315 
—Mysterious car ailments, 143; 329; 593; /83; 

♦965; 1229 . ., 

— Results from dipping and baking motor colls 

[Dean], *190 
—Rust prevention [O'Brien], 243 
— Shop routing system in Denver, *328 
—Testing field coils for polarity, *1 235 
— Waste cleaning and saturating at Anderson, 

Ind., *776 
— Welding motor shells, *S81 
Repair shops: • m 

— Freight repair track facilities, Illinois lrac. 

System, *1109 
Rerouting for traffic congestion (see Terminal 

stations and terminals) 
Resistance of electric railway road beds [Shep- 

ard], *172 
Resuscitation chart, *1267 
Rhode Island Co. (see Providence, R. I.) 
Richmond Lt. & R. R. Co. (see New Brighton, 

N. Y.) 
Richmond, Va. : 
— Virginia Ry. & Pr. Co.: 

Annual report, 483 
Riding habit in large cities [Halmos], 927 
Rochester, N. Y. : 
—New York State Rys. : 

Device for preventing rubbing of armature 

on poles, 971 
-Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester, Ry.: 

Reorganization, 380 
Roslyn, L. I.: 

— New York & North Shore Tr. Co.: 

Voluntary payment of increased fare by 
patrons, 384 
Rush-hour traffic: 
—Comment, 945 



Sacramento, Cal.: 
—Sacramento Northern R. R.: 

Freight traffic, *1045 
Safety cars (see One-man cars) 
Safety-first movement: 
— Cooperation on North Shore Li 



i-d.|. 



ly pra< 



n various cities [Ed- 
& Ry. Corp. (see 



Hi' 



railways [Adams], 



Saginaw, Mich.: 

— Saginaw-Bay City Ry. : 

Twelve-day suspension, 759 

San Di-ego, Cal.: 

—San Diego Electric Ry.: 

Free-ride theory discussed [Clayton], 195 
Petition for relief, *273, 1086 
Proposed zone system, 983; 1071 
War Labor Board wage hearing, 377 

San Francisco, Cal.: 

— Encroachment case, 750 

—New terminal loops, *103 

— Municipal Railway: 
Annual report, f 



data f 
[Eckart], 



1916 



1917, 294 
Maintenance pract 
Review of building probl 
-United Railroads: 
Annual report, 537 

Injunction against Municipal Ry. denied 
New prepayment loop, *454; C 

*732 



*324 

White bricks for indicating safety zones, 
San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Rys. 

Oakland, Cal.) 
Scranton, Pa.: 
— Scranton Railway: 

Wage award, 1115 
— Scranton & Binghamton, R. R.: 

Reorganization plan, 712 
Schedules (see Train operating practice) 
Schenectady, N. Y.: 
— Schenectady Railway: 

Beautifying substation grounds, *782 
Schuylkill Railway (see Girardville, Pa.) 
Seattle, Wash.: 

— Purchase of local railway by city, 110; 

480; 534; 708 
— Municipal Railway: 

Financial statement for April, 118 7 

Operating notes, 1021; Comment, 991 

Proposed extensions. 1283 

Wage demands, 1286 

Wage scale, 929 
— Puget Sound Tr., Lt. & Pr. Co.: 

Safety car operation satisfactory, *466 

Strike, 335; 379; Comment, 351 
Signals: 

—Testing board [Nachod], *572 



Southern New York Pi 
Cooperstown, N. Y.) 
Southern Pacific R. R.: 
— Hardening rail joints, 1148 

— How Federal Electric Railway Commission 
may help [Shoup], 1278 

— Performance characteristics of electric loco- 
motives [Babcock], 1139 

Southwestern Electrical & Gas Assn. : 

■ — Annual convention, 1013 

Special work: 

— Estimating life of curved special work [Ber- 
nard], 1018 
—Welding manganese [Scott], M227 
— Made up with arc-welder for emergency, *1060 
Spokane, Wash.: 

—Fare conference, 668; 761: 803 
—Merger planned for local lines, 839 
Springfield. III.: 
— Springfield Consolidated Ry. : 

Publicity on fare situation, *740 
Springfield, Mass.: 
—Springfield Street Ry: 

Courtesy campaign, * 54 1 
Springfield, Mo.: 
— Springfield Traction Co.: 

Device for insuring proper trolley pole posi- 
tion [Copley], *968 
St. Johns, Can.: 

Sliding scale of return for combined utili- 
ties, *684 
St. Louis, Mo.: 
— United Railways: 

Annual report, 618 

Electrically welded rail joints, *182 

Open cars, *879 

Printing department, *530 

Pinion heating practice, *7S7 

Receivership, 339; 432; 799; 1187 

Referendum theft ease, 1284 

Risers increase life of frogs [Hawkins], 
♦1278 

Tax agreement, 151 
Standardization must be logical, 1132 
Standards (see also American Engineering 

Standards Assn.) 
Steam railroad statistics for 1918, 1051 
Stopping of cars: 
— Skip stop: 

Accidents reduced in Toleuo IS.vir.zl 
*690; Comment, 679 

Economies in Detroit, 185 

Economies of [Beeler], 1097 

Experience in Dallas, Tex., 181 

Influence on accidents, 233; Comment, 215 

Power saving in St. Louis, 572 

Safety shown by Detroit records [Rurdick], 
*97 

Signs important, Comment, 81, 82 
Skip stop as a fuel saver [Layng], *34 

Stone-crushing plant at Detroit, *726 

Store rooms: 

— Practice in Pittsburgh [Yungbluth], 473 
Strike damages demanded by Pittsburgh citizen 

from Amalgamated Assn., 1183 
Substations and equipment: 

— Circuit breaker for large currents (Automatic 

Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co.), 1060 
— Outdoor substations discussed [Alsaker], 731 
— Recent design in Kansas City [Grauten], 
*326 

Substations, automatic: 

— Control for motor-started converters [Wens- 
ley], *948; Comment, 947 
—Discussion by N. E. L. A., 1004 
— List of installations, 54 

—Operation on North Shore line [Jones], *84; 

comment, 83 
—Results at Butte [Nash], *565" 
■ — Simplified wiring diagram. *104 
— Sources of economy [Lloyd], 922 
Switzerland: 
—Swiss Federal Rys.: 

Single-phase locomotives, *1141 
Syracuse, N. Y.: 
—New York State Rys.: 

Home-made sand car, *376 



Terminal stations and terminals: 
— Akron passenger terminal, *681 
— Congestion relief at Baltimore 

— Prepayment facilities in San France 

Correction, *732 
— Three-track loop for San Francisco, 
— Youngstown (Ohio) loop problei 

[Yereance], *1062 



Terre Haute, Ind.: 

— Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Tr. Co.. 
Experience with one-man cars. *12fi3 
Safety cars and skip stops [Walker I 1382 

—Car performance predetermined from test 

results [Squier], 1209 
— Motor tests by manufacturers [Dean], *777 
— Service tests for car equipment [Squier], * 128 
Thief River Falls, Minn.: 
— Minnesota Northwestern Elec. Ry.: 

Branch line operation with self-propelled 

cars [Protzeller], *1149 
Third Avenue Ry. (see New York City) 
Third-rail contact system: 

— Bonding for third rails [McKelway], M154 

— Leading types discussed, * 1143 

— Zone ticket system for Portland, Me., *728 

Ties: 

—Economical methods of handling [Crane], *308 
—Method of stacking, 283 
— New concrete tie, *100 

— Treatment by zinc-chloride vs. creosote, 283 
Timber preservation to reduce maintenance cost 

[Crane], 597 
Toledo, Ohio: 
—Toledo Rys. & Lt. Co.: 

Skip stop reduces accidents in Toledo 
[Swartz], *690 
Track as an energy saver, 1079 
Track construction: 

— Chicago standards of 1907-9 successful, *865 

—Cinder ballast recommended [Mitchell], 106 

— Compromise joints in Brooklyn, * 1 108 

— Concrete ballast, *239; Comment, 217 

— Electrically welded rail joints at St. Louis, 182 

— Electrical resistance of electric railway road 

beds [Shepard], *172 
— Emergency special work at Indianapolis [Mc- 

Math], *145 
— Modern appliances [Whitlock], *995 
— Risers increase life of frogs [Hawkins], *1280 
— Stone-crushing plant at Detroit, *726 
— Tie-less track in Great Britain, *743 

— (See also Special work) 
Track maintenance: 

— Accurate cost data needed ["Wav Engineer"], 

972 

—Rail surface wear indicator (Metal & Thermit 
Corp.), *592 

— Reclamation by welding and grinding [Tip- 

pett], *773 
— Stone crushing plant at Detroit, *726 
— Tie renewal economies [Crane], *308 
— Welding manganese special work [Sjcott], 

*1227 

Track maintenance (see also Rails) 
Tractor made from rebuilt automobile, *61 
Traffic improvement [Jackson], 1049 
Train operating practice: 
— Lay-over time important, Comment, 1133 
Transmission lines: 

— Chain fastenings for linemen's tools, *228 
— Lightning arrester of impulse-gap type, *283 
— Pole guys, *321 

— Pole top fittings [Harte], *1204 
— Power lines as common carriers, 334 
—Practice in guying line poles [Harte], * 1 39 
— Stresses in cable wires [Sahm], *786 

— (See also Poles) 

Treated piles in salt water, 1233 
Tri-City Railway (see Davenport. Ia.) 
Trolley wire (see Overhead contact system) 

—Welding broken frames [Calder], *586 
Twin City Rapid Transit Co. (see Minneapolis, 
Minn.) 



u 



Union Traction Co. (see Anderson, Ind.) 
LTnited Traction Co. (see Albany, N. Y.) 
United Lt. & Rys. Co. (see Grand Rapids, Mich.) 
United Railways (see St. Louis, Mo.) 
United Railroads (see San Francisco, Cal.) 



Vancouver, Can.: 

—British Columbia Elec. Ry.: 

Houses for employees, 1063 

Relationship between public, employees and 
investors, 795 

Strike, 1239 

Women replace motormen successfully, 360 
Ventilator flue top for car roofs [Fischer], *923 
Virginia Ry. & Pr. Co. (see Richmond, Va.) 



•Illustrated. 

READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OP THE INDEX 



VIII 



INDEX 



[Vol. 53 



w 



Wages: 

— Six-day week, Comment, 725 
— (See also War Labor Board) 
Waiting stations: 

— Interurban shelters on Pacific Electric [El- 
liott], *733 

War cripples on French electric railways 

[Pahin]. 90 
War Labor Board: 

— Basis for decisions explained, 615 [Taft] 

1169; 1225; 1248 
— Jurisdiction questioned, 353 

. — Public reluctance to aid railways deplored 

[Ogburn], 692; Comment, 677 
— Right to collective bargaining upheld, 535 
War industry transportation: 

— Governmental activities [Wells], 7; ITavlor], 
13 

Washington, D. C: 
— Fare situation, 758 

— Joint transfer points recommended, 73; 160 
.-Two-cent transfers allowed, 1123; Comment, 
1132 

—Washington Ry. & Elec. Co.: 
Labor case, 289; 660 

W. F. Ham testifies before civic bodies, 883 
Welding, special methods: 
— American Welding Society formed, 531 
— Arc-welding equipment accessories, *93 
— Arc-welding metallurgy, 241 
— Arc-welding, new developments [Kenyon], 63 
— Arc-welding practice, *1 9 1 

— Characteristics of arc welds [Escholz], *280 
— Discussion by American Ry. Assn., * 1 2 1 3 



Welding, special methods (Continued) 
— General discussion by engineering societies, 
370 

— Motor-shell welding, 581 

— Selection of electrodes and holders for arc 

welding, *146 
Western Railway Club: 
— Electrical night, 825 

West Ham Corp. Tramways (see Great Britain) 
Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co.: 
— Annual report, 1076 
Wheaton, 111.: 

—Aurora, Elgin & Chicago, R. R.: 

Safety work [Adams], 231 
Wheeling, W. Va.: 
— Wheeling Traction Co.: 

Fare readjustment, 843. 
Wheels: 

—Practice with steel tires at Belfast [Vernon], 

*961; 971 
Winnipeg, Can.: 
—Winnipeg Electric Rv.: 

Annual report, 380 

Strike, 1238 
Winona, Minn.: 

—Wisconsin Ry., Lt. & Pr. Co.: 

Emergency fare case decision, 759 
Wisconsin Electrical Assn.: 

—Milwaukee meeting, 652; 687; Papers [Allen], 

688; [St. John], 689 
Wisconsin Ry. Lt. & Pr. Co. (see Winona, 

Minn.) 

Women employees, see Employees 



Worcester, Mass.: 

—Worcester Consolidated St. Ry.: 

Seven-cent fare allowed, 892 
Work and wrecking cars: 

— Snow sweepers made from open cars at Buf- 
falo fHulme], *148 

Yonkers, N. Y.: 

— Yonkers Railroad: 

Fare controversy, 1072 

York, Pa.: 

—York Railways: 

Annual report, 754 

Youngstown, Ohio: 

— Congestion problem and its solution, *969 
— Service-at-cost franchise adopted, 99 
— Mahoning & Shenango Ry. & Lt. Co.: 

Ethical aspects of fare situation [Sullivan], 
413; Comment, 394 

Portable dispatchers' office, 792 
— Relief of local congestion [Yereance], 1062; 

Correction, *1 1 1 
Zone fare system: 

—Fare register for zone system [Ohmer], *695 
— Mechanical ticket issue for differential fare 

scheme [Thomas], 1109 
—Portland, Me., ticket plan, *728 
— Possibilities of, Comment, 217 
—Public Service Ry. plan, *523; *598; 664; 

Comment, 497; 630 
— Practice in British cities [Jackson], *355; 
*446; *632; *814; *854; 875; *909; 921; *1005; 
1017: *1038: 1052; -10K7: 1009: *1163; 1223: 
•1258 

— Straight fares preferred to zone system in 

Italy [Cusani], *464 
— Suburban division's system, Detroit, 1107 
—Two-zone plan recommended for Boston, *134 



•Illustrated. 

READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OP THE INDEX 



PERSONAL INDEX 



(with biographical notes) 



Aldrich, Herman M 122 

Alexander, George M., 625 

Allison, H. O *894 

Bailey, F. A 763 

Baughart, C. S *547 

Barnes, Donald C, *1030 

Barnum, H. Ware 122 

Barry, J. M 122 

Belcher, R. W 806 

Belden, David A 1030 

Belling, John W 1075 

Bender, Homer C 165 

Berry, Joseph F 941 

Biery, Hudson R., 1251 

Bleecker, John S., *301 

Bliss, Zenas W 491 

Bray, A. J 438 

Braymer, D. H., 894 

Calder, C. E 673 

Cameron, David, 672 

Carraway, Leake 1127 

Carson, A. G 1126 

Charlton, Earle P 210 

Ching, Cyrus S., 1031 

Clapp, Edwin W., 258 

Clarke, Eugene C, 806 

Clough, William, 164 

Clure, W. 1075 

Cole, A. B *39 

Colliri. J. F *490 

Coman, W. E 301 

Cooke, Charles B., Jr 388 

Crawford, John B 895 

Crowell, H. H 1126 

Crowley, Fred G 210 

Cunningham, Nicholas J., 807 

Delaney, John H., 1074 

Douglas, H. T., 77 

Dozier, Joseph E., »672, 941 

Dressel, H. J 301 

Dunlap, A. A., 1074 

Dunbar, S. R 895 

Edmonston, F. R 259 

Elliott. William 1297 



Fenton, E. Burt 1251 

Ferguson, Homer L 1074 

Gadsden, Philip H *389 

Garrison, Lindley Miller 122 

George, Howard H., 895 

George, Roy W., 986 

Gibson, James E *1297 

Gillette, Edmond S 806, 1196 

Gifford, C. Walter 547 

Gillette, Edmond S 1196 

Glendening, J. W 439 

Glover, M. W 672 

Goldmark, Godfrey 122, 1251 

Goodrell, J. S., 164 

Green, Theodore F., 490 

Grosvenor, B. N., 77 

Hagcnsick, E. H., 491) 

Hall, C. A *164 

Hamilton, Frank T *673 

Hansen, Harry H., 763 

Harrison, Edgar, 77 

Hedges, Job E 673 

Helmreich, L. M., 986 

Henderson, David W 763 

Henderson, W. J 719 

Howard, R. M 259 

Jackson, James F., 76 

Jackson, Walter 1297 

Jacobi, W. 490 

Joel, J. M *547 

Johnson, J. C *1031 

Jumonville, H. J 301 

Junkersfeld, Peter *763 

Katte, E. B *1 195 

Kelly, Haven C *546 

Kelsay, George H, *491 

Kempster, A. L., *847 

Lake, J. P 164 

Lamme, Benjamin G., *986 

Lawless, J. E *625 

Layng, J. F *34 

Lindley, Harry H 164 

•Portrait 



Luring, Homer, 210 

Lyman, Richard E 1251 

McClellan, William 895, 1031 

McConnell, M. J. B 894 

McGrath, D. J., 719 

McLimont, A. W *439 

McMillan, J 1297 

McPherson, J. C 258 

Maguire, Phillip F., 763 

Maher, Edward A., Jr *1 195 

Means, J. M., 986 

Mellen, William A 439 

Milam, Lynn B 987 

Mullally, Thornwell 491 

Murch, George A., 719 

Murphine, Thomas F., *762 

Murphy, Ernest A 719 

Murray, William S 1030 

Nash, L. R *15 

Neal, W. V 625 

Newell, George, 1074 

Nixon, Lewis 941 

O'Keefe, J. D 259 

Ong, J. R 547 

Parker, B. E 347 

Peniston, J. O *1030 

Perkins, J. R., 1126 

Phillips, S. T 122 

Pierce, Guy C 625 

Piper, Alexander R 165 

Price, C. W 672 

Raisch, John W 1196 

Ramey, E. F., *1075 

Ransom, Edward D., 987 

Ray, Frederick L., *1031 

Reed, Clarence K., 1126 

Reinhardt, P. C 1297 

Retallack, John L., 1075 

Richardson, G. A *762 

Ring, Frank, 122 

Rockwell, J. C, *895 

Royce, F. P *257 



Ryan, Daniel L 1196 

Sause, William L., 439 

Scanlon, Daniel A., 77 

Schmidt, Emil G 165, 490 

Seixas, Edward F 438 

Sheffield, James R 672 

Sherman, L. K., 438 

Slater, C. C 388 

Smith, Charles H 719 

Smith. Hartley Le. H *347 

Smith, J. Willison, 673 

Smith, Raymond H *718, 1031 

Sparks, W. C 257 

Sparrow, John 491 

Spofford, R. W *895 

Sprague, Isaac, 210 

Stark, Paul, 258 

Stewart, E. K., 259 

Stiffler, Charles B 164 

Sullivan, William A., 894 

Swan, Frank H 301 

Sweetland, Cornelius S 1251 

Tabb, J. N 625 

Taylor, A. Merritt *13 

Taylor, Clyde, 1196 

Toby, George P., 894 

Townley, Calvert *986 

Tretton, J. P 258 

Tulley, Joseph L 164 

Underwood, Fred V 624 

Vanderveer, J. H 77 

Wadleigh, Arthur G., 210 

Walker, Frank B 1031 

Wells, Gardner F 301 

Wells, Rolla 807 

West, Edward A 625 

Weston, Charles V., 76 

Weston, George 76 

Wilder, Clifton W 347 

Williams, Timothy S., 210 

Wilson, J. R 625 

Wood, George M 1126 

YVvlie. Walter H 211 



January-June, 1919] 



INDEX 



IX 



A 



Adams, Henry B. The preservation of human- 
ity, 231 

Ainey, William D. Variables prevent one gen- 
eral solution, 514 

Allen, Tohn S. Service supremely important, 
*688 

Alsaker, Alfred. Elements of a successful out- 
door substation, 731 

Andrews, H. L. Why the safety-car is popular, 
652 



B 



Babcock, A. H. Fitting the locomotive to its 
load, 1139 

Beeler, John A. Economies of skip stop, 1097 
Beers, R. S. Life of controller segments and 

fingers, *697 
— Renewal of controller shafts, *61 
— Treatment of loose drum controller cylinders, 

319 

Bernard. M. Estimating life of curved special 
work, 1018 

Bolt, Walter C. Equipment inspection on a 

kilowatt-hour basis, *575 
Bolus, G. H. What makes a good trolley 

hanger, *595 
Browne, O. G. Self-insurance for workmen's 

compensation. 1176 
Burdick, E. J. Skip stops in Detroit, *97 
Butler, W. C. Making emergency gears, *331 



c 



Calder, J. M. Welding truck frames, *586 
Casey, W. E. Bonus system to reduce coal con- 
sumption, *267 
Casriglioni, F. Increasing earning capacity, 
1181 

Chamberlin, W. D. Unloader for construction 
cars, *324 

Clarke, E. C. Training platform men, 1056 

Clark, Harlow C. Railways as agents of the 
public, 1011 

— Service-at-cost franchise, 1219 

— Testimony before U. S. Chamber of Com- 
merce, 916 

Clayton, W. Free rides and other things, 195 
Cole, A. B. Electric freight haulage an eco- 
nomic duty, *39 
— Electric locomotives of moderate capacity, 
*1152 

— Hints for the freight operator, *397 
— Merchandising of transportation, 460 
— Requirements and costs of handling freight, 
*219 

Conrad. H. V. Lubrication of air compressors, 
424 

Conway, Thomas, Jr. Solving the traction prob- 
lem, 1157 

Copley, C. H. Device for insuring proper trol- 
ley pole position. *968 

Cram, R. C. Electric railway bridge mainte- 
nance, *952 

— Lighter cars needed, 1182 

— Tie-renewal cost reduction, *308 

—Timber preservation to reduce maintenance 
costs, *S97 

Crowell, H. H. Reproduction cost is fair, 500 
Cusani, Ferdinando C. Co-operation of automo- 
bile men good for electric railway industry, 
1110 

—Italy prefers straight to zone fares, *464 



D 



Dawson, Philip. ' Future of heavy electric trac- 
tion, 1160 



AUTHOR INDEX 



Dean, John S. Electrical versus mechanical 

troubles with motors, *657 
— Manufacturers' tests of railway motors, *777 
— Results from dipping and baking motor coils. 

*190 

Dewhurst, John A. Traffic characteristic graphs, 

*694 

Drum, A. L. Maintenance and depreciation 
allowances in service-at-cost franchises, 512 

Dunham, W. R. Some results from rail con- 
servation, *562 



E 



Eckart, N. A. Maintenance practice of San 
Francisco Municipal Railway, *559 

Edward, M. Electric railways in South Africa, 
*685 

Elliott, Clifford A. Eliminating ground-squirrel 
pest, *105 

— Removal and reinstallation of a smoke stack, 

*580 

— Shelters and stations on Pacific Electric's in- 

terurban lines, *733 
— Tool list as aid in economical maintenance of 

way, 271 

Elmquist, Charles E. Through a commission- 
er's eyes, 509 

Erirks.m. Halford. Indeterminate franchises. 
1266 

Escholz, O. S. Determining the characteristics 
of metallic-electrode arc welds, *280 



Humphrey, K. B. Maps carried on French 
cars, 1182 



J 



Jackson, Alexander. Traffic improvement, 1049 
Jackson, Carl D. Public utility regulations, 230 
Jackson, Walter. The zone fare in practice, 

* 3 5 5 ; *446; *632; *814; *854; 875; *909; 

921: "1005; 1017; *1038; 1052; *1087; 1099; 
•1163; 1223; «1258 
Johnson, H. A. Mechanical developments of 

the industry, 229 
Tones, Charles H. Automatic substations on the 

North Shore Line, *84 



K 



Kealy, Philip J. It is time for valuation com- 
promise, 511 
— Safety cars a live proposition, 1170 
Kelsay. G. H. Economies in the power house, 

*455 

Kenyon, O. A. New developments in arc weld- 
ing, 63 

Kingsley, F. Why gasoline can't compete in 
city service, 829 

Klein, W. C. Snow fighting equipment of Le- 
high Valley Transit Co., *193 



F 



Findlay, W. S. Interborough's 60,000-kw. 

turbo-generator, *906 
Fisher, Irving. Higher prices sure to continue 

1094 

Fredericks, Ernest F. Canadian lines near 
breaking point, 91 



G 



Gadsden, Philip H. Problems faced by indus- 
try, 4 

Glaser, Julius. Temporary inspection facilities 

in New York. *184 
Gottschalk, Otto. Maintenance of car lamps, 

282 

- — Maintenance of Edison-type storage batteries, 
*315 

Grauten, S. H. New substation in Kansas City, 
*326 

Gruhl, Edwin. Rate of return in service-at-cost 
franchises, 502 



H 



L 

Layng, J. F. Skip stop as a fuel saver, *34 
Lloyd, Charles F. Sources of economy in auto- 
matic substations, 922 



M 

Maize, F. P. Light-weight air fender for one- 
man car, *596 

''Manager." What the questionnaire taught, 747 

Marshall, E. Operating data for Cascade 
Tunnel, *1217 

McKehvay, G. H. Third-rail bonding, *1154 

— Choice of rail bonds, *591 

— Copper-clad wire for spans, 332 

— Prevention of rail-bond thefts, *375 

McMath, Thomas B. Emergency special-work 
construction, *145 

Miller, Elam. Pipe drainage as cure for elec- 
trolysis, 702 

Mitchell, L. A. Cinder ballast, 106 

Mitten, Thomas E. Private operation with pub- 
lic ownership seems the best solution, 272 

Moist, G. B. Bond and joint maintenance, *573 



Halmos, Eugene E. Riding habit in large cities, 
927 

Harte, Charles R. Extending the life of wood 

poles, *554 
—Pole guys, *321 
—Pole-top fittings, *1204 
— Stress in stranded conductor cores, 880 
— When a line pole needs a guy, *139 
Hawkins. C. L. Risers increase life of frog's, 
•1280 

Hellmund, R. E. Data needed on carbon 
brushes, 195 

Henry, Charles L. Results of governmental 

control of express, *927 
Hcrshhcrfrer, D. C. Safety cars for interurban 

service, 1270 
Holden, Thomas S. Present conditions fix 

"normal" prices, 1095 
Hulbert. William R. Welding special-alloy rails, 

973 

Hulme, J. W. Snow sweepers made from open 
cars, *148 



Nash, E. 

at Bi 
Nash, L. 



Results with automatic si 
*565 

Service-at-cost franchises, 



Oakley, George E 

gines, *588 
O'Et 

"Obs 



Maintenance of door en- 



, Denis Rust prevention for steel con- 
servation, 243 

server." Commutation tickets would help, 

286 

— Seatless cars desirable, 1182 
Ogburn, Charlton. Public apathy to electric 
railway problem, 692 



•Illustrated. 

READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE INDEX 



X 



INDEX 



[Vol. 53 



P 



Pahin Lucien A. Rehabilitation of disabled 
soldiers, 90 

Palmer, L. H. Rerouting plan for Baltimore, 
♦1082 

Pegram, W. M. Effect of vibrations on rail 

failures, 1111 
Pellissier, George E. System in the armature 

room, *95 

Pierce, Daniel T. Rehabilitation of French 

tramways, * 1 1 1 
Pike, E. L. Machine for testing car jacks, *587 
Pride, T. D. Finishing welded air compressor 

cylinders, *788 
Protzeller, H. W. Branch line operation with 

self-propelled cars, *1 149 



R 



Raymond, W. G. Iowa State Board of Concili- 
ation described. 1274 

Renshaw, Clarence. Railway conditions in 1918, 
60 

Roper, D. W. Pipe drainage as cure for elec- 
trotypes, 702 



s 



Sahm. Paul A. B. Stresses in cable wires, 786 
Schutt, C. E. Can effect of a fare increase be 
predicted? *741 



Scott, Charles L. Cooperation makes safety 
work successful, 359 

Scott, Julian M. Welding manganese special 
work, *1227 

Shaw, O. J. Diesel engines at Lincoln, *902 

Shepard, E. R. Leakage resistance of electric 
railway roadbeds, * 1 72 

— Return circuit studies in Milwaukee, *770 

Shoup, Paul. How Federal Electric Railway 
Commission may help, 1277 

Sisson, Francis H. Electric railways and in- 
vestors, 506 

Spring, Edw. C. Appreciation means much, 475 
Squier, C. W. Car equipment service tests, 
*128 

— Car performance predicted from test results, 
♦1209 

St. John, John. What the future holds, 689 
Storrs, L. S. Connecticut lines need help, 237 
Sullivan, R. T. Ethical aspects of the fare sit- 
uation, 413 

Sutton, H. C. Electrolytic •joint corrosion, 702 
Swartz, A. Skip stop's"' reduce accidents in 
Toledo, *690 



T 



Tavlor, A. Merritt. A square deal is needed, 
' 498 

Thomas, Theodore E. Suggestions for mechani- 
cal ticket issue for differential fare scheme, 
1109 

Tippett, H. Jackson. Track reclamation by weld- 
ing and grinding, *773 

Townley, Calvert. Steam railroad electrification, 
605 

"Traffic Engineer." Commutation fare plan 
discussed, 747 



V 



Vernon, H. Wheel and axle practice at Bel- 
fast, *961; 971 



w 



Walker, E. M. Safety cars and skip stops. 1282 
"Way Engineer." Accurate track cost data 
needed, 972 

Weatherwax, Harry B. Electric railways hard 
hit by war, 1177 

Weber, E. Bonus system to reduce coal con- 
sumption, *267 

WeTTs. Gardner F. Transportation work of the 
U. S. Ilcuste Corp., *7 

Wensley, R. J. Adaptation of automatic con- 
trol to motor-started converters, *948 

Whelan, N. J. Public utilities in community 
development, 655 

Whitlock, W. L. Mechanical pusher for unload- 
ing flat cars, *924 

— Modern appliances in track construction, *995 

Wilcox, Delos F. Situation of New York transit 
lines, 333 

—The elements of cost of service, 1220 
Williamson, P. Car body maintenance at Bel- 
fast, *1058 

Wing. George C. Cars should carry passengers, 
not seats, 1110 



Y 



Yereance, W. B. Relief of congestion at 

Youngstown, Ohio, 1062 
YuiiKbluth, B. J. Distribution of materials and 

supplies, 473 



•Illustrated. 

READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OP THE INDEX 



Electric Railway 
Journal 

Consolidation of Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Review 



JAN 



Volume 53 



New York, Saturday, January 4, 1919 



Number 1 



Journal Raises Subscription 
Price to Earlier Figure 

AFTER resisting for many months the pressure put 
upon it by the enormously increased prices of every- 
thing the Electric Railway Journal is forced to raise 
its subscription price, the increase taking effect with 
the March 1 issue. The increase will be but one-third, 
so that even at the $4 rate the paper will still be sup- 
plied to its readers at a price lower than a number of 
other magazines in the same 
class have been forced to 
charge. Long-time readers of 
the paper will remember that 
they paid $4 a year for the 
Street Railway Journal up 
to March 1, 1904, even when 
it was a monthly. The same 
causes which have operated to 
make an increase in fare nec- 
essary for the electric rail- 
ways have been potent in the 
publishing business. The ele- 
ments of increased expense 
in both cases are materials 
and labor. Take for example 
the item of paper. White 
paper of the quality used in 
the JOURNAL has increased 
more than 50 per cent in cost 
in three years ; printing costs 
are a third higher, and en- 
graving expense has gone 
up 75 per cent. In war time 
and pre-war time the Journal 
was sold at a very low price 
considering the cost of pro- 
ducing it. Its watchword has 
been "service to the indus- 
try," and this, included ' keep- 
ing the paper within the reach 
of all who ought to receive it 
regularly, but there is a lower- 
limit to the price at which it 
can be produced. This note -— — — • 
of explanation is in no sense an apology for the de- 
cision to raise the subscription price. In going back 
to the former price of $4 the publishers are still furnish- 
ing the paper at a price less than before the war in 
comparison to cost. If the paper is worth while at all, 
and the overwhelming testimony is that it is so, it is 
worth any reasonable price. A single idea derived 
from its columns in the course of a year will more 
than pay for the year's subscription. 



A Definite Program for 
Immediate Action 

After summing up the electric railway 
situation, in his article in this issue, Philip 
H. Gadsden says this: 

I believe that the financially strong elec- 
tric railway property groups should get to- 
gether and support with their money and 
their executive talent a permanent agency 
which could do a number of things for the 
industry as a whole. 

It could assist individual railways in solv- 
ing their local problems by bringing to 
bear upon these the experience of other 
railways similarly situated. 

It could conduct general publicity cam- 
paigns on behalf of the industry generally. 

It could demonstrate to public bodies the 
facts in any particular local situation by 
furnishing incontrovertible data applicable 
thereto. 

It could do many other things to make 
itself well worth while. 

It is my earnest hope that something of 
this sort will be done, and done soon and 
that men of wide experience will show a 
readiness to give of their time and energy 
to save the industry from annihilation and 
permit it to serve the country with first- 
class transportation. 



Electric Railway Statistics 

Permit Interesting Comparisons 

IN THIS ISSUE we publish the statistical tables of 
rolling stock ordered and track built during the past 
year. Similar tables have been an important feature 
of our first issue of each year since 1907. In the analysis 
of rolling stock, three things stand out above the others. 
The first is the increase in the number of one-man cars. 
These cars in 1918 amounted to more than six hundred 
and constituted 37 per cent of 
all the cars ordered for city 
service, exclusive of those for 
subway and elevated railway 
use. Nearly all of the one- 
man cars ordered were of the 
uniform length of 27 ft. 9£ in. 
The second noticeable feature 
is the increase in the num- 
ber of trailers ordered for 
interurban operation. This 
increase was no doubt influ- 
enced by the difficulty experi- 
enced in obtaining equipment 
due to war conditions and by 
the adaptability of train op- 
eration to service where large 
numbers of passengers are 
loaded and unloaded at single 
points as at the war industry 
plants. The third point is the 
large decrease in the number 
of home-made cars, due also 
in part at least to the scarcity 
of material and labor. As was 
to be expected, the track sta- 
tistics show very little new 
track built. Actually, if the 
rapid transit extensions in 
New York City are deducted, 
it will be found that only four 
city systems built more than 
7 miles of track, and of these 
four, two were municipal 
lines. The interurban situa- 
One publicly owned railway in 
The aggregate inter- 



tion is no better 
Canada built 28 miles of track, 
urban mileage for the United States and the rest of 
Canada besides this line was only about 90 miles, made 
up principally of spurs and short extensions, including, 
of course, those in whose cost the government assisted. 
More mileage of steam lines was electrified than in 1917, 
but this was due to the progress made by the Chicago, 
Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway. 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 1 



Who Are to 

Run Our Cars? 

ENTERING on a new calendar year we are also at 
the start of a period of reconstruction — a period 
which Judge Gary of the United States Steel Corpora- 
tion predicts will be the most progressive, prosperous 
and successful in the country's history. This enormous 
work of reconstruction will undoubtedly demand the 
activity of every man and woman capable of taking 
part in the task. It will call for the organization of 
industry in such a way as to utilize to the full all of 
the available working forces of the country. There 
will be no place in the economic structure for any idle 
person — man or woman — rich or poor — who is physi- 
cally able to perform useful service. 

In this situation the electric railways are confronted 
with a problem which has frequently been mentioned 
in these columns and which grows all the more disturb- 
ing in view of recent developments. We have in mind 
the shortage in man-power for the operation of cars and 
the discouraging outlook for the employment of women 
substitutes because of certain recent rulings of the War 
Labor Board. The situation is best illustrated in Cleve- 
land and Detroit, as told in two articles in the Dec. 21 
issue of this paper. In the first-named city the com- 
pany has been forbidden to hire more women conductors 
and directed to discharge those now in service before 
March 1. In Detroit the union has notified the company 
that no more women must be employed and that those 
now on the cars must be let out in the near future. This 
dispute is now pending before the War Labor Board. 

The attitude of the Amalgamated Association toward 
women conductors has been hostile from the start, the 
alleged basis for this opposition being the claim that 
female employees were being introduced in order to 
reduce wages and to demoralize the unions. That this 
contention had no foundation is evident by the ready 
agreement of the companies to pay full union wages to 
the women conductors and to allow them to join the 
organization of the trainmen. In its latest pronounce- 
ment on the subject, the Amalgamated Association still 
contends that the position of conductor is not the place 
for a woman, although it says that when their employ- 
ment in this capacity is necessary during the war they 
should be on the same basis as men as to pay, seniority 
and working conditions and should become members of 
the association. 

In face of the continued shortage of suitable male 
employees for platform duty in many cities this attitude 
of organized labor — apparently sanctioned by the War 
Labor Board — offers a disheartening outlook for an in- 
dustry which should be ready to meet the full require- 
ments of the coming period of construction. Women 
have been employed as conductors on several properties 
in the United States as well as in foreign countries. 
We believe that experience has proved them adapted to 
the work; in fact, since the duties of a conductor have 
become primarily those of a cashier, as they have on most 
modern prepayment cars, may we not venture to say 
that women are better fitted for the place than men ? All 
reports indicate that the average woman conductor is 
accurate, rapid, honest, courteous and enthusiastic in 
the performance of her duties. Several companies re- 
ported a decreasing list of accidents due to the greater 



caution of these employees. The public is satisfied in 
every city where they have been used. In brief, the 
statements in general indicate that the women conduc- 
tors have made good. In view of the past year's ex- 
perience we believe that there is a field for the woman 
conductor — a field of course with limitations. The em- 
ployment of these women at the time was a patriotic 
duty. The companies which rose to the occasion and 
kept hundreds of extra runs in operation when no suit- 
able men were available should not be discouraged now 
by any action of the War Labor Board. 

The year just closed has been a hard one also for 
electric railways in having to meet the terms of the War 
Labor Board in the various awards affecting wages and 
working conditions. Admitting the justification for a 
living wage for the workman, the rulings of this board, 
which advanced the remuneration of street car em- 
ployees about 50 per cent without providing the means 
for meeting this added item of expense, proved a real 
hardship in every instance. Several recent receiverships 
are a warning of the results of such a policy, and 
unless conditions in the nature of increased revenue 
improve shortly the coming year will prove disastrous 
for many more of the properties concerned. The labor 
situation, to say the least, offers a gloomy outlook. 



The B. R. T. Goes 

Into Receiver's Hands 

THE inevitable has happened and the Brooklyn Rapid 
Transit Company has gone into the hands of a 
receiver. This financial collapse will be a source of 
special regret to electric railway men because the com- 
pany has made many important contributions to the 
science of railroading and is recognized everywhere as 
a leader in economical and scientific operation. Never- 
theless, it has been compelled to acknowledge defeat in 
its tremendous struggle against the odds of continually 
increasing expenses with a fixed fare. 

The list of electric railways which have passed into 
receivership during 1918 is far larger, measured in num- 
ber of companies, miles of single track or capitalization, 
than in any previous year, and other companies will 
follow soon unless remedial steps are taken. It is sig- 
nificant that in New York State two of the three largest 
electric railway properties, those in Brooklyn and Buf- 
falo, have confessed insolvency, and the president of 
the third among the large railway systems, the Inter- 
borough Rapid Transit Company, warns its partner in 
the dual subway agreement, the city of New York, that 
it too is in danger of being starved into bankruptcy 
unless remedial measures are begun promptly. 

There is but one answer to the New York situation. 
The present Legislature should promptly grant power 
to the present public service commissions, or to their 
successors if new commissions are to be chosen, to 
permit the companies to charge an adequate fare. 
The city authorities should co-operate where they have 
power to do so and have not exercised it. 

This is not only the counsel of justice but of expe- 
diency. Electric railway service is a public necessity 
and its cost must be met. The conditions under which 
these companies suffer are not local but general. Relief, 
and given quickly, is the best as well as the only fair 
course possible. 



January 4, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



3 



The Prospects 

for 1919 Surveyed 

IS THE debacle at hand for the electric railway indus- 
try in the United States? Is the year 1919 to witness 
a series of financial disasters in this great class of public 
utilities? We hope our next annual Statistical Number 
will not have to record such a story of cataclysm, yet 
we do not hesitate to predict that the financial record 
of the coming' twelve months will include many an item 
of bankruptcy for these properties unless prompt and 
sufficient means are devised for meeting their dire need 
of additional revenue. We have just discussed the situa- 
tion in New York City. That in the country at large is 
not greatly different. 

Last August the War Labor Board handed down a batch 
of awards fixing new wage scales for electric railways 
whose employees had appealed to this tribunal for the 
means of meeting the increased cost of living. The 
new wages were generous but not out of proportion to 
the rates paid at that time to other labor. The difficulty 
in the situation, however, was that most of the com- 
panies affected had not the resources with which to 
meet the added expenses. The members of the board 
appreciated the dilemma in which the companies were 
placed, but they could do nothing except call attention 
to the situation and make recommendations for relief 
by federal or local authorities. 

Except in a few instances, the public has not shown 
a disposition to measure up to the standard of fair deal- 
ing which the board set before them. In some cases 
state utilities commissions or municipal authorities have 
extended a helping hand to the suffering transportation 
agencies, but this aid has rarely been sufficient to give 
adequate relief. In a greater number of cases the au- 
thorities have either refused an increase in fares or are 
withholding action while creditors knock at the doors 
of the distressed companies. Meanwhile service suffers 
and these utilities are unable to do their share in the 
great period of reconstruction which is at hand. 

The threatening outlook can be no better pictured 
than by noting the experience of the Chicago City Rail- 
way, which recently passed its dividends for the first 
time since dividends were initiated in 1870. This is 
one of the two main properties, and the most prosper- 
ous, of those composing the Chicago Surface Lines. 
The regular quarterly distribution was omitted because 
the company not only is failing to earn anything for 
the stock, but is not earning 5 per cent on the city pur- 
chase price. President Busby explained that this action 
was caused by the wage increase ordered by the War 
Labor Board, the increased cost of supplies and the 
falling off in gross receipts due to a decrease in traffic. 
The Surface Lines petition for a 7-cent fare has been 
pending before the State commission for several weeks 
and the frequently delayed hearings prompted one of 
the attorneys to state that another of the component 
companies faces serious financial troubles if it cannot 
meet its bond interest on Feb. 1. 

The Boston Elevated situation is only less alarming 
because its failure to produce adequate revenue through 
earnings is offset by the guarantee of dividends through 
the State taxing power. This case, however, is an un- 
usual illustration of the effect of fare increases on 
traffic. Under public trustee operation, with the power 
to alter fares to meet the cost of service, fares were 



advanced last August from a 5 to a 7-cent basis. Pas- 
senger revenue for the first month increased about 24 
per cent. For the second month it showed a gain of 
12 per cent, while for the third month — due largely to 
the effect of the influenza scare — the gain was only 1 
per cent instead of the possible 40 per cent under the 
new rate. On Dec. 1 the fare was raised to 8 cents, but 
on account of the resulting traffic losses the increase in 
revenue was so small as to be ridiculous. It has been 
stated that a 10-cent fare would pay the Boston Elevated 
bill provided everybody who used the cars last year at 
5 cents would be compelled to ride this year and pay 
10 cents. 

This brings us to the critical question being asked by 
railroad men all over the country, namely, "What system 
of fares will enable us to get out of our difficulties?" 
Some companies have gone from a 5 to a 6-cent basis 
and instead of the theoretical increase of 20 per cent 
in revenue, the reports show anywhere from 8 to 14 per 
cent. Others having tried a 7-cent fare, with the possi- 
bility of a 40 per cent gain, report gains from 1 to 24 
per cent. A few have been collecting 8 cents, and in- 
stead of the theoretical gain of 60 per cent in earnings 
they show from 9 to 14 per cent. Ten-cent fares have 
been tried elsewhere, and it is possible that some com- 
panies will experiment with rates even higher. 

The receiver of the Bay State system stated recently 
that this constant irritation of the public by little jabs 
at the problem is responsible for a large part of the 
railway troubles. He favored a jump to a rate con- 
siderably higher so that changes hereafter will be in 
the direction of lower fares. There are other thought- 
ful operators who expect to find eventual relief only in 
a zone system of fares. Still another group are coming 
to agree with the view recently expressed in the Bay 
State fare case that "it is wiser to place a part of the 
burden of the cost of necessary electric railway service 
directly upon the community as a whole than to suffer 
increases in fare which do not produce the results that 
they are designed to produce, and which are seriously 
disturbing to social and economic conditions." 

The concentration of trained minds on this problem 
is bound to find a solution in time. A solution will be 
found because electric railways are essential to the 
national life and someone must pay for their continu- 
ance. Further receiverships may be required to awake 
the public and the authorities to the danger, but it will 
be unfortunate indeed if such a price has to be paid to 
attain justice. The subject is receiving much publicity, 
and the public we think realizes, as never before, that 
early action is necessary. What that action might be is 
suggested in the extended article in this week's issue 
by L. R. Nash of Stone & Webster, who reviews at 
length the principal service-at-cost franchises in exist- 
ence or proposed. The Merchants' Association in New 
York has appointed a committee to report on the subject 
and similar action will be taken by the United States 
Chamber of Commerce. We have no doubt that 
through the work which is being done in and outside 
the industry the long dormant sense of fairness in the 
mind of the prejudiced public will be roused and the 
utilities which have been crowded to the brink of disas- 
ter will be saved. We confidently believe that the year 
1919 will bring the dawn of an era of understanding 
and fair dealing. 



4 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 1 



Cohesive Spirit of Electric Railway Industry 
Must Be Conserved and Intensified 

Results of Activities of Temporary War-Time Organization Will Be Partly 
Lost Unless Effort Is Made to Capitalize and Stabilize Them — A Number 
of Very Definite Utility Problems of a National Character Await Solution 

BY PHILIP H. GADSDEN 



THE publication of the annual 
review issue of the Electric 
Railway Journal renders es- 
pecially timely a retrospective view of 
the condition of the transportation 
utility during the past year under 
war conditions. But such a retro- 
spect is warranted only if it fur- 
nishes help for the future. The 
American Electric Railway Associa- 
tion has appointed a committee on 
readjustment, the purpose of which 
is to assist electric railways in tid- 
ing over the period on which we are 
now entering. Before it has finished 
its work this committee will presuma- 
bly have definite recommendations to 
offer with reference to some perma- 
nent way of conserving the gains in 
co-operative spirit which have been 
made during the war period. Other- 
wise the sacrifices and concessions 
made will largely have been in vain. 
And this matter must be considered 
not alone in the light of the needs of 
this one industry, but rather of the 
needs of public utilities as a whole. 
An industry representing a capitali- 
zation of ten billion dollars, and in- 
volving the welfare of hundreds of 
thousands of stockholders and bondholders and the com- 
fort and convenience of many millions of citizens must 
speak as one voice for the principles of fair dealing and 
justice for which the great war has been fought and 
won. 

Reconstruction Is in the Air 

The emergency conditions of the war are passing, but 
they have not yet passed and will probably not disap- 
pear entirely for many months. Coal prices are drop- 
ping, materials prices will follow, labor conditions aris- 
ing out of the war will be slow of readjustment, the 
revenue bill is still in controversy and public owner- 
ship is open for national discussion. Furthermore, the 
reconstruction or adjustment programs of many civic 
and governmental bodies are just beginning to be 
shaped. As a step in this direction, the Zihlman bill, 
offered in the House of Representatives on Dec. 12, 
provides for a "reconstruction commission" of ten mem- 
bers to study post-war conditions, recommend prin- 
ciples of uniform legislation for all states and consider 




PHILIP H. GADSDEN 

Mr. Gadsden has done notable 
work for public utilities generally, 
and for the electric railway in par- 
ticular, during and before his time 
of residence at Washington as local 
representative of the Electric Rail- 
way War Board. Mr. Gadsden is 
president of the Charleston (S. C.) 
Consolidated Railway & Lighting 
Company. He was educated in the 
Charleston schools and at the Uni- 
versity of South Carolina, from 
which he holds the degree LL.D. 
He practiced at the bar for fifteen 
years and also served for six years 
in the State legislature. 



the problems of labor, capital, credit, 
public utilities and other matters. 

But before going into details re- 
garding reconstruction let us note for 
a moment the present situation which 
confronts us. The electric railway 
industry, due to conditions brought 
about by the war, is practically 
bankrupt. It has been subjected not 
only to the general rising costs of 
materials but also to the particularly 
burdensome labor awards of the Na- 
tional War Labor Board. Its needs, 
as brought to the attention of the 
federal authorities a year ago, have 
not brought forth remedial action of 
a general character. As a result, the 
electric railways, with few excep- 
tions, find themselves at the close of 
the war with ruined credit and de- 
teriorated equipment, unable to give 
adequate service, and in many com- 
munities, objects of hostile and un- 
reasoning criticism. 

The facts and figures presented by 
the writer at the war emergency and 
reconstruction congress of the United 
States Chamber of Commerce as re- 
printed in the issue of the Electric 
Railway Journal for Dec. 14, 1918, 
page 1045, indicate very clearly the problems that must 
be solved. Whether they shall be solved by the 
politicians and reformers or by the industry depends 
upon whether a defensive or an aggressive policy is 
adopted by the operators of the electric railways. 
Furthermore, the manner in which the electric rail- 
way problem is handled will, in a very large measure, 
determine how the problems of other public utilities are 
to be handled as they arise. 

These Are the Bold Facts to Be Considered 
Briefly, then, the rehabilitation of the industry must 
be undertaken aggressively, with a recognition of the 
following facts: 

1. As an industry, the electric railway industry is 
practically bankrupt. 

2. Its service is essential to the health, progress and 
development of every community, hence to the nation 
itself. 

3. The present rate structure is economically un- 
sound, and the present basis insufficient to take care of 



January 4, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal, 



5 



increased wages and standards, together with the higher 
scale of material costs likely to continue for many 
months. 

4. The public authorities, whether state public service 
commissions or municipal bodies, must be made parties 
to the readjustment on a co-operative rather than an 
antagonistic basis. 

8. Adequate and satisfactory service to the public is 
the primary end in view. 

The war has taught the industry that the local fran- 
chise relationship is inelastic and non-responsive to the 
economic laws upon which all industry must be founded. 
It has shown that irretrievable loss is in practically all 
cases made a condition precedent to the granting of 
rates that will provide an adequate return. Such irre- 
trievable loss means poor service and public dissatis- 
faction, hence adequate service and public satisfaction 
must be insured by some form of public responsibility 
in the revenues necessary for maintaining such service. 

Whether the public's financial responsibility can be 
worked out through a readjustment of present rate 
structures and service schedules, or whether the funds 
necessary shall be furnished from the public treasury, 
is in a sense a collateral question, as long as the im- 
portance of electric railway development as essential 
to the nation's life and progress is regarded as the 
prime consideration. 

Some Definite Problems for Solution 

The problems for the industry to solve may be con- 
sidered briefly as follows: 

1. It must learn how to conduct an educational cam- 
paign which will give the public a point of view from 
which it will be able to deal with the railways on an 
equitable and therefore fair basis. In this connection 
data must be widely distributed so that the public will 
obtain a proper concept of the costs of building, equip- 
ping and operating electric roads, and the utilities must 
virtually be opened through advertising channels for 
public inspection. Further, the railways must suggest 
such inferences from present conditions as to stimulate 
public thought on the railway question, with special 
emphasis upon the idea of public interest. 

2. The problem of public ownership versus service at 
cost must be attacked. 

3. Due consideration must be given to the merits 
of quasi-public ownership as compared with the service- 
at-cost plan. 

4. Franchise relationships must be studied. 

5. The industry must investigate the extension of 
state commission jurisdiction under proper laws, par- 
ticularly with relation to responsibility for financial 
and service conditions. 

In connection with the latter requirement it is inter- 
esting to note that during the war the National Com- 
mittee on Public Utility Conditions investigated the 
rate situation as affecting the electric railways for the 
first six months of 1918. During that period 236 rate 
increases were allowed electric railways by state com- 
missions, whereas during the same period only eighteen 
were allowed by municipal authorities. It was also 
shown that in twenty-two states electric railway rates 
are subject to regulation by municipal authorities. A 
number of important states in which public service 
commissions exist fall into this group because of the 



action of the supreme courts of those states in depriv- 
ing the commissions of jurisdiction over rates fixed by 
local franchise. 

Many Reconstruction Forces Are at Work 

The working out of any such program as herein out- 
lined is not to be confined to any one committee but is 
to be made a part of the general reconstruction pro- 
gram of the nation. Already reconstruction commit- 
tees have been organized and relationships established 
between those committees and the readjustment com- 
mittee of the American Electric Railway Association. 
Among these reconstruction committees should be men- 
tioned the following: 

1. The special war committee of the National Asso- 
ciation of Railway and Utilities Commissioners which is 
to be continued as a reconstruction committee in Wash- 
ington, D. C. Its program is a study of the entire prob- 
lem of public regulation of railroads and public utilities. 
Among the points for consideration mentioned by the 
president of the association in his address at its recent 
convention was this: "Perhaps the time has come for 
our association to consider the advisability of recom- 
mending a change in the contract relationship of these 
utilities." This statement referred especially to elec- 
tric railways and their embarrassment during the war 
by the restrictions imposed by local franchises. Con- 
tinuing the president said: "One of the methods sug- 
gested is that state laws or constitutions be so modi- 
fied as to give all state commissions jurisdiction over 
rates of utilities, and that an indeterminate permit free 
from all local limitation as to rates be issued upon the 
surrender of the existing license or franchise." 

In the report of the committee on public utility rates, 
presented at the convention, it was suggested under 
"Electric Rates" that an automatic sliding scale might 
be desirable, based upon fluctuating costs of material 
and labor where the state commissions have adopted 
uniform cost accounting for public utilities. Under 
"Street Railway Rates" the report states "among utili- 
ties most seriously affected by war conditions because 
of increased cost of fuel, material and labor, are the 
street railways. It is believed that when it is possible 
to do so, the zone system offers the most practical 
method whereby increased income may be obtained. 
Where zones are already established, an increase in 
number of zones or a shortening of the zones will usu- 
ally yield the increased revenue desired." Many other 
important statements are made with reference to the 
rates of other utilities. These are some of the problems 
that will be considered by the reconstruction committee. 

2. Reconstruction committee of the National Civic 
Federation. This committee has listed public utilities 
among the subjects to be studied, and the thoroughness 
with which the federation makes its investigations is 
well known to those familiar with its work. 

3. Special committee of the Merchants' Association 
of New York. This committee is to study and report 
upon the question of governmental ownership and op- 
eration of public utilities and industrial undertakings. 
A note regarding it and giving its membership will be 
found in the issue of the Electric Railway Journal 
for Dec. 14, 1918, page 1063. 

4. A committee of the United States Chamber of 
Commerce, provided for in the following resolution 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 1 



adopted by the recent War Emergency and Reconstruc- 
tion Congress: 

Public utilities have faced difficult problems, which have 
been accentuated by conditions arising out of war. The 
development and efficiency of such a utility as local trans- 
portation has immediate importance for every community. 
It is recommended that the Chamber of Commerce of the 
United States should appoint a committee to investigate and 
study the question of local transportation as it relates to 
the control of rates and service, franchises, taxes, the at- 
traction of capital into the business, and such other ques- 
tions as the committee may find pertinent. Such a commit- 
tee should report its recommendations to the board of 
directors of the national chamber, and the board should 
deal with them in accordance with the established procedure 
of the chamber. 

5. A special committee of the United States Chamber 
of Commerce to be made up of the representatives of 
industry and the chairmen of the war service commit- 
tees, represented at the recent Reconstruction Congress. 
It will include the chairmen of the public utility war 
service committees that have been organized during the 
war. Thus, the public utility industry will have repre- 
sentation on this special 

committee in any work 
that is undertaken. 

6. T h e readjustment 
committee of the Amer- 
ican Electric Railway As- 
sociation, to which refer- 
ence has already been 
made. In addition to these 
s i x reconstruction com- 
mittees and the bill now 
before Congress provid- 
ing for the appointment 
of a federal reconstruc- 
tion commission, there should be mentioned the various 
organizations that are likely to be appointed for the 
readjustment period, growing out of the activities of 
the War Finance Corporation, the National War Labor 
Board, the War Labor Policies Board, the Capital Issues 
Committee, the War Industries Board and the Council 
of National Defense. 

Furthermore, it is probable that a committee on re- 
construction finances will be appointed by the Invest- 
ment Bankers Association of America, to co-operate 
with the other committees in relation to financial prob- 
lems confronting the public utility industry. 

In addition to the above, conventions of local public 
utility associations will be called for the consideration 
of reconstruction problems. Such a step has already 
been taken by the Illinois Electric Railways Associa- 
tion, which the writer hopes to be able to address on the 
occasion of the meeting to be held in Chicago on Jan. 17. 

While a wide influence can be exerted through the 
activities of the above organizations, if properly guided 
and informed by a central committee, much additional 
work can be done through the various civic bodies and 
associations in the various states. 

Reconstruction Plans Must Be Made Definite 

One of the chief probleiris now presented to the 
electric railway industry is to determine promptly upon 
the fundamental points that should be urged before 
these various reconstruction committees and other 
bodies for consideration. The reconstruction commit- 
tee of the American Electric Railway Association has 



THE war has taught the industry that 
the local franchise relationship is inelastic 
and non-responsive to the economic 
laws upon which all industry must be founded. 
It has shown that irretrievable loss is in prac- 
tically all cases made a condition precedent to 
the granting of rates that will provide an 
adequate return. Such irretrievable loss 
means poor service and public dissatisfaction. 



already considered a few of the points that should be 
referred to the special committee on electric railway 
transportation of the United States Chamber of Com- 
merce. The points suggested for reference to that com- 
mittee are as follows: 

1. A study of the various classes of electric railway 
franchises, the unusual as well as the usual forms, with 
a digest of the same, indicating the burdens and re- 
quirements imposed upon electric railways, including 
paving requirements, free transfers, free carriage of 
certain classes of passengers, compulsory extensions 
into unproductive territory, etc. Some estimate of the 
total amount expended by the industry annually on ac- 
count of paving requirements should be included. 

2. The various forms of taxation to which electric 
railways are subjected, including city, county, state, 
federal, ad valorem, franchise and gross income taxes. 

3. A formulation of some plan looking to the stand- 
ardization of burdens and requirements and a segre- 
gation of the industry for purposes of taxation. 

3. Service-at-cost plans, 
as compared with out-and 
out municipal ownership, 
indicating the advantages 
of quasi-public interest 
service and finances. 

5. Comparison o f re- 
sults of state commission 
regulation with regula- 
tion through municipal 
bodies. 

6. Uniform state com- 
mission laws or a stand- 
ard franchise. 

So much for a general program on reconstruction. 
Next, how is even a satisfactory program to be made 
effective? 

A Strong Central Agency Is Needed 

Unless some agency which is financially strong can 
be set up to put the plan into operation the whole 
matter will be in danger of resolving itself into a mere 
academic discussion — reports, resolutions, compliments, 
but nothing more. I believe that the financially strong 
electric railway property groups should get together 
and support with their money and their executive talent 
a permanent agency which can do a number of things 
for the industry as a whole, among which I need mention 
only the following: 

1. It could assist individual railways in solving their 
local problems by bringing to bear upon these the ex- 
perience of other railways similarly situated. 

2. It could conduct general publicity campaigns on 
behalf of the industry generally. 

3. It could demonstrate to public bodies the facts in 
any particular local situation by furnishing incontrover- 
tible data applicable thereto. 

This influential central agency could do many other 
things to make itself well worth while. It is my earnest 
hope that something of the sort suggested will be done, 
and done soon and that men of broad practical knowl- 
edge and wide experience will show a readiness to give 
of their time and energy to save the industry from 
annihilation and permit it to serve the country with 
first-class transportation. 



January 4, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



7 



Transportation Work 
of the United States Housing Corporation 

Under the Supervision of the Transportation Division 
300 or More Cars Have Been Purchased and Much 
Work Undertaken to Facilitate Housing of War Workers 

By GARDNER F. WELLS 

Manager Division of Transportation, United States Housing Corporation 



AFTER the United States had 
l\ been at war with the central 
JL- powers for some months it 
became apparent to the government 
officials that they were being serious- 
ly hampered in the task of supplying 
the munitions of war by the lack of 
housing facilities for workers in the 
vicinity of war manufacturing 
plants. The same conditions sur- 
rounded the production of merchant 
ships also, but fortunately the 
United States Shipping Board was 
supplied with the funds necessary for 
solving the housing problem as soon 
as the circumstances were appreciat- 
ed and the necessary legislation to 
enable the funds to be applied to 
housing and transportation could be 
passed. No such provision could be 
made for the workers in munitions 
plants until Congress should take spe- 
cial action to provide funds for this 
purpose, together with an organiza- 
tion to dispense these funds effec- 
tively. This was done in the spring 
of 1918 and on May 16, 1918, an act 
was passed to authorize the President 
to provide for housing needs. The 
President signed the bill on June 26 
and the work was delegated by him 
to the Secretary of Labor, who instituted the Bureau of 
Industrial Housing and Transportation. Of this bureau 
Otto M. Eidlitz was made director. To facilitate the 
administration of the work the United States Hous- 
ing Corporation was incorporated on July 8' with Mr. 
Eidlitz as president, and funds became available on 
July 25. As a part of the activities of the corporation 
a transportation division was organized and the writer 
was made its manager. 

Why the Transportation Division 
Was Created 

This transportation division was organized for the 
purpose of improving present, and creating new, trans- 
portation facilities for war industrial workers, in ac- 
cordance with the act of Congress already mentioned. 
Among other things this act anticipated that in certain 
localities it would be found that transportation would 
solve the housing problem. This could be brought about 
by making communities where there were vacant houses 




GARDNER F. WELLS 

Mr. Wells was associated with 
Stone & Webster, Boston, for fifteen 
years until March, 1916, when he 
took up his present work as head of 
the corporation bond buying depart- 
ment of Arthur Perry & Company, 
Boston. After leaving the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology he- 
spent ten years with the Thomson- 
Houston and General Electric Com- 
panies in engineering construction 
and management work, and followed 
the same general line with Stone & 
Webster. He was commissioned 
major in the Army Ordnance De- 
partment in 1917, on leave of absence 
from his firm, but resigned to take 
up his present work with the Housing 
Corporation. 



in abundance available to employees 
in congested industrial centers 
through improved transportation fa- 
cilities. It was also anticipated that 
improvements to local transportation 
systems in communities where inten- 
sive war manufacturing was being 
carried on would materially add to 
the speeding up of the work. 

That transportation supervision 
might properly be administered, am- 
ple provisions were made in the act 
for equipping, managing, maintain- 
ing, purchasing, leasing, construct- 
ing, requisitioning or acquiring by 
condemnation such transportation 
lines as might be necessary to pro- 
vide adequate transportation facili- 
ties for industrial employees engaged 
in war work. This act also carried 
with it the appropriation of certain 
funds for the beginning of this work. 
Subsequent acts have further in- 
creased the funds available. 

Many special requests for assist- 
ance have come to this division from 
railway companies or manufacturers, 
but a strict interpretation of the act 
of Congress indicated that the work 
to be handled by the division was to 
be considered from the standpoint of 
war necessity. The work was therefore confined prin- 
cipally to requests coming from the War and Navy 
Departments. 

The transportation division consists of manager, as- 
sistant manager, consulting engineer, three investigat- 
ing engineers, one construction engineer, a division man- 
ager at New York City, as well as an office manager 
and two investigating engineers, one consulting engi- 
neer and two assistants at Chicago, a consulting en- 
gineer at Philadelphia, one construction engineer at 
Erie and one division manager and two construction 
engineers at Hampton Roads, together with the neces- 
sary clerical assistants in the several offices. 

The principal work of the division has covered: (1) 
The installation of special steam and electric train 
service for war workers. (2) The rearrangement of 
steam and electric railway schedules. (3) The financ- 
ing of necessary electric railway extensions and addi- 
tions. (4) Construction or supervision of construction 
of these extensions or additions. 



8 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 1 







Fig-. 1 — Looking \ 
Fig. 2 — East leg of 



TRACK CONSTRUCTION WORK AT BETHLEHEM, PA. 
3t on Broad Street from Minsi Trail Street. Fig. 4 — Looking north on Minsi Trai 
re, Day Avenue. Fig. 3 — West leg of wye. to Broad Street. 



Street, from Market Street 



Through the efforts of the division, twenty-one 
special steam trains, to provide transportation for war 
workers, have been installed in various parts of the 
country. The Railroad Administration has established 
an especially low tariff for these workers, and in many 
instances the Housing Corporation has granted still 
lower rates, absorbing the incidental differentials. By 
this arrangement a large amount of vacant housing has 
been made available. At least 8000 people have been 
cared for in this manner at a cost which will not be 
more than $275,000 to the division, based on this service 
being in operation for one year. This is at the rate of 
approximately $35 per man per year. 

The experience of the Housing Corporation shows 
that the average cost of housing a war worker in a 
dormitory completely equipped and furnished with cafe- 
teria, etc., is $550, while the cost of housing workers 
in homes built especially for them is from $3,500 to 
$5,500 per house, the assumption being that the aver- 
age number of workers occupying each house will be 
two. -On this basis it will readily be seen that, through 
transportation improvements, millions of dollars of in- 
vestment have been saved. 

In accordance with recommendations made to the 
regional directors of the railroads under federal control, 
and through the co-operation of the United States Rail- 
road Administration itself, war workers have been bene- 
fited in many localities by rearrangement of schedules 
and institution of extra stops on steam railways, and by 
rearranging schedules on electric railways. 



In many instances it was reported by either the War 
or the Navy Department that electric railway service 
in connection with war industries was entirely inade- 
quate. In every such case a careful investigation and 
study of conditions was conducted, recommendations 
were made and estimates of cost were compiled for 
necessary improvements. 

The Housing Corporation Provides the Funds 

When it was determined that new and additional 
transportation facilities were required, plans or recom- 
mendations therefor were presented to the companies 
with the request that measures be taken immediately 
to acquire or install the necessary extensions, additions 
or betterments. These recommendations usually in- 
volved an expenditure for their accomplishment. In 
all cases the companies pleaded that they were unable 
to finance the cost of the work at a reasonable rate of 
interest. They also objected to making expenditures 
at the time because of the abnormal costs of labor and 
material and the fact that the operation of these ex- 
tensions and additions was unprofitable. It was also' 
held by them that the service was for rush hours only 
and that these periods were the most costly to operate. 
In spite of the foregoing, however, they invariably 
agreed, from patriotic motives, to carry out the Housing 
Corporation's recommendations, with its assistance and 
under its supervision. 

When it was decided what improvements should be 
carried out, contracts were entered into with the local 







TYPICAL TRACK JOBS AT BETHLEHEM, PA. 
Fig. 5 — Looking north on Minsi Trail Street from Broad Street. Fig. 7 — Looking northeast on Newton Avenue. Fig. 
Fig. 6 — Looking east on Broad Street from Linden Street. ing northeast on Newton Avenue from Road No. 1. 



January 4, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



9 









Pig. 2 — Turnstiles at exit. 
Pig. 3 — General view of 
entrance-exit structure. 



Fig-. 5 — Another general 
view of the entrance-exit ar- 
rangement. 

Pig. 6- — Close-up view of a 
turnstile. 

Fig. 7 — Bridge Street, 
southwest of Milnor Street. 
Philadelphia, near Prank- 
ford Arsenal. 



Views showing construction work at 
federal arsenals in Boston and Phil? - 
delphia done under supervision of the 
transportation division of the United 
States Housing Corporation. Figs. 1 
to 6, Watertown Arsenal, Boston ; 
Figs. 7 to 12, Frankford Arsenal, 
Philadelphia. 



Fig. 8 — Bridge Street 
north of Frankford Creek — 
arsenal buildings in back- 
ground. 

Pig. 9 — Bridge Street look- 
ing northwest from Thomp- 
son Street. 

Fig. 10 — Bridge Street 
looking northwest from Mil- 
nor Street — arsenal gate at 
right. 

Fig. 11 — Pratt Street look- 
ing northwest from Rich- 
mond Street. 

Fig. 12 — Same looking 
northwest from Salmon 
Street. 



10 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 1 



TABLE I — STATUS OF LOANS AND PROPOSED LOAr 
AS OF DEC. 17, 1918 

Contract Loans Rec- 
Executed ommended . 
for Loan in Reports 



work planned. A general summary of the division's 
expenditures is as follows: 



Locality 
Bethlehem, Pa. 



Name of Company 
Lehigh Valley Tran- 
sit Co 

The Connecticut Co. 



Bridgeport, Conn. 

Boston District 

Boston- Watertown Boston Elevated Ry. 
Buffalo, City of 

Buffalo-Niagara 

Buffalo-Depew Buffalo & Depew Ry. 

Charleston, S. C 

Chicago, 111 Chicago City Ry. . . 

Dayton, Ohio 

Erie, Pa 

Gary, Ind Gary & Valparaiso 

Ry.. 



Hammond, Ind Hammond, 

&EastChicagoRy. 

Hegewisch, 111 Calumet & South 

Chicago Ry 

Hilton, Va Newport News & 

(Newport News, Va.) Hampton Ry. Gas 
& Electric Co . . . 

Milton , Pa Lewisburg, Milton & 

Watsontown Pas- 
senger Ry 

Neville Island, Pa 

Newark District Jersey Central Trac- 
tion Co 

Newcastle, Del 

Niles, Ohio 

Norfolk District 

Norfolk, Va Virginia Ry & Power 

Co 

Pensacola, Fla 

Philadelphia District 

Philadelphia, Pa Philadelphia Rapid 

Transit Co 

Rock Island, 111 United Light & Ry. 

Co 

Seven Pines, Va Richmond - Seven 

Pines Ry 

Toledo, Ohio 

Tullvtown, Pa 

Washington, D. C. . . Washington Ry. & 
Elec. Co 

Washington, D. C 



74,000 
235,000 



315,000 
150,000 



500,000 
300,000 



500,000 
100,000 



2,284,000 
105,000 



475,000 
400,000 



TOTALS $6,021,747 $257,000 

SUMMARY: Contracts executed $6,021,747 

Loans recommended 257,000 

Allotments annulled 8,743,000 



Total $15,021,747 

•"Purchase by Housing Corporation. 



transportation companies whereby the Housing Cor- 
poration financed the undertaking on a 5 per cent in- 
terest basis. In most instances the government is to 
bear the excess war cost, this to be determined in the 
following manner. 

An appraisal of the additions and extensions to the 
properties is to be made on a date fixed by the Housing 
Corporation within a period of from one to three years 
after the declaration of peace, to determine their then 
cost to reproduce new. The difference between this 
appraisal and the actual cost of the work is termed 
the war excess cost, and this difference is to be borne 
by the government. Where funds have been advanced, 
the companies have been required to furnish 
proper security by lien, mortgage or pledging of securi- 
ties, or guaranty of another and responsible corporation. 
The amount as determined by the appraisers is in sub- 
stantially all cases to be returned to the government in 
five equal annual installments, payment of the first 
installment being due one year after the date of the 
appraisal. 

In accordance with the above arrangement the gov- 
ernment, through the Housing Corporation, has con- 
tracted to advance about $6,000,000 to various traction 
companies. The total appropriations for the transpor- 
tation division originally amounted to $15,000,000. As 
soon as the armistice was signed, the amount was cut 
down to approximately $6,500,000. There may be a 
further reduction due to the omission of some of the 



For operating 

Transportation division administration expenses and overhead (six 

months) 



$6,021,747 
257,000 
137,500 



The first loan executed was with the Connecticut Com- 
pany, on July 31, and the last was with the Philadelphia 
Rapid Transit Company on Nov. 8, the total period 
covered, therefore, being about three and one-half 
months. One road was purchased, the Richmond-Seven 
Pines Railway, for the sum of $118,147. 

Finding Cars for Electric Railway Needs 

Naturally the primary need of the electric railways 
serving war plants was for cars, and the division 
promptly made arrangements to supply a considerable 
number, totaling to date more than 300. Most of these 
were new cars of the local companies' standard types. 
New double-truck cars to the numbers indicated were 
purchased for the following: Lehigh Valley Transit 
Company, fifteen; Connecticut Company, fifty; Gary & 
Valparaiso Railway and Gary Street Railway, twelve; 
Hammond, Whiting & East Chicago Railway, ten; 
Lewisburg, Milton & Watsontown Passenger Railway, 
three ; Newport News & Hampton Railway, Gas & Elec- 
tric Company, ten ; Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company, 
110. Twenty one-man cars were also purchased for the 
Connecticut Company and fifty for the Virginia Rail- 
way & Power Company for use at Norfolk. Some sec- 
ond-hand cars (eight motors and four trailers) were 
supplied to the Buffalo & Depew Railway; three to the 
Jersey Central Traction Company, and eight old Inter- 
borough Rapid Transit Company cars to the Virginia 
Railway & Power Company. The one-man cars mentioned 
were of the standard Birney type, and two of the Gary 
cars were of the double-end Peter Witt type, nearly like 
the Housing corporation's proposed "standard" car. 

The "standard" type, of which the corporation but for 
the signing of the armistice would have ordered fifty 
at once, was developed to simplify the matter of order- 
ing double-truck cars and to render the cars salable 
after the war in case the local companies should prove 
to have no further use for them. At the request of 
the Housing Corporation the War Board of the Amer- 
ican Electric Railway Association appointed a commit- 
tee to consider plans for a design of car which would 
be adapted to the corporation's needs. As a result the 
committee approved for the purposes outlined two types 
of double-truck car, as described in the issue of the 
Electric Railway Journal for Oct. 26, 1918, page 729. 
Special credit is due to C. O. Birney of Stone & Web- 
ster, Boston, Mass., for his work in preparing plans for 
the consideration of the above-mentioned committee. 

Track Extensions Were Also a Feature of 
the Division's Activities 

In addition to the provision of rolling stock the Hous- 
ing Corporation financed many track improvements, 
and in more than one case assisted in increasing power 
facilities. A notable example of this work is furnished 
by the Plaza "dumb-bell" loop at Bridgeport, Conn., an 



January 4, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



11 



improvement to facilitate loading and routing of the 
cars in that important munitions center. Other ex- 
tensions and rearrangements in Bridgeport bring the 
total expense at that point to about $1,333,000. At 
Boston, Mass., a loop and prepayment station for the 
Watertown arsenal involved an expenditure of about 
$40,000. 

A very large proposition was a double-track extension 
of the Chicago (111.) City Railway to serve the United 
States Quartermaster Depot. This extension is a mile 
in length, is located on Thirty-ninth Street between 
Ashland and Western Avenues, and cost about $230,000. 
In the same city $150,000 was spent for nearly 12,000 
ft. of single-track equivalent for the Calumet & Chi- 
cago Railway to benefit employees of the Pressed Steel 



the Navy and War Departments, the United States Rail- 
road Administration, the Emergency Fleet Corporation, 
and other governmental agencies and to the American 
Electric Railway Association War Board. Special credit 
is due to Mr. Eidlitz, president of the corporation, and to 
J. P. Clark and A. L. Drum, consulting engineers to the 
division. Mr. Eidlitz has been in the closest possible 
touch with the Department of Labor, under the auspices 
of which the corporation has operated. Messrs. Clark 
and Drum have personally investigated in the field the 
propositions made by the electric railways and have 
furnished sound engineering counsel in connection 
therewith. 

The General Electric Company, the Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Company, Stone & Webster 




TRACK CONSTRUCTION IN CHICAGO 



Fig. 1 — Forsyth Avenue, looking- south from Chicago Avenue, 
showing double-track, the second track having been installed to 
facilitate movement of cars at a very heavy loading point. 

Fig. 2 — Hegewisch extension, on Brandon Avenue, looking south 
from steam railroad crossing. Double-track begins where car is 
seen. 

Fig. 3 — Hohman Street, looking south from point near N. T. 
C. R. R. track, showing second track installed to complete double- 
track line to Chicago. 



3randon Avenue, looking north 
line) at Pressed Street Car 



Fig. ■ 
from I 
Works. 

Fig. 5 — Columbia Avenue, Winton Avenue and Chicago Avenue, 
looking north from former stub terminal at Standard Steel Works. 
Near point where connection is made with Gary Street Railway. 

Fig. 6 — Hegewiseh extension, on Brainard Avenue, looking south 
from about 125th Street and showing construction through 
marsh. 



Car Company and the Ryan Car Company. One of the 
largest single jobs was at Philadelphia where, 
besides the large number of cars supplied, ad- 
ditional substation and feeder capacity was furnished 
as well as storage tracks, etc., all to accommo- 
date the workers at the League Island Navy Yard. 
These improvements cost more than $1,000,000. Similar 
work in the Eddystone district cost nearly $600,000, 
and more than $500,000 was spent on extensions, a 
rotary substation, direct-current feeders, a terminal 
loop, etc., at the Frankford Arsenal. These examples 
are cited merely to show how diverse has been the task 
of the transportation division and how wide the terri- 
tory over which its work has been spread. 

In concluding this brief summary of our work I take 
the opportunity to record the appreciation of the di- 
vision for the splendid co-operation it has enjoyed from 



and other commercial concerns have rendered invalu- 
able aid. E. S. Harkness, of the Standard Oil Com- 
pany, assisted very materially in connection with trans- 
portation matters. On the division staff at Washington 
the manager has been ably assisted by W. A. Mellen, 
formerly associated with the Capital Traction Company ; 
H. H. Easterly, associated with Mr. Drum; Cabot Stev- 
ens, of Stone & Webster; Edward P. Smith, formerly 
with Harris, Forbes & Company; G. W. Wells, formerly 
with Stone & Webster; and H. A. Nicholl, general 
manager Union Traction Company of Indiana. Mr. 
Smith's financial advice in connection with the making 
of loans was greatly appreciated. Mr. Nicholl was in 
charge of the Hampton Roads district. The division also 
extends its thanks to its loyal office staff for the way 
in which it assisted in the work done during the past 
few months. 



12 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 1 




January 4, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



13 



Electric Railways Help Win the War 

How Electric Cars Were Purchased, Electric Roads Extended, 
Steamboats and Railroad Trains Put in Service and Houses 
Erected During the War to Stimulate Production at Our Shipyards 

By A. MERRITT TAYLOR 

Manager Passenger Transportation and Housing Division, United States Shipping Board 
Emergency Fleet Corporation 



WHEN the United States went 
to war, enemy submarines 
were rapidly destroying the 
world's mercantile marine, and it was 
at once apparent that the winning 
of the war was largely dependent 
upon the building of ships in which 
to transport our men, munitions and 
supplies to the European battlefields. 

The United States Shipping Board 
Emergency Fleet Corporation was es- 
tablished by Congress and endowed 
with the authority and funds to 
build the ships. Great shipyards were 
established; others were enlarged. 
Our problem was to get men to the 
shipyards to build the ships. 

Many of the 203 shipyards on the 
Atlantic, Pacific, Gulf and Great 
Lakes were located in districts al- 
ready congested by other war ac- 
tivities; others were of necessity lo- 
cated in districts which lacked the 
necessary local labor to build the 
ships. 

In order to abate the labor de- 
ficiency in these yards, the United 
States Shipping Board Emergency 
Fleet Corporation established the 
Department of Housing and the De- 
partment of Passenger Transportation. It was soon 
found that the activities . of these two departments 
were so closely related that they could function best as 
one; consequently, on May 7, 1918, they were merged 
by the formation of the Division of Passenger Trans- 
portation and Housing. 

How the Division Was Organized 
Experienced and able transportation men, engineers, 
architects, builders and others were called and pa- 
triotically entered the service of their country in this 
division. Many of them made great personal sacrifices 
which have been fully justified by the results of their 
efforts under the able leadership of the two assistant 
managers of the division, Garrett T. Seely, normally 
assistant general manager of the Chicago Elevated Rail- 
roads, who has been in charge of the Transportation De- 
partment, and J. Willison Smith, normally vice-president 
of the Land Title & Trust Company, who has been in 
charge of the Housing Department; and I have record 
that a part of the success of our undertaking has been 
due to the exceptional executive ability and indomitable 
energy of these two men. 



Our other associates, many of them 
leaders in their professions, pos- 
sessed of rare executive ability, have 
each and every one of them con- 
tributed in a large way in secur- 
ing the required results, and I shall 
always be proud of having been asso- 
ciated with such a splendid coterie 
of patriotic citizens. 

A quick survey developed the pres- 
ent and prospective labor deficiency 
in each shipyard which was resultant 
from lack of available housing facil- 
ities. All existing housing facilities 
which were found to be unavailable, 
owing to lack of proper and necessary 
transportation facilities, were 
promptly made available by co-opera- 
tion between the Fleet Corporation 
and the transportation companies, in 
financing the construction of re- 
quired extensions and by enlarging 
existing facilities, also by the estab- 
lishment of additional or new trans- 
portation facilities. 

A separate appropriation of $20,- 
000,000 was made by Congress for 
the construction of transportation fa- 
cilities, and of this amount approxi- 
mately $12,000,000 was utilized, the 
greater part of which is adequately secured and will 
be returned to the United States Treasury with interest 
at 5 per cent. 

Our policy has been to encourage, help and require 
transportation companies to improve their existing fa- 
cilities and methods of operation with a minimum cap- 
ital expenditure, and thus to increase the capacity of 
their existing facilities to transport the additional traf- 
fic with a minimum increase in operating costs and fixed 
charges; also to bring about co-operation of industrial 
plants in staggering hours whereby the capacity of 
transportation lines to serve such plants has been in- 
creased twofold over night. 

The War Work Done 

The general results obtained are illustrated by two 
accompanying charts. One illustrates the progress and 
results of the activities of the division in locating and 
relieving transportation deficiencies with relation to the 
total dead-weight tonnage program of ship production 
by the Emergency Fleet Corporation in the United 
States. The other illustrates the locations at which 
transportation facilities have been improved, the gen- 




A. MERRITT TAYLOR 

Mr. Taylor, previous to his connec- 
tion with the Emergency Fleet Cor- 
poration, was best known for his 
work as transit commissioner, and 
later as director of city transit, of 
Philadelphia, Pa. After serving an 
apprenticeship as a boy in the ma- 
chine shops of Wm. Sellers & Com- 
pany, in Philadelphia, he became 
interested in investment securities, 
and in the development of transpor- 
tation properties. In this field he 
was very successful and he still 
retains the presidency of the Phila- 
delphia & Westchester Traction Com- 
pany, to which he was elected when 
but twenty-four years of age. 



14 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 1 



eral character of the improvements, and the locations 
at which housing projects have been established. 

The principal enlargements and extensions of trans- 
portation facilities consisted of the following: 

The purchase of 320 new street cars and thirty-five 
second-hand street cars was financed for the service of 
seventeen shipyards. 

Street railway extensions were either built or financed 
for the service of eleven shipyards. 

Track changes and loops were financed for sixteen ship- 
yards. 

Enlargement of railway power-plant facilities was 
financed for seventeen shipyards. 

Thirty steamboats were placed in service for twenty ship- 
yards. 

Sixty special steam railroad trains were placed in service 
for twenty-six shipyards. 

Street railway schedules were improved for forty ship- 
yards. 

Working hours were staggered at ten shipyards. 
Steam railroad schedules were improved for twelve ship- 
yards. 

Over 125,000 shipyard employees are now being trans- 
ported by the additional transportation facilities thus estab- 
lished. 

Through the generous co-operation of electric railway 
companies, 57,000 additional shipyard workers were be- 
ing conveyed over their lines to the shipyards on the 
day when the armistice was signed. 

The co-operation which has been accorded the govern- 
ment by the electric railway industry and by all electric 
railway executives through the Division of Passenger 
Transportation and Housing of the Fleet Corporation 
has been, without exception, most patriotic and ef- 
ficient. 

It is with pride and much gratitude that I am able 
to point out to our industry the important part which 
it has had in thus expediting ship production and in 
bringing the war to an early termination. 

After exhausting all existing housing facilities which 
could well be made available by transportation service, 
many shipyards were still unable to secure the men re- 
quired to build the ships because there was no place for 
them to live within access of such yards; therefore, a 
quick resurvey was made which determined the number 
of additional men required for the production of ships 
at such yards and the extent of the delay in ship pro- 
duction in such yards, resultant from inadequate hous- 
ing facilities. 

The number and character of the houses which were 
then required to abate the deficiency were determined 
and they were promptly built. They included : 8949 sub- 
stantial individual houses; 1119 substantial apartments; 
nineteen dormitories; eight substantial hotels. 

The foregoing projects have capacity to house 27,732 
shipyard workers or 55,324 individuals, and include 
necessary stores therefor. 

The allotments for these projects aggregate $65,- 
883,845. 

Substantially all of the aforesaid buildings are in ad- 
vanced stages of construction or completed. More than 
3800 of them are entirely completed with a capacity to 
house approximately 12,200 shipyard workers. 

Although possessed of plenary powers, the Fleet Cor- 
poration in dealing with transportation problems has 
regarded and protected the rights of transportation 
companies throughout the great emergency which called 
for instant action. 



Public officials', street railway executives and the pub- 
lic were brought together and shown what was their 
duty to each other and to their government, and a better 
understanding has thus been gained of the respective 
rights of electric railways, of municipalities and of the 
public, and of their respective duties to one another 
which should be of lasting benefit'to all of them. 

A Better Understanding Had of 
Public Utility Conditions 

The public generally has, during the war, come to 
understand that the financial necessities of electric rail- 
ways must be met or the traveling public must suffer 
from inefficient service, also that electric railways are 
just as essential to the body politic as the circulatory 
system is to the body human ; hence the body politic is 
not going to permit the electric railways to be paralyzed 
by misguided public officials or by those who through 
ulterior motives, lambast vested interests. I predict that 
the time is at hand when those who persist in these ne- 
farious practices will be branded as public enemies and 
driven out of public life by an enlightened and incensed 
public. 

The war has taught the American people the value 
of co-operation and what it accomplishes. 

Now is the time for all public utility companies to rec- 
ognize the necessity of co-operation between them and 




CHART SHOWING PROGRESS OF ACTIVITIES OP DIVISION 
IN RELIEVING TRANSPORTATION DEFICIENCIES. 
PLOTTED IN PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL 
TONNAGE PROGRAM 



their customers. When this co-operation is developed 
through the establishment of mutual confidence, which 
must be brought about through frankness and a com- 
plete understanding of the respective rights, duties and 
necessities of each, there will be no apprehension or in- 
justice on the part of the public, public officials or the 
management of electric railways. 

Twenty years of study and consideration of the prob- 
lems affecting public utilities, made during various 
periods in the interest of the United States and mu- 
nicipalities on the one hand and public utility companies 
on the other hand, and extended investigations made 
during the war in many localities along our Atlantic 
and Pacific seaboards and on the shores of the Gulf and 
Great Lakes, have led me to these happy conclusions. 

Among electric railway executives the constructive 
optimist is to-day the best asset of our industry, and 
the destructive pessimist is the heaviest burden which 
it has to carry. 



January 4, 1919 Electric Railway Journal 15 



Recent Developments 
in Service-at-Cost Franchises for Utilities 

The Principal Provisions of the Various Service-at-Cost Franchises 
of Electric Railway Companies Are Described with Great Care and 
Compared as to Results — The Author Then Draws Conclusions 
as to the Most Desirable Forms of a Service-at-Cost Franchise 

BY L. R. NASH 

Stone & Webster, Boston, Mass. 



THE year 1918 witnessed a note- 
worthy development in railway 
franchises, in which the funda- 
mental feature is the rendering of 
service at actual cost. Franchises of 
this kind are not new in the United 
States, their use covering a period of 
more than ten years, but until quite 
recently their number has been very 
small and the results of their opera- 
tion not wholly satisfactory. The 
new franchises drawn during the 
past year have attempted to cure the 
defects which have developed from 
experience with the earlier models 
and are of further interest through 
their reflection of the changes in 
economic thought applicable to pub- 
lic utilities. 

Further attention to this subject 
has doubtless been stimulated recent- 
ly by the serious financial difficulties 
which have befallen the electric 
railway industry since the civilized 
world took up its sword in defense 
of justice and freedom. As a rule 
the railways have found a 5-cent fare 
insufficient to cover war-time costs 
of service and have attempted to se- 
cure higher rates. Many of them op- 
erated under long-term franchises limiting fares to the 
established, conventional rate, which presumably held 
promise of profit when originally adopted. Rapid ex- 
tensions and improvement of service, transfer privi- 
leges and other concessions have kept pace with or out- 
stripped natural increases in business and efficiency to 
such an extent that the present crisis has been encoun- 
tered with entirely inadequate reserves. 

While many municipalities have unwisely insisted that 
franchise fare limitations must be strictly observed re- 
gardless of consequences, others with breadth of vision 
have recognized unprecedented conditions and the es- 
sential part that transportation plays in our civic and 
national activities. Some of these latter cities have also 
taken the precaution to go beyond the bare necessities 
of a present fare increase and have limited the increase 
to the period of abnormal conditions. A few of them 
have gone further and provided that the subsequent re- 
duction shall be proportional to the change in condi- 




L. R. NASH 

Mr. Nash has been connected with 
Stone & Webster for the past twenty- 
three years. He entered through the 
engineering department and has been 
both a constructing engineer and 
utility manager, but latterly he has 
been devoting most of his time to 
public relations and to appraisal and 
rate cases and has engaged in work 
of this kind for more than thirty 
public utility properties in different 
parts of the United States and Can- 
ada. He has also lectured on his 
specialties at the Massachusetts In- 
stitute of Technology and Harvard 
University, from both of which he 
has received degrees. 



embodying the service-at-cost prin- 
ciple. 

Within a period of a little more 
than a year agreements have been 
reached between municipalities and 
electric railways with respect to 
service-at-cost franchises in the fol- 
lowing large American cities : Dallas, 
Tex.; Philadelphia, Pa.; Montreal, 
Que. ; Chicago, 111., and Cincinnati, 
Ohio. The service-at-cost principle 
has been applied by legislative acts to 
the Boston Elevated Railway and the 
Bay State system and made available 
to all other street railways in Massa- 
chusetts. Negotiations looking to its 
adoption have been in progress in 
other widely scattered communities, 
notably St. Louis and the Twin 
Cities. Cities in which similar fran- 
chises have been in use for longer 
periods include the following: Chi- 
cago, 111. (surface lines) ; Cleveland, 
Ohio; Des Moines, Iowa; Kansas 
City, Mo. 

Not all these so-called service-at- 
cost franchises provide, strictly 
speaking, for the base cost of the 
service and no more in the pre- 
scribed revenue. Some of them em- 
body the sliding scale of rates and return in use by 
the Boston Consolidated Gas Company and, more exten-f 
sively, in England, but in a comparatively restricted 
way, Others provide for a distribution of profits be- 
tween city and railway. Where the city is required to 
use its proportion for improvements, extension or ul- 
timate purchase of the railway, service-at-cost still ob- 
tains in the long run, although present patrons help 
to pay the cost of future service. Where the city is 
not restricted in the use of its proportion of the profits 
or imposes a special rental or franchise tax, the prin- 
ciple in question is departed from and the prescribed 
fares cover service-at-cost plus an abnormal part of the 
city's administrative expenses. 

The need of increased fare has not as yet been the 
primary motive behind the negotiation of most of these 
franchises, but rather the impending expiration of old 
grants or the requirements of reorganization, but the 
example set in Massachusetts, where additional revenue 



tions ; in other words, they have prepared new franchises was practically the sole object of the service-at-cost leg- 



16 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 1 



islation, will doubtless be followed in other communi- 
ties in the near future. 

It is the purpose of this discussion to set forth and 
compare the distinctive features of the various fran- 
chises referred to above, to indicate those features which 
have found general or recent favor, and to criticise those 
which are illogical or economically unsound, to the end 
that an interested reader may assemble such features 
as appeal to him as the foundation of a model service- 
at-cost franchise. 

Inasmuch as many important features of these va- 
rious franchises were influenced or controlled by past 
franchise history and other local conditions, a brief 
statement of each local situation may throw some light 
upon the comments on franchise features which follow. 

Some Pioneer Service-at-Cost 
Franchises Described 

The Chicago franchises, granted in 1907 in substan- 
tially identical general terms to the two principal sur- 
face railways serving the city, were renewals of sundry 
old grants, some of which had already expired, and 
others were nearing expiration. Extended exploitation 
of some of these old franchises and alleged exorbitant 
profits therefrom impelled the city to devise certain safe- 
guards against future similar possibilities. The result, 
reached after long controversy and exhaustive study, 
was our first noteworthy franchise of the service-at-cost 
form. The two principal railways, with subsidiaries, 
were later combined for operating purposes into a uni- 
fied surface system. 

The acquisition of the Chicago elevated lines by the 
same ownership and the necessary future association 
therewith of the comprehensive system of subways pro- 
jected by the city, led logically to the drafting of a new 
consolidated franchise covering the existing local trans- 
portation facilities and the leasing of the subways to 
be built and owned by the city. This franchise, which 
had the indorsement of the business interests of the 
city, was passed by the City Council in August, 1918, 
but was rejected at a referendum on Nov. 5, 1918, the 
opposition being led by certain political and labor ele- 
ments. The city retained Walter L. Fisher as special 
counsel in connection with the extended negotiations, 
he having also served in the drafting of the 1907 fran- 
chises. Because the consolidated franchise draft em- 
bodies so many features which will doubtless have a 
place in future franchise negotiations, it has been in- 
cluded in this discussion to the same extent as if it had 
become effective. 

The second franchise of this class, granted in 1909 
to the Cleveland Railway in renewal of expired and ex- 
piring grants, conforms more nearly to modern service- 
at-cost standards. It was the outcome of years of bit- 
ter struggle, unparalleled in the street railway history 
of this country, involving receivership, municipal com- 
petition, demoralization of service and wreckage of phys- 
ical property, in which Tom L. Johnson played a domi- 
nant part. 

In 1914, Kansas City, Mo., granted a new franchise to 
the Kansas City Railways, organized to succeed the 
Metropolitan Street Railway then in the hands of re- 
ceivers. Reorganization and other necessary formali- 
ties delayed the putting into effect of this franchise until 



Feb. 15, 1916, when the Kansas City Railways began 
operation. A substantial portion of its provisions be- 
came effective, however, immediately after its passage 
on July 7, 1914, and continued in effect throughout the 
receivership. The primary motive in granting the new 
franchise was to secure much-needed extensions and 
improvements which the company was unable to finance 
under the old franchise, which had only a few more 
years to run. 

The Des Moines (Iowa) City Railway started oper- 
ations under its new franchise on Jan. 1, 1916. Its old 
franchises had expired and negotiations looking to re- 
newals had been carried on with the city covering a 
period of ten years. Progress had been unsatisfactory and 
receivership followed. Finally the court fixed a period 
of two years within which the city and company must 
come to an agreement, failing which the city would be 
deprived of street car service and the company would 
be required to remove its property from the streets. 
The agreement herein referred to was accordingly made. 
It lacks some of the modern features but still has others 
of interest. 

In 1916 Dallas, Tex., passed a new franchise which 
became effective on Oct. 1 of the following year. It 
provides for the consolidation of three existing local 
companies into the Dallas Railways, and the leasing 
of local lines of another company. It replaced old fran- 
chises having only a few years to run under which the 
logical development of the properties had been retarded. 

The new Philadelphia franchise, passed on Jan. 3, 
1918, has for its primary object the lease of the city's 
subway and elevated system by the Rapid Transit Com- 
pany, and the unified operation of surface and rapid 
transit lines. It supplements a grant made in 1907 
which remains in effect except as modified by the new 
one. This franchise is now awaiting approval by the 
Pennsylvania Public Service Commission before be- 
coming effective. 

In 1916, the Montreal Tramways found itself in need 
of additional or extended franchise rights and started 
negotiations with the city officials for such rights. Op- 
position developed and finally led to the appointment by 
the Provincial Government of a commission to investi- 
gate the situation and draft a franchise, fair alike to 
the company and to the communities served. This novel 
procedure removed the question from the field of local 
influence and politics, which, in many cases, including 
one referred to above, have prevented just settlements. 
The franchise recommended by the commission, with 
some modification, was approved by the city and accepted 
by the company on Jan. 28, 1918. 

On Aug. 23, 1918, the city of Cincinnati passed an 
ordinance amending the existing franchise of the Cin- 
cinnati Traction Company, granted in 1896 and con- 
tinuing until 1931, to provide for higher fares and 
closer regulation. The proceeding was started by a 
petition from the company asking for permission to 
increase its fares to compensate in part for war-time in- 
creases in cost of labor and materials. The amended 
franchise, which became effective in September, did not 
grant an increase immediately but defined the procedure 
under which it may automatically become effective in 
the near future. 

On May 22, 1918, the Massachusetts Legislature en- 



January 4, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



17 



J ROSS REVENUES 



Working 



acted a measure providing for public control of the af- 
fairs of the Boston Elevated Railway for a period of 
not less than ten years. The sole object of this act was 
to effect financial and physical rehabilitation of the sys- 
tem, and to this end a 5-cent fare limitation in the com- 
pany's charter was removed. As this charter embodied 
the company's operating rights not only in Boston but 
in a large tributary area, the 
amendment of these rights 
was logically a matter of State 
legislation. This act was duly 
accepted and became effective 
on July 1, 1918, and promises 
long-needed relief from the 
burdens of expanding rapid 
transit facilities which could 
no longer be carried by a fixed 
5-cent fare. The act provides 
that if the property is re- 
turned to private management 
it shall not thereafter be sub- 
ject to public regulation which 
will deprive it of sufficient in- 
come to meet the cost of serv- 
ice, as defined in the act. On 
June 3, 1918, the Massachu- 
setts Legislature passed a 
similar measure applicable to 
the Bay State Street Rail- 
way, which serves a large 



Repla 



Operating Expenses 
Maintenance 
and Taxes 




\ 




Replacements 






t 




Rental, 


— 




t 




Return on 












Franchise Tax 









Divisible Profit 



Company Profit 
(sliding scale) 



pany contemplated by the act to take over the Bay State 
property. 

About the same time the Massachusetts Legislature 
also enacted a general measure under which any other 
street railway in the State may voluntarily accept a 
service-at-cost plan of operation under State super- 
vision. This is further referred to herein as the "Massa- 
chusetts act." It has so far 
not been accepted by any of 
the railways to which it is ap- 
plicable, primarily on account 
of the present difficulty of set- 
ting up in advance the re- 
quired reserve fund. The pro- 
cedure first embodied in these 
several Massachusetts meas- 
ures, of transferring the con- 
trol of public utilities from 
private management to trus- 
tees representing the public, 
was the result of a desperate 
need of action, prompt, far- 
reaching and fearless, which 
would be accepted by a crit- 
ical public with far less pro- 
test when coming from their 
own appointees than from 
private officials, so often as- 
sumed to be under control of 
financial interests. This re- 



I 



nnati Traction Company 



GROSS REVENUES 



Operating 




Operating Expenses 


Profit 




and Taxes 



Fixed Retun 
Upon Capita 



Company 
Profit 

(20%) 



Replacement 
Fund $500,000 




Maintenance and 
Replacements 







GROSS REVENUES 



Maintenan 


:eand 


Replaceir 





Replacement Reserve 
6% to 18% of Revenues 



Additional Retui 
on Capital Valu 



Montreal Tramways Company Dallas Railways Company 

DIAGRAMS SHOWING DISPOSITION OF ITEMS UNDER SERVICE-AT-COST OPERATION 



proportion of the urban and rural population of eastern 
Massachusetts. Its purpose was substantially the same 
as in the case of the Boston Elevated bill, the Bay State 
system having for some time been in the hands of a re- 
ceiver. Management of this property has not yet been 
taken over by trustees because it has so far been im- 
posrible to organize and finance the new operating corn- 



view of recent agreements might properly include 
the so-called "dual subway" contracts under which 
the new subways in New York will be operated. They 
are omitted because they are not in general effect, and 
the division of profits provided for therein does not differ 
essentially from that in effect or contemplated in other 
cities whose railway franchises are described. 



18 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 1 



Passing from this historical review, it is now in or- 
der to consider more in detail the distinctive features 
of the various service-at-cost franchises. With so many 
elements common to all, the logical procedure is adopted 
of arranging the description and discussion by elements, 
with a statement of the peculiar features of each ap- 
pearing in the different franchises. General provisions, 
applicable to any form of franchise, are omitted 
unless they assume special significance in the form un- 
der discussion. 

Life of Franchise 

Most of these franchises do not differ from the older 
forms in the length of their term, which in many cases 
is limited by state legislation, other than to provide 
for earlier termination by municipal purchase as else- 
where described. The Chicago consolidated franchise 



TABLE I— INITIAL CAPITAL VALUE 
In Approximate Figures Per Mile of Single Track of Various Service-at-CosI 
Electric Railways 



Chicago ( 1907) $92,000 

Cleveland 98,000 

Kansas City, Mo 132,000 

Des Moines 54,000 

Dallas* 65,000 

Montreal 139,000 

Cincinnati 138,000 



'No power station. 



is of the indeterminate form, as are those in Massachu- 
setts, in accordance with the established practice in that 
State. The Dallas franchise has a fixed initial term of 
ten years, after which it continues without limit except 
for purchase provisions. 

The advantages of unlimited life, in avoiding amorti- 
zation of investment in excess of adequate provisions 
for depreciation, and in not discouraging improvements 
and extensions at any period, are too obvious to need 
elaboration. 

Valuation 

Under one name or another all the franchises herein 
considered embody an amount used as the basis of re- 
turn to investors. In most cases the same amount, or 
another derived from it, is established as the price for 
municipal purchase. The term "capital value," used in 
some of the franchises, is adopted herein to designate 
the rate base. With respect to the initial capital value, 
the different franchises show a wide range as compared 
with the actual investment or normal cost of reproduc- 
tion. The approximate initial amount per mile of track 
is shown for a number of the service-at-cost cities in 
an accompanying table. 

The Chicago, 1907, surface franchises contain capital 
values fixed by a commission after a careful appraisal 
of the properties and determination of their physical 
condition. The values adopted were the "present value" 
or cost of reproduction less depreciation. There has 
been frequent criticism of these values, much of it in 
connection with the recent franchise campaign, as being 
too liberal. A careful study of the figures does not fur- 
nish support for such criticisms. The physical value 
allowed for the two principal systems was less than 75 
per cent of their combined cost of reproduction. The 
amounts added to the physical values for fran- 
chise values and other intangibles, bringing the 
compromised total up to $50,000,000, were com- 
paratively small. While a considerable proportion of 



the reconstruction costs during the initial rehabilita- 
tion periods was charged to capital value, there is every 
reason to give credence to the opinion of the Board of 
Supervising Engineers, Chicago Traction, that "It is 
doubtful if a large unified traction company exists in 
this country to-day which contains a greater percentage 
of actual physical value in its capitalization." 

In the recently rejected consolidated franchise, the 
capital value was fixed as the current capital value of 
the surface railways plus a value for the elevated lines 
determined in a manner similar to that originally fol- 
lowed with the surface lines. 

The original Cleveland capital value was the subject 
of extended controversy and is still freely criticised as 
unfair to the investors in the property. This value was 
fixed by Judge Tayler, the arbitrator, at slightly mOre 
than $24,000,000. After deducting the outstanding in- 
debtedness, there remained for the stockholders a bal- 
ance amounting to only 55 per cent of the par value of 
their holdings. The outstanding stock was surrendered 
and new certificates were issued for 55 per cent of the 
original amounts. The 45 per cent of par value thus 
wiped out amounted to $10,530,000. The full value of all 
outstanding securities was only slightly in excess of 
the undepreciated value fixed in the appraisal, which was 
the basis of Judge Tayler's determination. There was 
no evidence to show that the property had in the past 
earned a depreciation reserve or a fair return to inves- 
tors. Without such evidence there is no economic justi- 
fication for depreciation of value. No going value ele- 
ment was included. 

The Kansas City capital value was determined from 
an appraisal made in 1912. While the full cost of re- 
production was not allowed, the depreciation was more 
than offset by ia-tangible elements. The very thorough 
study made in this case of early deficits, franchise 
values, actual investment, market values and other perti- 
nent elements, is worthy of very careful study in con- 
nection with future franchise settlements. Further 
reference will be made in this article to the intangible 
elements amounting to about 25 per cent of the full 
capital value. 

The initial capital value included in the Des Moines 
franchise, $5,000,000, was the result of compromise after 
the extended negotiations already referred to, and its 
relation to actual investment is not known. It was only 
slightly less than the then outstanding capitalization. 

The Dallas value was also the result of compromise 
but was materially below the usual standards. It was 
about 80 per cent of the actual investment in the prop- 
erties, which corresponded quite closely with their cost 
of reproduction. A large going value or development 
cost was entirely ignored. 

No new values were established in the recent amend- 
ments to the Philadelphia Rapid Transit franchise. Ac- 
tual indebtedness and the par value of the $30,000,000 
of capital stock approved in the 1907 franchise plus ac- 
tual expenditures for new facilities form the basis of 
the return to investors. 

The capital value fixed by the provincial commission 
for the Montreal franchise was in fairly close agreement 
with the company's capitalization and is believed to be 
approximately equal to the cost of reproduction of the 
property. 



January 4, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



19 



The recent amendment to the Cincinnati franchise 
does not definitely name a complete capital value for 
rate purposes but does establish a base, determined by 
appraisal, for a municipal price. 

The several Massachusetts railway acts considered 
herein recognize, as far as capital value is concerned, 
the long-established custom in that State of basing re- 
turn and purchase price upon actual cash investment, 
"honestly and prudently made," without deductions for 
depreciation or other theoretical factors and without 
specific reference to the form of securities outstanding. 
This sane policy, adhered to by the Massachusetts com- 
missions in the face of widely different methods advo- 
cated in other states with less complete regulatory ex- 
perience, has materially increased the stability of pub- 
lic utility investments within their jurisdiction. 

Starting with the initial capital values as herein de- 
scribed, a continuous record is kept for purposes of re- 
turn or purchase, or both. The procedure is in most 
cases similar. Approved additions to property are in- 
cluded at actual cost or with an arbitrary allowance for 
certain overhead elements such as supervision, financing, 
etc. Property lost or retired is similarly deducted from 
capital value, logically and usually by the amount rep- 
resenting its cost or other value previously included in 
capital value. In the case of Cleveland, this practice 
is not followed. If worn out or obsolete elements of 
property are replaced by new elements, the capital value 
is increased only by the excess cost of the new ele- 
ments over the estimated cost of the replaced elements 
new at the time of replacement. 

The property included in the initial capital value was 
entered at an average of 70 per cent of its then cost of 
reproduction. If it were withdrawn from time to time 
at this same depreciated value and replaced by new 
property at full value, the initial 30 per cent deprecia- 
tion would ultimately disappear. This possibility has 
been carefully avoided and the initial depreciation, with 
whatever injustice to stockholders was involved there- 
in, will always remain, although subsequent stockhold- 
ers are assured a continuous return upon their full in- 
vestment. This discriminatory feature is not to be 
found in full in any other of these modern franchises. 
In the Dallas franchise, which embodies a similarly de- 
preciated value, this Cleveland provision applies after an 
initial rehabilitation period of two and one-half years 
within which a large amount of reconstruction was re- 
quired, including those elements of the property which 
had experienced maximum depreciation. 

The capital value set up in these franchises includes, 
or has added to it for rate purposes, an allowance for 
working capital, including cash, supplies, net current 
assets, etc. In a few cases a distinct fixed sum or a fixed 
percentage of gross revenues is established, but more 
commonly the amount included in the original appraisal, 
on which the capital value was based, is continued un- 
less or until a larger amount is authorized. 

A review of the different bases of capital value used 
in these franchises shows a preponderance in favor of 
cost of reproduction or actual investment without deduc- 
tion for accrued depreciation. Actual investment as a 
basis for rates has so many obvious and logical advan- 
tages as to give it increasing favor in regulatory prac- 
tice. It would probably have much wider use but for 



the difficulty of determining it from the records of old 
properties which may have been through many reor- 
ganizations or consolidations. Where the difficulties 
of determining actual investment are insurmountable, 
the cost of reproduction gives a suitably close agree- 
ment with probable investment, and may be used with- 
out injustice, particularly if historical prices and condi- 
tions are applied. Neither actual investment nor cost of 
reproduction should be diminished for depreciation un- 
less a careful study of the entire financial history of the 
property shows that the investors therein have taken 
such a large average return from the property as clearly 
to justify the opinion that a part thereof was in effect 
amortization of investment. If the investors have re- 
ceived no more than a fair return and the property 
has had reasonable provision for its upkeep, there is no 
economic justification for a depreciated value. 

Supervision 

Control of operation, construction and financing by 
city or state authorities is embodied in all service-at-cost 
franchises. It is usually in the administrative hands 
of a local supervisor or board responsible to the munici- 
pal governing body. The term "supervisor" is generally 
used herein to designate one or more persons occupying 
this office. 

A single supervisor is provided in Cleveland, Dallas 
and Cincinnati, acting in each case as a representative 
of the City Council with limited personal authority or 
responsibility. 

Boards of two supervisors representing city and rail- 
way respectively, with provision for a temporary or 
premanent third member as arbitrator, are found in 
Kansas City, Des Moines and Philadelphia. The railway 
members are presumably regular officials of the com- 
panies. A permanent board of three members, ap- 
pointed for a term of ten years or good behavior by a 
provincial official, serves in Montreal, with no direct re- 
sponsibility to the city administration. 

In certain cases, particularly Philadelphia and Mon- 
treal, appeal from a decision of the supervising board 
may be taken to the public service commission of the 
State or Province. In fact, the Montreal board may be 
called a local agent of the Quebec Public Utilities Com- 
mission, which retains general jurisdiction and may 
intervene as in other localities. The results of this re- 
lationship should be of interest and offers a possible 
compromise solution of the frequent demand for "home 
rule" in utility regulation. 

The Chicago consolidated franchise and the Boston 
Elevated and Bay State acts embody the new principle 
of public administration of private property. The 
Massachusetts trustees, five in number in each case, are 
appointed for ten-year terms by the Governor and have 
very broad administrative powers entirely independent 
of public service commissions and local authorities. The 
Chicago trustees, nine in number, who are in reality to 
be directors of a new holding company not for profit, 
serve for overlapping three-year terms. The original 
board was selected by agreement but ultimately the ap- 
pointing power lies in the city of Chicago. It is con- 
templated that a comparatively small executive commit- 
tee will have direct charge of administrative affairs of 
the surface, elevated and subway lines. 



2u 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. l 



The trustee principle is a compromise between regu- 
lated private operation and complete municipal owner- 
ship. It promotes that confidence with persistently at- 
taches itself to public operations, but avoids the pro- 
verbial inefficiency of such operations and the subjec- 
tion of new bodies of voters to political control. Where 
confidence already exists in the public utilities or their 
regulatory commissions, public trustees would serve 
no necessary purpose. Where it does not exist, tempo- 
rary public operation such as is provided in the Massa- 
chusetts acts, may serve to restore it and permit subse- 
quent satisfactory service under restored private oper- 
ation. 

As far as the usual local supervision is concerned, 
the success so far attained with a single official would 
indicate that an independent, larger board is not re- 
quired except in quite large cities, provided the appoint- 
ment is free from political influences. It is suggested 
that the appointment or nomination of such an official 
might well be made by the state utilities commission. 
This would tend to insure the needed technical training 



and promote harmony between city and state in the reg- 
ulation of the utilities affected. The local supervisor 
may well serve as an agent of the utilities commission in 
matters over which it retains jurisdiction, relieving the 
commission of many local details and allaying opposition 
to state regulation. A board of trustees as large as that 
contemplated in the Chicago consolidated franchise is 
too large for effectiveness unless its active duties and 
responsibilities are assigned to a comparatively small 
executive committee. 

Franchise Taxes 

A special tax upon mun'cipal franchises may be con- 
sidered as a payment for special, exclusive rights to con- 
duct a profitable business, or as a charge for the location 
of fixtures upon public property. As far as electric rail- 
ways are concerned, such taxes have usually taken the 
form of a fixed fee per year per mile of track, per car 
operated, or per pole erected upon public streets, or a 
percentage of gross earnings, or a lump sum to cover 
one or more of these elements. 

In the old days when the street car business was, 
or was supposed to be, a profitable unregulated under- 
taking at the conventional 5-cent fare, any amount which 
municipal authorities could extract from this business 



lessened the burdens of taxation on other property 
without offsetting disadvantages other than a possible, 
minor impairment of service. 

In these present days of regulated public service, all 
tax burdens are included in the cost of the service which 
the patrons are expected to pay, Regulation has not al- 
ways accomplished its intended purpose, and charges for 
service may remain higher or lower than actual cost. 
This, however, is not true under service-at-cost fran- 
chises. Any inequitable taxes imposed upon electric 
railways under service-at-cost operation transfers to 
their patrons, through higher fares or poorer service, 
burdens which the community as a whole should carry. 
To the, extent that the patrons of the railways are not 
well-to-do or property owners, the injustice to them in 
such taxation is multiplied. 

This fact is recognized in most of the service-at-cost 
franchises as far as direct taxation is concerned. In 
two of them, however, a direct franchise tax or "rental" 
is imposed. In Montreal, the tramways company pays 
the city a rental of $500,000 per year, or about 6 per 
cent of its present gross revenue. In Cincinnati, the 
traction company pays a "tax on gross earnings" or 
$350,000 per year, or about 8 per cent of revenue. 

With respect to indirect burdens which may be con- 
sidered as a form of taxation, such as street paving, 
cleaning, sprinkling, etc., most of the service-at-cost 
franchises do not differ essentially from the older forms. 
Logically, there is no excuse for continuing such practice. 
Since the passing of the horse cars, the operation of the 
street railways has imposed no material additional bur- 
dens upon pavements, but they have continued to pay a 
large proportion of the cost. Hundreds of miles of 
streets have been paved solely because of the car tracks 
therein, and the street car revenues have been steadily 
decreased by the resulting encouragement to vehicular 
traffic. 

Some recognition has been given to this thought in 
several of the franchises under discussion. In Montreal 
and Cleveland, the railways do not pay for new paving 
but do pay their proportion of maintenance. In the 
new Chicago franchise the usual paving, repaving, 
cleaning and sprinkling requirements are included, but 
the cleaning and sprinkling part must be omitted if at 
any time a deficit has been created and an increase in 
fare would otherwise be necessary. 

A model service-at-cost franchise should entirely 
omit all such special taxes and street maintenance ex- 
cept any actual repairs or cleaning incident to car oper- 
ation. 

Public Contributions 

The State of Massachusetts, always a pioneer in pub- 
lic regulation, has gone one step further than the re- 
lief from special taxation discussed in the preceding 
section. It has provided in the Boston Elevated and 
Bay State acts and a separate act applicable to other 
street railways, that cities and towns may contribute 
through taxation toward the operating costs of street 
railways which serve them. In the case of the Boston 
Elevated, this relief is intended to be temporary, the 
advances to be refunded if possible from surplus subse- 
quently accumulated through higher fares or more suc- 
cessful operation. There is, however, no specific obli- 
gation in the act to make such refund. 



THE trustee principle is *a compromise 
between regulated private operation and 
complete municipal ownership. It pro- 
motes that confidence which persistently 
attaches itself to public operations, but avoids 
the proverbial inefficiency of such operations 
and the subjection of new bodies of voters to 
political control. Where confidence already 
exists in the public utilities or their regulatory 
commissions, public trustees would serve no 
necessary purpose. Where it does not exist, 
temporary public operation such as is provided 
in the Massachusetts acts, may serve to re- 
store it and permit subsequent satisfactory 
service under restored private operation. 



January 4, 1919 



21 



In the case of other railways the contributions may 
be made permanent, in lieu of higher fares, or to pre- 
vent curtailment or abandonment of service otherwise 
necessary. These contributions are limited to 50 cents 
per $1,000 of valuation in cities and $1 per $1,000 in 
towns and are made under terms and conditions ap- 
proved by the utilities commission. Several communi- 
ties have taken advantage of this act within the last 
few weeks to retain service which would otherwise have 
been discontinued. While this relief is limited to the 
period of the war and two years after its official termi- 
nation, it indicates a very definite change in the public 
attitude toward the electric railway industry. Instead 
of its being considered a profitable private monopoly 
to be taxed as far as possible for the support of the 
state, it is being regarded as a public institution which 
must be maintained, through taxation if necessary. 

The Philadelphia franchise contains an interesting 
provision having the same effect as aid through taxa- 
tion. In connection with the rental to the railway of the 
city's rapid transit system on a percentage-of-cost basis, 
the city, to avoid or minimize an otherwise necessary 
fare increase, may withdraw from rental requirements 
any or all of its transit facilities used by the railway and 
collect the interest and sinking fund charges thereon 
through general taxation. This is in addition to the 
prescribed practice of caring for such charges on new 
sections of the rapid transit system through general 
taxation for one year after they begin to operate. 

The Bay State act provides that, during the war and 
for two years thereafter, the railway shall not be re- 
quired to pay for any paving, or other street or bridge 
improvements or repairs, abolition of grade crossings, 
putting wires underground, or other non-esential work. 
So far as such work continues to be done, direct taxa- 
tion therefor is increased to relieve the railway. 

The policies outlined are in marked contrast to those 
prevailing in Montreal and Cincinnati, where the cities 
not only exact a large franchise tax but also take a 
larger share of the surplus than goes to the railways. 

Fare Schedules 

The kind of charges that may be made to cover the 
cost of service are defined in most of the service-at-cost 
grants but not in all. There is a tendency in recent 
grants to allow more latitude in this direction to the 
supervising authority. The first franchise to lay down 
a specific schedule of fares, from one step of which to 
another the fares would go up or down with increased 
or decreased cost, was the Tayler grant in Cleveland. 
The ten steps in this schedule, starting with a 2-cent 
fare, did not contemplate that it would ever be neces- 
sary to go as high as 5 cents in Cleveland, the highest 
authorized rate being 4 cents cash, or seven tick- 
ets for 25 cents, plus 1 cent for transfers. The steps 
were intended to vary from each other by about 10 per 
cent, but changes in routing and transfer requirements 
upset the symmetry of the schedule so that certain steps 
became practically useless. It was necessary in 1918, 
partly on account of war-time costs, to amend this fran- 
chise to increase the upper limit of fares by adding five 
new steps, the one now in effect being 5 cents plus 1 cent 
for transfers. The maximum new step is 6 cents, nine 
tickets for 50 cents, 1 cent for transfers. 



The Dallas fare schedule is simpler, with a uniform 
cash fare of 5 cents with free transfers, but with tickets 
at twenty-two, twenty-four, twenty-eight and thirty- 
two for $1 respectively in the four specified steps (sold 
in 25-cent lots where divisible by four). 

The Cincinnati schedule includes only three specific 
steps, 5, 5J and 6 cents respectively, but provides for 
as many others, up or down at I cent intervals, as may 
be required. 

No other franchises of this class include a specific 
range of fares, but the Boston and Bay State acts pro- 
vide that the trustees shall prepare and publish fare 
schedules with steps above and below that in effect, 
all such schedules to be subject to revision at the will 
of the trustees. The Chicago surface, Kansas City and 
Des Moines grants fix the standard fare at 5 cents. 
The Kansas City, Mo., fare has recently been increased 



A CTUAL investment as a basis for rates 
has so many obvious and logical ad- 
vantages as to give it increasing favor 
in regulatory practice. It would probably 
have much wider use but for the difficulty of 
determining it from the records of old proper- 
ties which may have been through many re- 
organizations or consolidations. Where the 
difficulties of determining actual investment 
are insurmountable, the cost of reproduction, 
using historical prices and conditions, gives 
a suitably close agreement with probable in- 
vestment, and it may be used without injustice. 
Neither actual investment nor cost of repro- 
duction should be diminished for depreciation 
unless a careful study of the entire financial 
history of the property shows that the in- 
vestors therein have taken such a large average 
return from the property as clearly to justify 
the opinion that a part thereof was in effect 
amortization of investment. If the investors 
have received no more than a fair return and 
the property has had reasonable provision for 
its upkeep, there is no economic justification 
for a depreciated value. 



to 6 cents by order of the Missouri commission. The 
Chicago consolidated franchise fixes the initial fare at 
5 cents (or such other rate as may be in use when it 
becomes effective) and provides for a transfer charge 
of not more than 2 cents, between rapid transit and 
surface lines only, for further increases in costs of 
service. If this should prove insufficient, an increase 
in base fare is permissible without limit, although not 
very clearly so stated in the draft. The Des Moines City 
Council recently denied a petition for a 6-cent fare, 
claiming that it had no legal authority to do otherwise. 
A receivership for the railway promptly followed. 

All the above franchises, and also the one in Mon- 
treal, provide for uniform fares within the city limits 
other than for possible charges for transfers. Such 
limitation is not imposed in Philadelphia, Boston or the 
Bay State territory. Philadelphia fare changes are 
restricted only by the supervisory power of the utilities 
commission. Boston and Bay State fares may be fixed 



22 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 1 



by the trustees without any such supervision. This 
territorial restriction in Montreal is the only one in this 
last group of cities bearing upon the character of fare 
revisions. The extent of the revisions at any one time 
is, however, restricted in some cases, particularly with 
respect to reductions. In Philadelphia, a downward 
revision is not permitted unless two successive years 
show substantial increases in surplus, and then the esti- 
mated annual loss in gross revenue from the reduction 
must not exceed one-third of the accumulated surplus. 
Revisions upward must be sufficient to make up losses 
"within a reasonable time." 

The changes contemplated in the general Massachu- 
setts act are exceedingly small per step, each being in- 
tended to be not more than 30 per cent of a reserve 
fund, which in turn is between 6 per cent and 12 per 
cent of the normal gross revenue. It is not clear how 
such small changes would be workable. 

The Montreal provisions for fare changes are inter- 
esting, more from the point of view of extreme refine- 
ment than from their practical advantages. For exam- 
ple, fares may be decreased when a fund for their equal- 
ization reaches $1,000,000 and must be decreased when 
it reaches $2,500,000. When a decrease is made, the 
resulting lower revenues are supplemented by an appro- 
priation from the fund of not more than 25 per cent 
of the accumulation therein. The estimated annual 
gross loss in revenue from the reduction must be greater 
than this percentage appropriation from the fund, but 
not greater than this percentage plus 374 per cent of the 
additions which flowed into the fund during the pre- 
ceding year from "divisible surplus." This appropria- 
tion from the fund to augment current revenues is con- 
tinued annually until the balance remaining therein is 
less than the annual appropriation. No similar pro- 
ceeding is possible in connection with fare increases. 
They must directly yield enough to make good accumu- 
lated losses. It is clear that, by the complicated safe- 
guards surrounding fare reductions in Montreal, they 
must be kept within safe limits, determined by past 
profitableness of the business, but it is yet to be dem- 
onstrated that suitable care is not assured by the sim- 
pler requirements in other franchises. 

The two boards of trustees authorized in Massachu- 
setts to administer the Boston Elevated and Bay State 
systems furnished the only illustrations of unrestricted 
freedom in the method of raising or lowering fares 
other than for the directions given in the act. If this 
arrangement proves successful, it will indicate the de- 
sirability of further simplification in this respect in 
future franchises. 

Limited actual experience up to this time does not 
show any advantage in fare schedules definitely fixed 
in the franchise. The Cleveland schedule has failed as 
to both range and relation between steps. There is, 
however, advantage in having fixed at all times at least 
one step above and below the one in effect ready for 
use without delay, and the general principles embodied 
in the various scheduled steps should be clearly estab- 
lished and published. The supervisor should, however, 
have authority to change both the schedules and the 
basis upon which they are designed, possibly after pub- 
lic hearings and approval of the utilities commission. 
Only by such latitude can conditions like the present 



be promptly and satisfactorily met. Under normal con- 
ditions fare changes should be neither frequent nor vio- 
lent, indicating the advisability of fairly wide limits in 
a liberal "barometer" fund. 

Cost of Service 

This is the central feature of all the franchises under 
consideration, the one which requires the most careful 
scrutiny. There is naturally a material difference 
among these franchises in their definitions of cost. The 
difference may be quite large in some of the elements, 
but when all these elements and their definitions are 
put together, the differences are found largely to offset 
each other so that the conceptions of total cost are rea- 
sonably consistent in most cases. 

The significant elements of cost, as set forth in some 
or all of the various franchises, are stated in the follow- 
ing schedule: 

1. Expenses of operation. 

2. Maintenance and replacements. 

3. Taxes. 

4. Rental. 

5. Return on capital value. 

6. Amortization. 

7. Surplus and reserves. 

An attempt has been made to state these elements in 
the order of their importance or priorities. The latter 
exist even in cumulative form in some cases. A funda- 
mental difference between the various franchises in this 
group is that some definitely limit or fix the important 
elements of cost, while others leave the matter very 
largely to the judgment of the supervisor. Definiteness 
is found most uniformly in the return to investors, but 
even here the rate of return is subject to variation in 
the majority of cases. The method of treating the va- 
rious cost elements in the several franchises is explained 
in the following paragraphs: 

1. Expenses of Operation 

The Cleveland grant is the only one which imposes 
a strict and definite limit on operating expenses. The 
amount per car-mile which may be spent is fixed in the 
original franchise, and it may not be exceeded or 
changed without action of the City Council. If actual 
expenses are greater than the allowance, as has com- 
monly been the case, the excess comes out of the com- 
pany's pocket unless or until it has been validated. If 
the company runs under its operating allowance at any 
time, it may not retain the balance as a reserve to off- 
set overruns but must turn it back at the end of the 
year. The company has habitually kept accounts of 
both its actual and allowed expenses and has at times 
accumulated an overrun of hundreds of thousands of 
dollars before validation, the allowance being very often 
too low. This arrangement obviously lacks flexibility, 
and the responsibility for adjustments rests with a large 
body of city officials not well acquainted with operating 
requirements and sometimes influenced by political mo- 
tives. The initial Cleveland allowance for expenses, ex- 
clusive of maintenance, was 114 cents per "ordinance" 
car-mile. This has been increased from time to time 
and is now 194 cents. 

The Montreal franchise has a somewhat similar oper- 
ating expense allowance on a car-mile basis, but it is 
fixed annually in advance by the supervisor in the light 



January 4, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



23 



of recent experience and any anticipated changes in 
operating conditions. If the allowance is exceeded, due 
to unforeseen developments for which the railway is 
not responsible, the excess must be approved by the su- 
pervisor. Any excess for which the railway cannot give 
acceptable explanation must be made up from its own 
resources. A standard of traffic density is determined 
in connection with the expense allowance for closer defi- 
nition. There is no obvious reason why this arrange- 
ment should not guard fully against extravagance, in- 
competency or other derelictions which it seeks to pre- 
vent. 

In Cincinnati the railway must annually, in advance, 
prepare a detail expense budget and submit it to the 
supervisor for approval. With any necessary modifica- 
tions agreed upon or fixed by arbitration, the budget 
becomes the basis of the year's operations. It may not 
be exceeded wholly or in any part without approval 
of the supervisor. 

None of the other franchises in this group has any 
such definite provisions for avoiding excessive expenses. 
Presumably they all contemplate such close supervision 
of operations and scrutiny of reports thereof that any 
improper practices or tendencies would be at once de- 
tected and corrected. It would seem reasonable to con- 
cur in this majority opinion, at least until such defects 
develop in the practical workings of the simpler pro- 
cedure as would justify the added complications and cost 
of the other. 

2. Maintenance and Replacements 

A larger number of these franchises have more spe- 
cific requirements with respect to maintenance and re- 
placements. Here, in contrast with current operating 
expenses, the intent is to insure adequacy rather than 
close adjustment to actual current requirements. To 
that end the maintenance and replacement account is 
made a continuing one from year to year, any unused ap- 
propriations being carried to a reserve. 

On account of the difficulty of definitely distinguish- 
ing between current maintenance and renewals or re- 
placements and also because of their interrelation, the 
two have in most cases been combined in franchise pro- 
visions relating thereto. The Chicago franchises fur- 
nish the only exceptions among those discussed. The 
consolidated draft follows the example of the 1907 sur- 
face grant in requiring a minimum annual expenditure 
or reserve for maintenance of 6 per cent of the gross 
revenues, and a corresponding 8 per cent for replace- 
ments or 14 per cent minimum total for total upkeep. 
Either or both percentages may be increased at will by 
the trustees, but no specific reserve is required as a con- 
dition of a fare reduction or otherwise. 

The Cleveland franchise includes a combined main- 
tenance and replacement allowance. It is on a car-mile 
basis, varying in different months of the year and av- 
eraging about 4.9 cents. Any amount not currently 
spent is credited to a reserve, but no accumulation has 
been possible. On the contrary, the allowance has 
proved so inadequate that in spite of numerous special 
appropriations and prorates, a deficit of more than $2,- 
600,000 was recently reported. Clearly, this allowance 
should have been increased years ago, as was the oper- 
erating allowance, but allowances when once increased 
by ordinance are not easily reduced again. In August, 



1918, the City Council granted an increase in this al- 
lowance to 6 cents for the period of the war and six 
months thereafter. 

The Dallas provisions for repairs and replacements 
are more complicated but are interesting in that they 
embody ideas not found in any other franchises. A 
minimum expenditure for repairs and replacements is 
fixed at 10 per cent of the gross revenues. For each 
1 per cent per annum return paid on the capital value 
in excess of 5 per cent, this 10 per cent minimum is in- 
creased by 3 per cent. With the contemplated normal 
return on the capital value of 7 per cent, the minimum 
accruals for repairs and replacements become 16 per 
cent. 

After providing in any month for operating ex- 
penses, including a suitable accident reserve, taxes, the 
normal return on the capital value and the correspond- 
ing repair and replacement accrual, any balance remain- 
ing of current gross revenue must first be applied to 
increase the said accrual to 18 per cent for the current 
month and year, and thereafter to make up as far as 
possible any prior deficiencies in said accruals under 18 
per cent. 

These accruals are continued as herein described un- 
til the excess over actual expenditures accumulates in a 
reserve to the "normal" amount, after which they are 
reduced to such amount as will maintain the normal 
reserve. The normal amount is 6 per cent of the capital 
value when the fare schedule then in effect includes six 
tickets for 25 cents; it is 10 per cent of the capital 
value when seven tickets are sold for 25 cents, etc. This 
provision embodies in a systematic way the old practice 
of setting up reserves for depreciation in proportion to 
the prosperity of the business. 

Prosperity is measured in this case by the rate of re- 
turn on the capital value (fixed by the rate of farel. 
Starting with a minimum accrual and return of the 
percentages above stated, both increase together until 
an adequate reserve is created, and the reserve is made 
more liberal with increasing rates of return. This ar- 
rangement or its equivalent might well be embodied in 
other franchises, for it is impossible to tell definitely 
what constitutes an adequate reserve to provide for ob- 
solescence, inadequacy, catastrophes and other inde- 
terminate factors in addition to the more definite wear 
and decay. A practice that provides for little beyond 
the definite factors in hard times and liberally for the 
indeterminate factors in good times, should meet all 
reasonable requirements. 

It might even be argued with force, particularly in 
the case of service-at-cost, that no advance provision 
should be made for certain of the indeterminate factors. 
When an inefficient property element is replaced by an 
efficient one, or a heavy wooden car by a light, modern, 
steel car, the cost of the change may well fall upon those 
who benefit thereby, the future users of the service. In 
many cases careful calculations would show that no 
additional burdens are thereby imposed upon these fu- 
ture users because the added charges and amortization 
would be offset by increased operating efficiencies. If 
the full burdens of depreciation were thrown on the 
users of the old facilities, the users of the new facilities 
would get improved service at reduced cost. 

The Montreal franchise provides for a maintenance 
and renewal charge in operating expenses on a car 



24 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 1 



mileage basis, fixed in advance for each year by the su- 
pervisor, sufficient to keep the property permanently in 
good condition. The current excess over actual expen- 
ditures is added to a fund which must be accumulated 
to a normal amount of $500,000. When this amount has 
been reached, subsequent charges for maintenance and 
renewals will be only sufficient to maintain the normal 
amount. So much of this fund as is not currently needed 
is invested in additions to the property or otherwise, 
and the interest thereon is added to the fund. 

None of the other franchises in this group has spe- 
cific charges or accumulations for these purposes. It is 
in all cases intended that the supervisors shall see that 
the properties are adequately maintained at all times. 
In the case of Cincinnati, the city or company may call 
upon the State Utilities Commission to prescribe suit- 
able depreciation reserves. The advantages of freedom 
from rigid provisions for uncertain requirements are 
obvious. Under service-at-cost franchises, there is no 
question of diverting needed replacement funds to pay 
excessive dividends. Returns to investors are definite 



ANY inequitable taxes imposed upon 
electric railways under service-at-cost 
L operation transfer to their patrons, 
through higher fares or poorer service, burdens 
which the community as a whole should carry. 
To the extent that the patrons of the railways 
are not well-to-do or property owners, the 
injustice to them in such taxation is multiplied. 

. I 



and there is no possibility of diversion. The problem 
of reserves for replacements involves theoretically the 
amount of destruction of capital incident to the unit 
use of the property. If this is currently overestimated, 
present patrons pay more and future patrons less than 
cost. 

Under old forms of franchises with fixed rates of 
fare, the investor is the one who submits to fluctua- 
tions in return in case of bad guesses at depreciation. 
This is not the case with service-at-cost. If the aver- 
age car rider were better acquainted with the economics 
of the situation, he might well ask why he should con- 
tribute largely to the accumulation of a fund for re- 
placements which will never be used, the interest on 
which will permit car riders of some future day to pay 
less than the then current cost of replacements. A mod- 
erate reserve is undoubtedly needed. The specifically 
fixed reserves mentioned, not exceeding 10 per cent of 
the capital value, are not excessive. A theoretical re- 
serve, amounting to perhaps four times that limit, 
which might be set up under some of the other fran- 
chises, has no practical justification. 

3. Taxes 

The tax feature of these franchises needs very little 
further comment. The actual taxes, subject to little 
control by either railway or supervisor, are a necessary 
part of the cost of service. It is proper that the city 
should not impose any illogical tax burdens or permit 
other taxing authorities to do so. Cleveland has been 
notably active in this direction, joining with the rail- 



way a few years ago in a suit to bring about reduced 
State taxation of the railway property. 

-4. Rentals 

The leasing of transit facilities from other utilities or 
from municipalities is not uncommon. When the leased 
facilities are comparatively unimportant, the rent is in- 
cluded among the operating expenses. Where the leased 
property is as extensive as that included under several 
of the service-at-cost franchises, more critical attention 
is necessary. The Dallas and Cincinnati franchises au- 
thorize the railways to include in the cost of service the 
actual rental in very substantial amounts paid to other 
railways for use of tracks and other facilities under 
prior agreements made between the parties at interest. 
In Chicago and Philadelphia the leasing of city-owned 
rapid transit facilities is a very important feature of 
the recent franchise drafts. 

The Philadelphia terms are noteworthy for their lib- 
erality. The railway undertakes to reimbuse the city 
for actual interest and sinking fund payments on the 
city's certified investment in subways, elevated struc- 
tures and equipment "as and if earned." These rental 
payments are made from the balance, called "current net 
revenue," remaining after the gross revenues have pro- 
vided in full for the following items: (1) operating ex- 
penses; (2) taxes; (3) fixed charges on the company's 
prior obligations; (4) fixed charges and dividends on 
securities issued pursuant to the new grant for new 
transit facilities and extensions of the old system; (5) 
accruals to depreciation reserves for the city's transit 
facilities, the company's associated transit facilities, 
and for the balance of the company's system; (6) sun- 
dry payments to the city required under the 1907 fran- 
chise. 

The balance after these six items are taken care of is 
not all devoted to rental, but is divided between com- 
pany and city in proportion to respective investments 
the city's investment being in the leased transit facili- 
ties, the company's investment being the capital stock 
outstanding on its old system, amounting to $30,000,000 
(dividends not included in item 3 of prior deductions 
above). Each party gets not more than 5 per cent on 
this investment. Out of any balance remaining after 
this 5 per cent distribution, but not before, the city may 
be paid any additional amounts needed to meet its full 
interest and sinking fund charges on its transit facili- 
ties. All other disbursements have priority. Further- 
more, payments under the first five items of deductions 
are cumulative and must be paid in full after any period 
of deficiency, and thereafter the distribution of current 
net revenue between city and company takes precedence 
over deferred payments under item 6 and the final 
rental payments to the city. 

Reference has already been made to the option which 
the city has of withdrawing from certification and rental 
requirements, any part or all of its transit facilities, so 
that fares may not be unduly increased thereby. The 
terms of this Philadelphia lease embody a broad recog- 
nition of the principle that a city as a whole may need 
improved transit facilities which the patrons of the 
facilities should not pay for in full. The removal of 
surface railway traffic from the streets is of substantial 
benefit to many business interests which must still use 
the streets. Rapid transit definitely enhances suburban 



January 4, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



25 



real estate values. It is not unfair that some of these 
interests affected should, temporarily at least, bear a 
portion of the rapid transit burden. In the case of sub- 
urban real estate, an increase in assessed valuation in 
proportion to the increase in market value, and the ap- 
plication of the resulting increase in taxes or its equiv- 
alent to the charges on rapid transit facilities, would 
materially lessen the increased cost of transit service. 

The provisions in the recent Chicago draft, covering 
the lease of the city's projected subways, do not show 
the same liberality as found in the Philadelphia lease. 
The company is required to pay 6 per cent on the new 
money which the city invests in its subway system, the 
payment for each section of the system beginning im- 
mediately upon its being placed in service. The invest- 
ment upon which this return is paid naturally does not 
include the expenditures made from the large fund ac- 
cumulated from the city's 55 per cent of the net reve- 
nues of the surface lines under the 1907 franchises. 

The only possible relief from the payment of this 
rental is through the right granted to the city, within 
lawful limits, to assess all or any part of the cost of sub- 
ways upon private property specifically benefited there- 
by. This may be done only by special ordinance in 
each case, and the exercise of the right, with its probable 
attendant litigation, is doubtful. In the case of defi- 
ciencies in gross revenue, the only payments having 
priority over the city rentals are operating expenses and 
reserves, taxes and fixed charges on prior obligations. 

It is apparent that the 6 per cent charged for rental 
is not cost. It is probably much more than cost, for the 
usual sinking fund should not be necessary as the lessee 
undertakes to "maintain, repair and renew" the entire 
subway system throughout its indeterminate lease. 
Combined interest and sinking fund charges on the Bos- 
ton subways are less than 5 per cent, so that Chicago 
is apparently anticipating a profit from its subway 
leases. 

5. Return on Capital Value 

The simplest form in which return on the investment 
can appear as an element in cost of service is a fixed, 
straight percentage on capital value. None of the serv- 
ice-at-cost franchises has this simplicity. The nearest 
approach to it is found in Cleveland and Des Moines, 
where actual, existing fixed charges are allowed on 
funded indebtedness and 6 per cent on the remainder of 
capital value, represented by stock and floating debt. 
This means a variable average return as the proportions 
of indebtedness and stock change. In Cleveland, bonds 
bearing 5 per cent interest have gradually been retired 
and replaced by 6 per cent stock. The market value 
of this stock has remained appreciably above par since 
1911, when the franchise was amended to increase its 
security. 

Slight modifications of this general plan are found 
in the Boston, Bay State and Massachusetts acts. Ac- 
tual fixed charges, either existing or future, are provided 
for in all these acts and, in addition, fixed rates of re- 
turn upon stock investments. The Boston act author- 
izes a $3,000,000 issue of preferred stock paying 7 per 
cent dividends, and an ultimate return upon present or 
future common stock of 6 per cent. During the first 
five years the return on the common is less, being 5 per 
cent during the first half of that period and 5* per cent 



during the remainder of the period. The Bay State and 
Massachusetts acts provide for 6 per cent uniformly 
upon capital stock investment. 

The Chicago consolidated basis of return is somewhat 
similar. Fixed charges of 5 per cent are allowed upon 
prior obligations of the old companies (not to exceed 60 
per cent of the total capital value) and 8 per cent is al- 
lowed on the balance of the capital value until 1932, with 
7 per cent thereafter. 

The Philadelphia franchise allows actual fixed charges 
upon prior obligations, and actual charges and dividend 
requirements upon all new capital issued under author- 
ity of the supervisor. Dividends upon the prior capital 
of $30,000,000 are to be paid at the rate of 5 per cent 
if and when the city is paid a similar return upon its 
investment in new transit facilities. These payments 
are cumulative. 

All the above grants accept the rates of return fixed 
or to be fixed by investors for secured loans. The grants 
themselves fix the return upon unsecured investments. 
The difference in most cases is 1 per cent. Theoret- 



SINCE the passing of the horse cars, the 
operation of the street railways has im- 
posed no material added burdens upon 
pavements but they have continued to pay 
a large proportion of the cost. Hundreds of 
miles of streets have been paved solely because 
of the car tracks therein, and the street car 
revenues have been steadily decreased by the 
resulting encouragement to vehicular traffic. 



ically, there is the same assurance of return for both 
classes of investment under the service-at-cost plan dur- 
ing the life of the franchise. Under an indetermi- 
nate franchise (or a term franchise with obligations 
of renewal or purchase) with satisfactory terms of pur- 
chase, the theoretical difference in security of principal 
is small. There is, however, in the minds of investors 
a practical, material difference. It may be worthy of 
note that in one service-at-cost city, the Mayor not long 
ago in all seriousness proposed that the guaranteed re- 
turn of 6 per cent to stockholders be reduced to 4 per 
cent during the continuance of war prices, so that an 
increase in fares, then materially less than 5 cents, 
might be avoided. 

There is grave doubt, in view of recent radical changes 
in investment conditions and the improbability of return 
to the former more stable conditions, if it is now possi- 
ble to fix an equitable return upon long-term invest- 
ments. If the return becomes too low, the investment 
field is restricted; if too high, the cost of service be- 
comes excessive. This condition is recognized in the 
most recent franchise draft in this class, that in Cin- 
cinnati, in which the actual cost of all new money in- 
vested under the franchise is allowed. In this franchise 
the class of securities, the normal rate of return thereon, 
their amortization provisions, the price at which they 
are sold and other pertinent conditions are all subject 
to the approval of both the local supervisor and the State 
Utilities Commission. The prevailing return upon prior 
securities is maintained. In this way, investors, public, 



2G 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 1 



company and any other parties concerned are protected. 

The sliding scale principle, well known among Eng- 
glish utilities but used to only a very limited extent in 
this country, is embodied in one of the railway fran- 
chises included herein. The Dallas grant has a sliding 
scale of return on the capital value in connection with 
the fare schedule already stated. When the highest 
authorized rate of fare is in effect, the return is fixed 
at 7 per cent. When the next lower rate is adopted, the 
return becomes 8 per cent. For each of the lower rates 
included in the schedule an additional one-half of 1 
per cent is allowed. This gives a maximum possible 
return of 9 per cent, but the probability of this rate 



TABLE II— CHICAGO SURFACE RAILWAYS 

Statement of City's Share (55 Per Cent) of Surplus from Operation 
Under 1907 Franchises 

1908 $1,564,618 47 

1909 1,386,877 96 

1910 1,276,252 65 

1911 1,705,550 30 

1912 1,870,908 00 

1913 2,529,992.26 

1914 3,002,453.16 

1915 2,558,383.63 

1916 1,665,710 34 

1917 2,746,988 99 

$20,307,735 76 



being earned is quite remote unless there is a very rad- 
ical change from present conditions. 

The sliding scale principle has the advantage under 
stable conditions that it encourages efficiency of opera- 
tion. However, with such a radical increase in oper- 
ating costs as has taken place since the Dallas fran- 
chise became effective, a higher fare, logically necessary, 
involves a lower return to the investor and at a time 
when money is commanding materially higher rates, 
the investor therefore being subject to a double in- 
justice. The reverse condition of a higher return with 
a lower fare resulting from business stagnation is 
equally open to criticism. The results of this appli- 
cation in Dallas of the sliding scale to a railway situa- 
tion will be watched with interest, but satisfactory 
working is not to be expected under present unstable 
conditions. It will probably also be found that the fare 
and return steps contained in this franchise are too 
large for stability. Alternate up and down changes at 
the prescribed minimum intervals of six months are 
to be expected if the fares ever get below the maximum 
rate. 

The remaining franchises in this group embody the 
profit-sharing principle of return. Supplementing a 
minimum fixed return on the capital value, there is a 
division of surplus earnings between railway and city. 
This method was first adopted in the Chicago surface 
franchises, which allow a return of 5 per cent upon 
the capital value plus 45 per cent of the surplus. Fifty- 
five per cent of the surplus goes to the city to be 
used ultimately for the construction of rapid transit 
facilities. As shown in Table II, the city's share of 
the surplus during the ten full years of operation of 
these franchises ending in 1917 amounted to slightly 
more than $20,000,000. 

The Kansas City arrangement is somewhat similar, 
but the railway gets a 6 per cent return upon the 
capital value without any distributable share in the 
surplus until it has amounted to $6,300,000. Further 
surplus is divided between railway and city, the railway 



getting only one-third. The initial $6,300,000 surplus 
is to be used in amortizing intangible elements in the 
capital value already referred to through the addition 
of uncapitalized extensions and betterments up to that 
aggregate amount. The city may use its share of the 
subsequent surplus to finance additions to the property 
with a view to ultimate purchase, to reduce the capital 
value, to reduce fares, or, by popular vote, for other 
public purposes. If fares are reduced, the railway's 
share of the surplus which would otherwise be accumu- 
lated must not be impaired, that is, the reduction must 
be made exclusively from the city's share of the surplus. 
The city's share in the surplus has so far amounted to 
only about $100,000. 

The Cincinnati grant contains a combination of profit- 
sharing and sliding-scale principles. It provides for 
actual fixed charges on prior obligations, a fixed sum 
return on certain prior capital, and actual fixed charges 
and dividends upon all new securities issued in 
accordance with the new franchise. The company also 
shares in varying proportions in any surplus that may 
be accumulated. When the rate of fare is 5 cents 
or less the company's share is 45 per cent; when the 
fare is 5£ cents, the share is reduced to 30 per cent; 
when the fare is 6 cents, the share becomes 20 per 
cent; if the fare goes above 6 cents, the company gets 
no part of the surplus. 

The Montreal grant allows a 6 per cent normal re- 
turn upon capital value. Upon new capital furnished by 
investors during the war or within two years after 
its termination, an additional 1 per cent is allowed, 
but this supplementary return is wholly withdrawn 
within five years after the war. The railway also 
receives a further return to the extent of 20 per cent 
of the divisible surplus, the balance of the surplus going 
to the city (30 per cent) and the tolls reduction fund 
(50 per cent). There is no restriction upon the use of 
the city or company allotments. The purposes of the 
tolls reduction fund have already been explained. The 
company is not permitted to pay dividends on its stock 
in excess of 10 per cent. 

This grant also provides for two supplementary allow- 



TABLE III— THE CLEVELAND RAILWAY COMPANY 

Operating Expenses Less Maintenance and Total Cost of Service Under Tayltr 
Ordinance, Actual and Allowances, Per Car-Mile 



■— — Operat 


ing Expense 


Total 


Cost , 


Actual 


Allowance 


Actual 


Allowance 


1910 11 67 


11.50 


24.28 


23 09 


1911 12.07 


12 50' 


23 88 


23 59 


1912 12.19 


11.50 


23 09 


22 57 


1913 12.23 


12. 10* 


24 72 


24 10 


1914 12.22 


12.10 


25 27 


24 32 


1915 12,56 


12 60i 


25 70 


25 49 


1916 14 00 


13. 50 1 


28 16 


28 33 


1917 15 34 


14.50 


29,75 


29.52 


1918 


( 16 00' 








1 19.50* 






■On and after May 1. 









-On and after March 1 . 
:, On and after Feb. 8. 
'On and after Aug. 4. 



ances, one of which is unique in franchise history. The 
first is a fixed annual sum, equivalent to one-half of 1 
per cent of the initial capital value ($181,431.47) for 
the expenses of new financing, including printing and 
engraving, legal and registration fees, listing, etc. Any 
unused part of this allowance must be kept intact with 
interest accretions until the termination of the fran- 
chise, when it may be distributed. This item of cost, 
where specifically provided for, is more commonly a 



January 4, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



27 



charge to capital value. In the Chicago surface .fran- 
chises a fixed percentage is allowed on the cost of all 
capital additions for this and other overhead costs. In 
Philadelphia the actual financing costs are included in 
capital value. 

The unique allowance in the Montreal grant is an 
"operating allowance," an amount equal to one-eighth 
of 1 per cent of the current capital value, awarded 
to the railway annually if the actual operating expenses 
are within the amount per car-mile fixed by the super- 
visor as already explained, or do not exceed this amount 
by more than 2i per cent, or, if exceeding it by a 
greater percentage, such greater excess is on account 
of abnormal conditions not within the control of the 
railway and certified as such by the supervisor. If the 
excess is not so certified, the railway receives no oper- 
ating profit, and any expenses in excess of the allowance 
plus the margin of 2h per cent thereof, less the one- 
eighth of 1 per cent of capital value otherwise allowed 
ad an operating profit, must be made up from the 
railway's own resources. 

The purpose of this operating allowance is distinctly 
commendable. It sets up each year a specific standard 
of operating efficiency in the light of conditions then 
existing, not those which a score of years before were 
thought might exist. If the standard is met by sus- 
tained vigilance, a deserved reward is made. If this 
vigilance is relaxed and extravagance is permitted, not 
only is the reward lost but the railway must pay the 
bill from its own pocket. The possible objections to 
such an allowance are obvious. The standard operating 
expense must be fixed with unvarying, scrupulous fair- 
ness and honesty, and in the light of sustained, intimate 
knowledge of operating conditions and requirements. 
Otherwise, either injustice is done the public, or the 
railway becomes discouraged in its efforts to maintain 
maximum efficiency. A tendency might develop to 
recognize past earnest but unsuccessful attempts of 
the railway to secure its reward by liberality in fixing 
a future standard of expense, or on the other hand 
past indifference on the part of the railway might 
suggest a relatively low standard. It would be difficult 
to decide if or when such tendencies were beyond the 
intent of the franchise in establishing this policy of 
reward. The whole scheme has needed and attractive 
possibilities, and its actual workings will be watched 
with interest. 

6. Amortization 

A large proportion of the mortgages upon electric 
railway property contain sinking fund or improvement 
fund provisions under which the outstanding indebted- 
ness thereunder is gradually reduced, or the amount of 
property subject to a given indebtedness is gradually 
increased. The annual requirements for such funds, 
usually from 1 per cent to 2 per cent of the bonds 
outstanding or certified, are taken from gross income 
and are a' part of the cost of the service rendered. 
The railways operating under the franchises herein 
considered are not exempt from this general practice. 
Several of them have supplementary amortization pro- 
visions which show special conceptions of the meaning 
or distribution of the cost of service. 

The earliest of these franchises is that in Kansas 
City. The initial capital value in this case, as already 



noted, contained an item of $6,300,000 for intangible 
elements such as development cost and franchise value. 
It was decided that these elements should not be a 
permanent factor in the cost of service. To the extent 
that they represented the value of the surrendered old 
franchises, they should be wiped out by 1925, when 
they would have expired. To the extent that they rep- 
resented unrecovered early losses, the necessity for 



TABLE IV— CHARACTERISTICS OF SURPLUS RESERVES, THE FARE 
"BAROMETERS" IN SERVICE-AT-COST FRANCHISES 



City Dollars 

Cleveland $500,000 

Dallas 575,000 



nount of Reserve 
Per Cent 
of Capital 
Value 



Philadelphia. 
Cincinnati. . . 



400,000 



Dollars 
Between 

Limits 
$400,000 

J 1,200,000 

/ 2.700,000 
2.500,000 
400,000' 



Per Cent of 
Either Limit 
from Norma 



Boston 1,000,000 

Bay State 500,000 

Massachusetts 6 to 12* 

Chicago (cons.) . 2,000,000 1, 
'Approximate initial amount. 

•Below normal onlv, upward ranee not specified. 
3 $250,000 above normal; $150,000 below normal 
are divided equally above and below normal. 
'Per cent of annual revenue. 



amortization is not as clear. There is no unanimity 
of opinion as to how, if ever, early losses should be 
made up by regulated public utilities. In competitive 
business the problem is comparatively simple. The 
regulated utility may take care of its inevitable early 
losses in one of three ways: (1) By maintaining 
abnormally high rates during a definite succeeding more 
profitable period; (2) by never recovering the losses 
themselves but indefinitely earning interest thereon; 
■ 3) by gradually but not regularly charging off the 
losses from the profits of supernormal periods, together 
with a return on the unamortized balance. The first 
method involves injustice to the patrons of the period 
involved. The second method is not unjust to any 
patrons and is economically sound, but meets with a 
surprising amount of opposition — instinctive, political 
and otherwise. The third method, confessedly a com- 
promise, is practical if not scientifically correct. The 
Kansas City franchise adopts this method. The entire 
surplus income, to the extent of the initial $6,300,000 
accumulation, is to be used by the railway for un- 
capitalized extensions and betterments, thereby gradu- 
ally substituting tangible in place of intangible property, 
until the latter is eliminated. The rate of substitution 
depends upon the profitableness of the business. 

The city may, if it sees fit, carry this amortization 
program further by applying its share of the surplus 
beyond the initial $6,300,000 to further uncapitalized 
extensions and betterments, or to reductions of capital 
value, thus decreasing the unit cost of the service. This 
program was predicated upon a profitable 5-cent fare. 

The Philadelphia grant embodies no new amortization 
features other than a sinking fund on the city's transit 
facilities, presumably sufficiently large to retire the 
entire investment within a reasonable term of years. 
It confirms, however, an unusual amortization feature 
in the 1907 franchise by which a fund is to be accumu- 
lated to retire the entire issue of stock then outstanding 
at the expiration of that franchise, the city then 
becoming the owner of the property. There is no 



28 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 1 



provision in the new franchise by which this amortiza- 
tion can be suspended other than temporarily. Clearly 
such proceeding burdens the present generation of 
patrons with a part of the cost of serving the succeed- 
ing generation. 

The Chicago consolidated franchise contains the re- 
maining amortization feature of interest. Five years 
after the effective date of the ordinance, the company 
must begin to accumulate such a fund. For the first 
five years thereafter, accrual is at the rate of one- 
quarter of 1 per cent of the capital value; for the 
next five years it is at one-half of 1 per cent; for the 
next five years it is three-quarters of 1 per cent; and 
after the end of the initial twenty years the rate of 
1 per cent applies. Under the operation of this final 
fixed 1 .per cent there must be no diminution in the 
amount of annual accrual although the capital value 
may decrease. This fund may be used for retirement 
of outstanding obligations or to pay for uncapitalized 
extensions and betterments, the effect in either case 
being to reduce the capital per unit of property. If 
this franchise were to continue in operation for about 
fifty years with the amortization annuity in scheduled 
effect, the equivalent of the original capital value would 
have been wholly retired, a large proportion of the 
annual cost of subsequent additions to property, financed 
through the amortization fund, would be uncapitalized, 
and the cost of service would be appreciably reduced. 
The then existing situation may be expressed mathe- 
matically if certain average assumptions are made. At 
the end of n years, with an annual increase of r per 
cent, the capital value would be (1 -f- r)" times the 
initial capital value. If n = 50 and r = 5 per cent, 
the capital value at the end of fifty years would be 
11.47 times the initial capital value. The portion of 
capital retired through amortization would be 1.00/11.47 
or nearly 9 per cent. If it is further assumed that one- 
sixth of the subsequent additions to property are 
financed through the amortization fund and therefore 
uncapitalized, it appears that between 15 per cent and 
20 per cent of the total subsequent capitalization is not 
subject to regular capital charges. If these charges 
would otherwise be 40 per cent of the annual revenue, 
the reduction in revenue thereby becomes 6 per cent to 
8 per cent. This reduction is partly but not wholly 
offset by the objectionable amortization annuity itself. 
To the extent that it is not offset, the patrons of early 
years contribute to the cost of the service in later years. 

7. Surplus and Reserves 

The final item in the cost of service, after the initial 
accumulation of the required surplus and sundry re- 
serves, is negligible in the average year, including only 
such increases in these accounts as may be required by 
increased volume of business. In any particular year 
there may be an addition to the reserves from operating 
revenues if a deficiency exists, or a withdrawal if cur- 
rent revenues are insufficient to meet current expenses 
and charges. The methods and limitations of such 
procedure are more specifically described in a following 
section. 

Summary and Discussion op Cost Elements 

The different elements of service cost as set forth 
herein may here be reviewed and useful conclusions 



drawn from their treatment in the different franchises. 

1. A fixed allowance for operating expenses, change- 
able only by action of a City Council, is not practicable. 
An annual budget, prepared in the light of expected 
conditions, is much better as a means of checking actual 
operations and as a possible basis of reward for oper- 
ating efficiency. 

2. A minimum allowance for maintenance and replace- 
ments such as is commonly found is quite important, 
preferably one accrual for the combination. It should 
be materially in excess of current requirements unless 
the property has reached a maturity and stability un- 
usual among street railways. There should be a limit 
to the accumulation of unused accruals. Although gross 
revenue is not a scientific basis of accruals and total 
reserve, it has definite practical advantages, particu- 
larly if the percentages of gross revenue are auto- 
matically adjusted to the prosperity of the business. 

3. Taxes should be limited to the usual assessments 
upon commercial property. There should be no fran- 
chise or gross earning taxes. 

4. Rentals of transit facilities should be limited to 
actual cost to the lessor. If rapid transit facilities 
are leased from the city, a provision for abatement of 
rentals when and to the extent that the traffic cannot 
properly bear the burden is to be commended. 

5. The return upon capital should not be wholly fixed 
because the future normal return cannot be foreseen. 
Actual interest and amortization should be allowed upon 
indebtedness. A substantial proportion of preferred 
stock, bearing a fixed return, may well be authorized. 
The final equity, represented by common stock, should 
have a return varying with general business conditions 
or with efficiency of operation, or both. Without this 
last incentive to sustained alertness, stagnation will 
result. None of the franchises here reviewed has an 
ideal provision for an equitable return to investors. A 
share in the surplus, added to a fixed return, is com- 
mendable but may fail to accomplish its purpose under 
abnormal business conditions. The same objection ap- 
plies to the sliding scale of rates and return. Within 
limits, the operating profit plan is thoroughly good. It 
might be improved by making it proportional to oper- 
ating efficiency instead of being fixed. By combinations 
or amplifications of such methods, there should be 
assured to the holders of the final equity such an in- 
crease in their minimum return as will secure a degree 
of efficiency and progressiveness approaching that found 
in unregulated private business. Such incentives would 
involve no increase in ultimate cost of service. It would, 
among other things, tend to reduce the base rate of 
return. 

6. There should be no amortization of capital as far 
as it relates to tangible property. There is no equitable 
ground for amortization of intangible elements of value 
representing the usual initial losses, but this may be 
permissible to a limited extent in times of prosperity 
when fares are not above normal. No noticeable bur- 
dens should be imposed for this purpose. 

7. No further comment is necessary regarding sur- 
plus except to urge that no excessive accumulations be 
made from revenue, particularly when large reserves 
are available for specific purposes. This is particularly 
true of new franchises which go into effect during the 
prevalence of war prices. 



January 4, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



29 



Comparison of Requirements for Reserve Funds 
All service-at-cost franchises seek to avoid frequent 
or large changes in fare by the use of sundry reserve 
accounts. The number and interrelation of these ac- 
counts is bewildering, at first sight at least, in some 
cases. In other cases extreme simplicity is found. The 
purpose in all cases is the equalization above stated, 
but the effect in some cases is to increase present 
burdens for the relief of the future. If present reserves, 
created from revenue, are unnecessarily large and are 
invested at low rates of return, the patron, indirectly 
getting the benefit of such return, becomes an involun- 
tary investor in the railway instead of having an 
opportunity of finding a more attractive investment 
elsewhere. 

A reserve for depreciation or replacements is re- 
quired in all these franchises. In some cases, as already 
stated, maintenance and renewals are not distinguished, 
both being provided for in the reserve. The Montreal 
franchise fixes the appro- 
priations to and the nor- 
mal accumulation in the 
reserve. The Chicago (sur- 
face and consolidated), 
Cleveland and Kansas City 
franchises fix the rate of 
accruals but not the nor- 
mal accumulation in the 
reserve. The accumulated 
reserve in Dallas is lim- 
ited to a percentage of 
property value, varying 
as already stated. The 
Philadelphia accruals are 
not fixed other than that 
the rate for the city's 
transit facilities shall not 
exceed one-half of 1 per 
cent per annum. The 
method of accrual and 
amount of the reserve in 
the case of the remaining 



THE terms of this Philadelphia lease 
embody a broad recognition of the 
principle that a city as a whole may need 
improved transit facilities which the patrons 
of the facilities should not pay for in full. 
The removal of surface railway traffic from 
the streets is of substantial benefit to many 
business interests which must still use the 
streets. Rapid transit definitely enhances 
suburban real estate values. It is not unfair 
that some of these interests affected should, 
temporarily at least, bear a portion of the 
rapid transit burden. In the case of suburban 
real estate, an increase in assessed valuation 
in proportion to the increase in market value, 
and the application of the resulting increase 
in taxes or its equivalent to the charges on 
rapid transit facilities, would materially lessen 
the increased cost of transit service. 



directly upon the company and indirectly upon its 
patrons which does not seem warranted by the practical 
advantages derived therefrom. The city is not without 
other adequate means of enforcing fulfillment of obliga- 
tions, and excess expenses might be deducted from the 
company's share of the divisible surplus or otherwise 
made up by the company as it might see fit. 

This same franchise also sets up a contingent reserve 
fund of another $500,000, by accruals from gross 
revenue not exceeding 1 per cent thereof per annum 
as an equalizing fund, but not having the fare-adjusting 
functions usually attaching to this fund. This con- 
tingent fund may be drawn upon to make good deficien- 
cies in revenue and is restored as soon as sufficient 
revenues are available. We now come to the fund com- 
mon to and a salient feature of all the modern franchises 
of this type, the index or barometer which determines 
fare changes, variously named interest fund, reserve 
fund, surplus reserve, emergency fund, etc., and herein 
called the surplus reserve. 
In general, this fund has 
a designated normal value, 
a lower limit at which 
fares must be increased 
and an upper limit at 
which fares must be re- 
duced. Where specific re- 
serves for replacements, 
accidents, etc., are set up, 
it is usually provided that 
the upper limit of the sur- 
plus reserve shall not be 
reached until all these 
subsidiary reserves are 
normal, brought up if nec- 
essary by appropriations 
from the surplus reserve. 
Unless otherwise stated in 
the following outline of 
the special characteristics 
of the various surplus re- 
serves, the funds therein 



franchises are not fixed in advance. Judgment as to 
adequacy rests with the supervisor except in the case 
of Cincinnati, where the utilities commission will fix 
the procedure after an initial period of five years. 

A reserve for accidents is provided in most cases; 
it is specifically excluded only in the case of Cleveland 
where a board of arbitration decided that such a sup- 
plement to the so-called "interest fund" was not con- 
templated in the ordinance. In Dallas the accrual to 
the reserve is initially fixed at 6 per cent of the gross 
revenue, with provision for any necessary change. In 
other cases, rate of accrual and extent of the reserve 
are left to the judgment of the supervisor. 

The Montreal franchise provides for two special funds 
not found in other grants. The railway must build up 
from its own resources a guarantee fund of $500,000 
from which to pay excess, unauthorized expenses, any 
penalties imposed by the city, and otherwise to insure 
the performance of franchise obligations. The fund 
must be deposited in an approved, accessible place and 
income from it belongs to the railway. To the extent 
that the interest upon money borrowed for this fund 
exceeds the income derived from it, a burden is imposed 



are capitalized and not accumulated from revenue. 

The Cleveland normal reserve is $500,000 with upper 
and lower limits of $700,000 and $300,000 respectively. 
There is no direct relation between the surplus reserve 
and the replacement reserve accumulation. There is 
now an enormous deficit in the replacement reserve, or 
would be if all appropriate charges had been made to it 
rather than to special suspense accounts. If the surplus 
reserve were used, as it should be, to make up this 
deficit, the present balance would be reduced by more 
than $2,000,000, possibly to $3,000,000 less than normal. 

The Dallas franchise sets up from revenues a surplus 
reserve which is normal at 8 per cent of the current 
capital value. If, when the subsidiary reserves are 
not less than normal, the surplus reserve accumulates 
to 50 per cent above normal, fares must be reduced 
to the next lower step in the schedule. If, after six 
months' operation under the reduced fare, the sub- 
sidiary reserves are normal and the surplus reserve is 
still 30 per cent or more above normal, another fare 
reduction must be made. Further decreases may be 
similarly made until the reserve does not exceed normal 
by more than 10 per cent. It is, however, stipulated 



30 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 1 



that no fare reductions shall be made until the full 
return authorized by the franchise shall have been paid 
cumulatively from the effective date of the grant. 

If, under any rate of fare, the surplus reserve falls 
to 50 per cent of normal, the fare must be raised to 
the next step. If the reserve does not rise to 80 per 
cent of normal within six months under the operation 
of this higher fare, another increase may be made, and 
further increases may similarly follow until the reserve 
is not more than 10 per cent below normal. Thereafter 
no further increases may be made until the reserve has 
again fallen to 50 per cent of normal. 

When the surplus reserve is in excess of normal by 
more than 10 per cent, and either subsidiary reserve 
is below normal, the railway must transfer to such 
reserve such amounts as are necessary to bring them 
up to normal, or such lesser amounts as will still leave 
the surplus reserve 10 per cent above normal. The 
noteworthy thing about this general plan is the relation 
of the surplus reserve to capital value, by which the 
reserve automatically increases as the property and 
business grow. This has a definite advantage over a 
fixed reserve which gradually grows smaller in pro- 
portion to the volume of business. 

In the Montreal grant the so-called "tolls reduction 
fund" created from revenue performs in part the im- 
mediate functions of the surplus reserve. The operation 
of this fund has already been explained, and it will be 
recalled that its upper limit is between $1,000,000 and 
$2,500,000 at the discretion of the supervisor. In case 
of deficiencies in revenue, involving a possible increase 
in fare, the contingent reserve fund is also a factor. 
If in any year the deficiencies are such as to reduce 
the contingent reserve to less than $300,000, the de- 
ficiency therein and any in other subsidiary reserves 
must be made up from the tolls reduction fund. If this 
fund is thereby exhausted, fares must at once be raised 
to provide at least the prevailing full cost of service. 
So long as any balance remains in the tolls reduction 
fund no fare increase is necessary, for the contingent 
fund still remains. If the $500,000 normal amount of 
the contingent fund were made the minimum limit for 
fare increase purposes of the tolls reduction fund, the 
complication of the combination of funds might have 
been avoided. 

When the new Philadelphia franchise goes into effect, 
the surplus accumulated during the prior operation 
under the 1907 franchise will be set up on the books as 
an "initial surplus." Any surplus earned under the new 
grant will be separately accounted for as "new surplus." 
The combination of these two accounts becomes the 
surplus reserve. Whenever the new surplus has reached 
the sum of $2,000,000 and has been increasing in sub- 
stantial amounts during the two years preceding, and 
all costs of service have been met cumulatively, the rate 
of fare shall be reduced after approval of the utilities 
commission. Whenever, through increased cost or 
diminished revenue, the new surplus has become ex- 
hausted and the initial surplus has been drawn upon 
to the extent of $500,000, a higher rate of fares shall 
be effective after approval of the utilities commission. 
This plan, without definitely fixing a normal surplus 
reserve, provides a zone of such reserve, with upper 
and lower limits $2,500,000 apart, within which fares 



shall be fixed but outside of which they shall change. 

The Cincinnati franchise provides for a normal sur- 
plus reserve of $400,000, of which $250,000 is to be 
procured from the sale of securities, the balance of 
$150,000 to be the entire initial surplus to that extent 
earned under the new franchise, beyond which amount 
the surplus is divided as already explained. Whenever 
after the normal surplus reserve has been created 
(which implies the full cumulative payment of all ele- 
ments of service cost) it shall be increased by $250,000 
or 62i per cent, the fares then in effect shall be de- 
creased. If within two months after the reduction the 
reserve continues to increase, a second decrease may be 
made. Whenever after the normal surplus reserve has 
been created the amount in the reserve shall be reduced 
by $150,000 or 37* per cent, the fares shall be raised, 
and if after two months' use of the higher fares the 
reduction in reserve continues, another increase may 
then be made, and this process is continued until the 
reserve is restored. At the beginning of the franchise 
term, before the normal surplus reserve has been 
created, the fares may be increased from the initial 
tentative 5-cent rate if the results of two months' 
operation show that the revenue is insufficient to cover 
the cost of the service, and further increases may 
similarly be made at intervals of two months until the 
required revenues are obtained. 

The Chicago consolidated grant provides for a sur- 
plus reserve of $2,000,000. Fares must be increased 
if this reserve is drawn down to $1,000,000 to make 
deficits good. The fare increase shall be calculated 
to restore the reserve to normal by the end of the 
following fiscal year. After the deficits have been made 
up fares may be reduced if, in the judgment of the 
trustees, a new deficit would not thereby be created. 
Fares may be decreased at other times if the accumu- 
lation in the reserve and the surplus receipts are 
"sufficient to justify it." 

The Boston act requires the creation of a surplus 
reserve of $1,000,000. If at the end of any calendar 
quarter ending June 30, 1919, or thereafter the reserve 
is 30 per cent above the initial normal amount, and 
the revenues for the preceding quarter have exceeded 
the cost of service, the fares shall be reduced within 
one month. If at the end of any quarter ending June 
30, 1919, or thereafter the surplus reserve shall be 
below normal by more than 30 per cent, fares shall be 
increased within one month. If the surplus reserve 
shall be entirely exhausted on June 30, 1919, or semi- 
annual dates thereafter, or the balance is insufficient 
to meet existing deficiencies, the trustees may call upon 
the treasurer of the Commonwealth for funds to make 
up all accumulated deficits in accordance with the 
Massachusetts policy already outlined. 

It is to be noted that, although June 30, 1919, is 
still in the future, two fare increases have already 
been made on the Boston Elevated system and others 
are under consideration to take care of large deficits, 
but no call has yet been made upon the State for aid. 
It is reported, however, that the trustees will shortly 
recommend that the State purchase from the company 
its part of the subway system, and relieve the company 
of all charges upon the entire publicly-owned rapid 
transit facilities used by the company. 



January 4, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



31 



The Bay State act fixes the amount of the normal 
surplus reserve at $500,000 and the upper and lower 
limits, beyond which fares shall be changed under proce- 
dure sinr'lar to that in the Boston act, at 50 per cent 
from the normal. 

The Massachusetts act fixes the reserve less definitely, 
in per cent of the capital value, but establishes the 
upper and lower limits 30 per cent from normal, with 
procedure in fare increases similar to the other acts 
already mentioned. 

A review of these various reserve programs shows 
unanimity in favor of accumulations for replacements, 
and nearly the same agreement in favor of an accident 
reserve. There is also a fare index fund where varying 
fares are contemplated. In connection with the upper 
and lower limits of such funds, fixed to indicate the 
need of a change in fare, attention is directed to the 
stipulation in a few cases 



that fares shall be 
changed when these limits 
are reached only if there 
has been a general upward 
or downward tendency in 
surplus revenues for a 
considerable period of 
time in the direction con- 
firming the need of the 
fare change. The two- 
year tendency period fixed in Philadelphia may be too 
long, but the application of the principle will tend to 
prevent needless fluctuations in fares at times of brief 
especially good or bad business conditions. Other special 
funds or reserves, found in a few cases, apparently 
serve no essential purposes and might be eliminated for 
simplicity by slightly modifying the functions or char- 
acteristics of those universally employed. 

Several diagrams are shown on page 17, illustrating 
the relation between reserves, current operating 
revenues and service costs. These diagrams set forth 
more clearly than descriptive text the direction of flow 
of available funds from revenue to divisible surplus, the 
interrelation of revenue, costs and reserves, and existing 
priorities in disbursements. 

Penalties 

Little needs to be said with respect to the penalties 
which may be imposed under these franchises for 
violation of their terms, with the exception of two 
which have unique provisions. These penalties are in 
the form of a reduction in return upon capital value 
not exceeding 1 per cent for any and all offenses. In 
both the Cleveland and Dallas grants the application of 
such severe measures is limited to matters submitted to 
arbitration and to violation of decisions with respect 
thereto. The board of arbitration determines the 
amount of the penalty (within the limit fixed) in 
Cleveland, and its duration, coinciding with the violation 
of the decision, in both Cleveland and Dallas. 

General Provisions 
Most of these franchises do not differ from older 
forms of grants with respect to the various general 
terms and conditions usually considered essential in 
such cases. There should be a noticeable difference in 



certain matters from the public point of view. Where 
the public is paying the costs of service, it should be 
careful that it does not set up extravagant standards 
or provisions, such as special types of track construc- 
tion, iron poles exclusively, power plants, carhouses and 
other extensive buildings upon expensive city real estate, 
etc. Provisions that cars shall seat not less than forty 
passengers and be operated by two men are inconsistent 
with the latest developments for efficient service. On 
the other hand, an agreement that the city may call 
upon the railway to clean and water occupied streets 
at bare cost plus 10 per cent when traffic will not be im- 
peded, is quite consistent with the fundamental intent 
of these grants. 

A wise provision in this or any other form of 
franchise is that which permits the cancellation of any 
specific requirement or feature found to be unlawful 
without disturbing the 



THE advantages of unlimited life, in 
avoiding amortization of investment in 
excess of adequate provisions for de- 
preciation, and in not discouraging improve- 
ments and extensions at any period, are too 
obvious to need elaboration. 



rest of the grant, pro- 
vided the matter in ques- 
tion is not an essential 
one or was not a controll- 
ing or material induce- 
ment to the making of the 
agreement. In the matter 
of extensions of lines and 
service, aside from certain 
initial or minimum re- 
quirements, a commendable policy is embodied in a num- 
ber of these grants to the effect that extensions into new 
territory will not be required when their operation would 
impair the present of future ability of the railway to 
earn a reasonable (or specified) return upon its property 
as a whole. Other than for such restrictions, the cities 
may order any new facilities that appear to be needed. 
Ability to finance the necessary expenditures upon 
reasonable terms is a further limitation found in a few 
cases. 

Arbitration of disputes in the conventional way is 
permitted in nearly all cases, but there is a noticeable 
tendency to restrict the scope of arbitration, leaving 
many matters to the decision of the supervisor, and 
others, on appeal to the state utilities commission. In 
Philadelphia, all matters in dispute are referred to the 
regular supervisory board, having a member represent- 
ing each side and a neutral member. This plan has 
an advantage over the ordinary arbitration board in 
that at least two of the members are intimately ac- 
quainted with the matter at issue and are no more 
biased than the usual party members in arbitration. 

Municipal Purchase 

The right of the city to purchase the railway prop- 
erty under service-at-cost franchises is included in 
all such grants so far in effect, although it does not 
appear to be an essential element in those not of in- 
determinate form. This right is limited as to time in 
several cases — Dallas, after ten years; Philadelphia, 
after July 1, 1927; Montreal, on March 24, 1953, and 
at five-year intervals thereafter. In the other cases the 
right may be exercised at any time after reasonable 
notice, usually fixed at six months. 

The price to be paid in nearly all cases is based 
upon the capital value with sundry allowances and 



32 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. l 



adjustments described below. In Cincinnati, the city 
reserves the alternative right to proceed under the State 
law and pay a "just compensation." In Montreal, the 
purchase price is to be fixed by arbitration, it being 
stipulated that the capital value shall not be conclusive 
evidence in such proceeding. There appears to be no 
logical reason for this last departure from the usual 
practice. If the initial capital value was fairly deter- 
mined and additions thereto and deductions therefrom 
are all properly handled, and if the return to the in- 
vestors throughout the life of the grant is no more nor 
no less than fair, involving no return to them of 
principal (all of which is insured by the terms of the 
grant) the appraised value should not differ from the 
then capital value except possibly for an item appearing 
in another franchise, the value of future rights of 
participation in divisible profits. With the exceptionally 
long initial immunity from city purchase fixed in the 
Montreal franchise, this value should be negligible. 

In all cases the property purchased includes funds 
created for replacements, damages, etc. Adjustments 
are of course required where these funds have been 
invested in the property. Where indebtedness is assumed 
by the purchaser, it must also be deducted from capital 
value. The disposition of cash and current assets and 
liabilities is in accordance with usual commercial 
practice. 

A percentage premium is stipulated in several of 
the purchase provisions. In Cleveland the city must 
pay 10 per cent in excess of the capital value less any 
indebtedness assumed. This premium is not paid if 
purchase occurs after the expiration of the original 
term. Dallas must pay 5 per cent in excess of the 
capital value plus an additional 5 per cent upon that 
part of it representing additions to the property during 
the preceding ten years. Kansas City may take over its 
railway without premium payment when its share of 
surplus income invested in the property amounts to 
50 per cent of the capital value. If the property is 
taken before this 50 per cent has accumulated it must 
also pay the company "the value of the remainder of its 
rights to participation" and the cost of redeeming out- 
standing bonds. 

The percentage premiums above stated may be con- 
sidered as compensation for terminated profits, for 
retirement of obligations and other liquidation costs, 
for amortization of financing costs and other intangible 
assets not included in capital value, etc. Where such 
purchase allowance does not appear, a compensating 
substitute is sometimes found in the form of a cumu- 
lative payment of any deficits in return from the date 
the franchise becomes effective to the date of sale. 
Where the return is an undivided fixed one this does not 
apply, but the following applications in other cases are 
noteworthy. 

The Philadelphia franchise requires the city to pay, 
on purchase, any deficiencies in past dividends on either 
new or old stock. The Cincinnati franchise requires 
the city to pay all past deficiencies in operating cost 
and return to investors, together with interest on any 
money borrowed to finance deficiencies. The Chicago 
consolidated franchise apparently has the equivalent of 
this guarantee against final deficiencies, as it clearly 
states that the various items of service cost, including 



interest and dividends, shall be cumulative. The Dallas 
franchise states that any balance remaining in the sur- 
plus reserve at the time of purchase by the city may 
be applied to the payment of the full return authorized 
for the rates of fare from time to time in effect. 
Apparently during the first year of operation under this 
franchise no surplus was accumulated, for the total 
earned return was materially less than the 5 per cent 
minimum allowed before the surplus receives any 
credits. 

An alternative purchase provision is contained in 
the Chicago surface, Cleveland and Dallas franchises 
under which the city may designate another purchaser 
than itself. The purpose of this provision is to secure 
better terms under private operation than the original 
grant contains. In Cleveland this is accomplished 
through reduction in the rate of return, the purchaser 
being required to accept a rate at least one-quarter of 
1 per cent lower than the rate in effect. No provision 
of this kind is embodied in the other grants, so that 
the advantage of the so-called licensee clause is not 
apparent except as a club over the holder of the fran- 
chise. The purchaser or licensee in Dallas must pay a 
5 per cent higher premium than the city on that part 
of the capital value applicable to property more than 
ten years old. 

The practices above outlined indicate that the right 
of purchase should be retained by the city, preferably 
for its own exercise alone, and that the purchase price 
should be the adjusted capital value, with a percentage 
bonus if the property may be taken at any time. There 
are advantages in an initial period of undisturbed 
private operation, followed by the right to purchase 
at stated intervals with a gradually decreasing bonus. 

The purchase should include the entire property 
whether or not within the city limits, unless the outside 
property is of such size and independent patronage that 
it may be satisfactorily operated as a separate unit. 
If partial purchase is permitted, a stipulation for 
severance damages should be made. The provision in 
some of the franchises, that any deficiencies in return 
below the authorized standard rate, which may be pos- 
sible during operations thereunder, shall be fully made 
up and paid as an addition to the purchase price, should 
be of universal application. 

Conclusions 

Of the twelve ordinances or legislative acts herein 
considered, providing for service-at-cost, one has been 
in use for nearly twelve years. Eight have been in 
effect or submitted for approval within a period of 
little more than a year. All of the eight provide for 
automatically variable fares, while three of the four 
older ones do not. All of the recent eight also provide 
for some flexibility in return to investors, whereas in 
two of the older ones such flexibility is largely lacking. 
In only one of the recent franchises is a newly estab- 
lished capital value noticeably diminished for deprecia- 
tion, but two of the earlier four values were largely 
depreciated. Public management, through trustees, is 
established in three of the recent drafts but in none 
of the older ones. A return of about 6 per cent is 
the maximum contemplated in most of the older grants. 
Seven per cent is authorized on certain issues among 



January 4, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



33 



the new ones, with 9 per cent as a maximum limit 
in one case, the average being appreciably higher than 
in the former cases. 

The above fragmentary summary shows definite, 
progressive tendencies in service - at - cost features, 
partly based on experience, but largely due to devel- 
opment in economic thought applicable to such problems. 
The tendencies now in evidence will undoubtedly 
continue and future franchises of this class will show 
increasing departure from earlier methods, particularly 
in the direction of increasing flexibility in the various 
necessary standards by which service and financial 
matters are measured. 

What Constitutes a Logical Franchise? 

It may be appropriate, in closing, to supplement the 
various scattered comments and criticisms contained 
herein by a very brief statement of the writer's con- 
ception of the logical outcome of the present tendencies 
in service-at-cost franchises. To that end, the char- 
acteristics which the essential features herein discussed 
may well embody in new drafts in the not distant future 
are here given in very brief outline. 

The accompanying outline is not intended as the 
foundation for a model franchise. It is merely a state- 
ment of facts and tendencies with respect to a few 
of the many features which modern franchises contain. 



Those not considered herein have, to a large extent, 
become standardized. Many of them might safely be 
omitted in these days of state and municipal super- 
vision. The features herein considered are still far 
from standardization. The most striking genera) 
tendency in that direction is in matter of flexibility. 
The earliest service-at-cost franchises were far too 
rigid and unadaptable. The later forms have not yet 
tested their improvements in this respect, but it is, 
nevertheless, confidently expected that their success will 
encourage further advances in the same direction. 

Nothing has so far been said about freedom from 
competition under service-at-cost operation, because it 
is not a prominent, expressed feature of the franchises 
discussed. One of them specifically states that it is 
not an exclusive grant, and the laws of many states 
prohibit monopolies. On the other hand, an increasing 
number of states are providing specifically for exclusive 
public service under indeterminate rights. Service at 
cost means, fundamentally, adequate, comprehensive 
transportation with the lowest possible charges con- 
sistent with permanence of service, security of invest- 
ment and regularity of return to investors. Freedom 
from competition is economically essential to both 
minimum cost and maximum security under public 
regulation, and should be provided for in some effective 
manner in all service-at-cost franchises. 



Essential Features of a Modern Franchise 



As Outlined by Mr. Nash 



Term: Indeterminate. 

Capital Value: Gash in- 
vestment, if accurately or ap- 
proximately determinable, or 
cost of reproduction without 
deduction for depreciation. 

Supervision: A single su- 
pervisor, independent and 
technically trained, for all ex- 
cept quite large properties; 
for the latter, a board of three, 
representing city, company 
and state, the last named pre- 
ferably appointed by the utili- 
ties commission. Appeal from 
supervisor or board to state 
commission on the more im- 
portant matters. Extend scope 
of supervision if necessary to 
avoid public operation. 

Franchise Taxes: None 
should be imposed. Paving 
and other similar burdens 
which are equivalent to such 
taxes should be abolished. 

Public Contributions: 
Railways should be permitted 
to receive community assist- 



ance from taxation authorized 
by state when necessary to 
maintain essential service. Re- 
lief should not be wholly lim- 
ited to present war period. 

Fare Schedules: Franchises 
should not embody any fixed 
fare schedules or limits. These 
should be left to the super- 
visor, with confirmation by the 
utilities commission. Schedule 
steps should be published in 
advance, and fare changes 
should be automatic, small and 
as infrequent as possible 
through adequate reserve 
funds. 

Cost of Service: The cost 
elements should include (1) 
actual operating expenses, if 
reasonable ; (2) an accrual for 
maintenance and replace- 
ments, usually in excess of 
current requirements, unex- 
pended portions to be accumu- 
lated; (3) actual taxes on the 
usual commercial basis; (4) 
return on investment made 



up of actual interest and sink- 
ing fund requirements, a mini- 
mum assured return upon re- 
maining capital, a part or all 
of which should also partici- 
pate in surplus earnings and 
possibly in special rewards for 
efficiency. 

Reserves: Should include an 
adequate but not excessive re- 
serve for depreciation, an ac- 
cident reserve and a fund or 
reserve for contingencies and 
automatic fare regulation. One 
regulating fund should be suf- 
ficient if its limits are care- 
fully defined and applied with 
suitable reference to current 
revenue tendencies. 

Municipal Purchase: The 
right of the city, but no other 
party, to purchase at any time 
all, but not less than all, the 
railway property at its then 
capital value plus a percent- 
age premium if purchase is 
made early in the franchise 
life. 



34 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 1 



The Fuel Administration and the Skip Stop 

How the Federal Government and the Electric Railways 
Co-operated in Several Ways to Save Fuel, with 
Special Reference to Eliminating Unnecessary Stops 

By J. F. LAYNG 

Railway and Traction Engineering Department General Electric Company 
Formerly Bureau of Conservation United States Fuel Administration, Washington, D. C. 



WHEN the United States Fuel 
Administration was created 
the electric railways wished 
to do all in their power to save fuel 
and to work in harmony with the new 
governmental organization. To facili- 
tate this movement the American 
Electric Railway Association ap- 
pointed a joint traffic and en- 
gineering committee, with J. P. 
Barnes, general manager Schenec- 
tady Railway, as chairman, and L. H. 
Palmer, assistant to the president 
United Railways & Electric Company 
of Baltimore; G. H. Kelsay, superin- 
tendent of power Union Traction 
Company of Indiana ; M. B. Lambert, 
assistant manager railway depart- 
ment Westinghouse Electric & Man- 
ufacturing Company, and the writer 
as members. 

The joint committee compiled in- 
formation for use on posters which 
were sent out by the Fuel Adminis- 
tration to the railway companies. 
These posters were as listed below: 
Poster No. 1, entitled "Uncle Sam 
Needs that Extra Shovelful," show- 
ing Uncle Sam (silhouetted) at the 
fireman's elbow. This poster was 
designed to impel the fireman to save 
coal. Poster No. 2. An "Uncle Sam" poster, which 
showed his face with a severe expression. It was ad- 
dressed to the carhouse men, and listed the several ele- 
ments which would influence power consumption from 
a car maintenance standpoint. 

Poster No. 3. The "Eagle" poster, the appeal of 
which was directed to the conductors and motormen. 
It illustrated the ways in which they could help in the 
saving of power. 

Poster No. 4. A car card designed to be placed in 
the car advertising racks, containing the statement that 
the motormen and conductors of the car were members 
of the United States Fuel Administration. 

Possibilities of the Skip Stop Were 
Early Foreseen 

During March, 1918, it was realized that by using 
the skip-stop system of operation in the large cities 
of the country great fuel economies could be realized. 
In order to start the skip-stop campaign properly the 
Fuel Administration, on recommendation of the War 
Board of the American Electric Railway Association, 




J. F. LAYNG 

Mr. Layng has divided his active 
career between the manufacturing 
and railway operating fields. For a 
time he was with the Westinghouso 
I'ompany, beginning with the appren- 
tice course, and served in several 
engineering departments. For six 
years he has been engaged in general 
consulting work for the General Elec- 
tric Company, the last three years 
having been devoted to a study of 
electric railway operating economies. 
A most important article on this sub- 
ject written by him appeared in the 
1918 statistical issue of this paper. 
During the last few months Mr. 
Layng has been doing special work 
for the Fuel Administration. 



recommended it for use in the na- 
tional capital. John A. Beeler, con- 
sulting engineer, carried out the War 
Board's suggestion, and he proceeded 
at once to adapt the skip-stop prin- 
ciple to local conditions in Washing- 
ton. The result has been covered in 
several articles in the Electric Rail- 
way Journal. 

For the purpose of following up 
the work that was done for the Fuel 
Administration in Washington an 
engineer on the Administration's 
staff was assigned to the duty 
of requesting the general adoption 
of the skip-stop system in car 
operation in the cities of the 
country, and a part of his duty was 
to see that proper information for 
this purpose was supplied. 

The promulgation of the system 
was continued, city by city, up to the 
latter part of August, by which time 
practically one-third of the cities in 
the United States had adopted the 
skip-stop method of operation. En- 
tire states, such as Massachusetts, 
Connecticut, New Jersey, Pennsyl- 
vania, Texas and Tennessee, adopted 
the system in all principal cities. The 
favor with which the plan was re- 
ceived prompted the Fuel Administration to issue a 
general request that all cities in the United States hav- 
ing populations of 25,000 or more should adopt the skip- 
stop system. This was done in the belief that annual fuel 
savings in excess of 1,500,000 tons would thus be secured. 
This request met with a most gratifying response. 
Mayors of cities and many others wrote commending the 
Fuel Administration for taking the initiative in the mat- 
ter. This result was the more significant when we con- 
sider that in the elimination of stops the electric railways 
are changing the habits of a generation. The result of 
the campaign has been that car schedules have been 
"speeded up" and, speaking generally, 10 per cent or 
more of the time which passengers would otherwise have 
had to spend on the cars has been saved. 

One of the problems confronting the Fuel Adminis- 
tration was properly to present to those who had the 
guidance of electric railway properties the urgency of 
the need for installing the skip-stop system. For this 
purpose a number of bulletins were prepared and 
copies were sent to all state fuel administrators working 
under the federal Fuel Administration, to public service 



January 4, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal, 



35 



commissioners, to mayors, to city councilmen, and to 
electric railway officials. To secure the co-operation of 
the American Electric Railway Association War Board, 
the Fuel Administration appealed to this body, by letter, 
and asked it to use its influence to insure the proper 
carrying out of the administration's request. The War 
Board reproduced this letter in its bulletin No. 29, 
dated Aug. 29, 1918, which was sent to all electric 
railways. The substance of the important bulletins 
issued by the Fuel Administration is reproduced 
on the following pages. 

Entirely aside from the question of power saving, 
the Fuel Administration used its influence to see that 
the skip-stop system was installed in the different 




entlemen 

The UNITED STATES needs your help! 

Be a fighting member of the fireman's army! You 
are boss of the coal pile and your fight is to save 
the coal to help the boys "over there." Your work 
is part of the war work of the country. Everything 
you save, especially coal, can be used somewhere 
else, to save and protect lives and preserve liberty. 

HOW YOU CAN HELP 

Inspect, adjust, and oil carefully. Properly adjusted 
and smooth running cars save power. 
Turn off compressors and lights in idle cars. Do not 
burn lights or run shop and other motors except when 
necessary. Power used here is utterly thrown away. 
Keep brakeshocs clear of wheels. There is no worse 
power IhkJ on the railroad than a dragging hrakeshoe. 
Reduce car shifting to the absolutely necessary move- 
ments only. 

Reduce coal used for heating by keeping shop and car 
.^gsEx doors shut. /SSH^ 



Another fact is that when cars can deliver passengers 
to their destination in less time the population of a 
city is more evenly distributed. This factor, together 
with that of the reduction in running time of 10 per 
cent or more, greatly enhances real estate values in 
a community. These items are mentioned to illustrate 
the advantages which can be obtained in electric rail- 
way operation through the skip-stop system without 
additional investment. 

An Illustration from Chicago 

Many people prefer the skip-stop system even when 
there is not a time saving to be made. This is illus- 
trated by service which is given on the South Side 



UNCLE SAM 

NEEDS 



$M. 4 THAT 



if T^^ i 

> ^ SHOVELFUL 



I WANT YOU TO SAVE COAL 




United States Euel Administration 



TWO EFFECTIVE "UNCLE SAM " POSTERS DESIGNED TO INDUCE CAREFUL FIRIN* 



cities of the country because this principle of operation 
was known to be economically sound. Saving of time 
in transportation means a very great deal in connec- 
tion with community growth. Providing that we have 
means of rapid transit it is possible for us to live at 
greater distances from our places of occupation than 
would otherwise be possible. We can thus raise our 
children in suburban homes rather than in city flats. 
Rapid transit economizes the time of the daily car 
rider and renders available for him a certain extra 
amount of time which he can spend either at his place 
of business or at his home. The amount of time which 
can be saved to the entire body of citizens of the 
country in this way in the aggregate amounts to a 
considerable total. The inconvenience to passengers 
which is occasioned by the relocation of stops is much 
more than balanced by the saving in time. 



lines of the Chicago Elevated Railroads. Over a portion 
of these lines three tracks are employed, one of which 
is used during the rush hours exclusively for one-way 
express traffic. On the other two tracks both local and 
express trains are operated. The "locals" on these tv/o 
tracks naturally limit the running time of the express 
trains, but many passengers transfer from the locals to 
the express trains to secure a ride free from the con- 
tinual starting and stopping of the trains. 
. The total time saved in any community by using the 
skip-stop system is enormous. For example, let us 
assume that with the old arrangement eleven stops were 
made per mile, the stops thus being 480 ft. apart. The 
greatest increase in any walk possible, as affected by 
stop locations, is then 240 ft. On this basis the 
average passenger would walk 120 ft. each at the begin- 
ning and end of his ride, a total of 240 ft. Walking 



36 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 1 



at a rate of 5 ft. per second he would require forty- 
eight seconds to cover this distance. 

If we assume that the stops on a whole system, in- 
cluding business, residential and suburban districts, 
would average seven per mile, or 754 ft. apart, and 
making our calculations on the same basis, the average 
walking time, thus revised, would be 75.4 seconds. The 
net loss in time due to the relocation of stops would 
be 27.4 seconds. On a transportation system carrying 
300,000,000 passengers annually the total extra walking 
time per year would be about 2,210,000 hours. 

Assuming further that the average length of the 
lines on this system is 9 miles and that the schedule 
speed of operation is 9 m.h.p., and assuming further 
that the use of the skip-stop system will reduce the 
running time by 10 per cent, there will be a time 
saving per trip of six minutes. Then half of this 
time, three minutes, would be saved to the average 
passenger. A total of 300,000,000 passengers would 
thus enjoy an annual saving of 15,000,000 hours. 

Deducting the lost time due to the extra walking, 
there remains the enormous time saving of 12,790,000 
hours which, even at the nominal value of 20 cents 
per hour, is worth $2,558,000 per year. Time conserva- 
tion is an important element in the continuance of our 
country's prosperity, and saving of car riders' time is 
a part of this conservation. 

Skip-Stop System Was Widely Adopted 

It is interesting to note that approximately 95 per 
cent of all the cities in the United States which were 
appealed to in the skip-stop campaign adopted the 
system. Of these a few will possibly abandon it tem- 
porarily, but as the plan is economically sound and 
greatly promotes community growth the cities which do 
abandon it will be handicapped in competition with 
their rivals. 

The writer takes this opportunity to acknowledge the 
enthusiasm and cordiality with which assistance was 
given to the Fuel Administration by all those appealed 
to. Railway, administrative bodies, and the public 
generally pulled together in a "win the war" spirit to 
assist in saving fuel. 

Exhibit I 

Letter to State Fuel Administrators 
Skip-stop service, effecting large savings of fuel, has 
been adopted in many communities. The actual saving in 
power when skip-stop service is adopted in a city varies 
from 8 to 16 per cent. Therefore, as a conservation meas- 
ure during the war, the skip-stop system is of urgent im- 
portance. 

Moreover, the skip-stop service on our street railway 
systems means a large saving of the time of the car riders. 
The same service can be given with less cars or, in other 
words, more service can be given with the same cars. In 
these times when all the available man-power is needed for 
war purposes, anything which we can do to conserve fuel 
and man-power is a patriotic service. 

To put the system into effect, we shall mail, from Wash- 
ington, bulletin number 2882, addressed to public service 
commissioners, mayors, city councilmen, city commissioners 
and street railway officials. The bulletin states the ob- 
jects which the conservation division of the United States 
Fuel Administration desires to accomplish and requests 
that the system be put into operation in every city of 
25,000 and over. 

From Washington we shall send to the railway com- 
panies instructions showing how the skip-stop service 
should be inaugurated. These directions have been fol- 
lowed in many cities and have been effective. Additional 
sets of the instructions will be sent on request. 



Posters are being printed which can be placed in every 
railway car used for city and suburban operation. This 
poster reads: 

Support the Skip Stop 

It will save 1,500,000 tons of coal per year. 
More coal means more steel. 

More steel means more guns and ammunition. 
More guns and ammunition, a shorter war and 
fewer casualties. 

United States Fuel Administration. 

The posters will be sent directly from Washington to 
the street railway companies, who will be notified by letter 
that the posters are being forwarded. 

It is extremely desirable to have the skip-stop service in 
operation before bad weather begins. If this system is 
started when weather conditions are good the public will 
learn the advantages of the system before thinking of the 
disadvantages which will naturally come with adverse 
weather conditions. 

Many cities have already put the skip-stop system into 
operation. We are sending copies of our request even 
to these cities, in order that they may understand the gen- 
eral scope and progress of the work. 

Because the situation is urgent, we suggest that you 
make a personal appeal as Fuel Administrator of the State 
for the skip-stop system to be started on Sept. 15, 1918. 
This date has been selected as the proper time to have the 
system started in all cities of our country. 

In some cases, power to operate railways is secured from 
hydroelectric plants, and it might seem that these should, 
therefore, not be taken into consideration. However, in 
practically every instance, it will be found that steam 
plants are supplementing the hydroelectric supply, and any 
saving of power that can be made will come from the steam 
plant supply. In this way, all the power saved by skip 
stops will mean fuel savings. 

The work of Fuel Administrators, committees and their 
various associates has shown gratifying results in securing 
the adoption of skip-stop service. It is desirable that all 
those who have contributed to the success of the movement, 
follow up the actual operation and continue to give the 
railway companies the benefit of their counsel. In this 
way, maximum fuel saving will be obtained and most ef- 
ficient service rendered. 

Yours very truly, 
United States Fuel Administration. 

Exhibit II 

Letter to Public Service Commissioners, Mayors, City 
Councilmen, City Commissioners and Street 
Railway Officials 

As a fuel conservation measure during the war, all cities 
having a population of 25,000 and over are requested to have 
their street railways operate the skip-stop system and also 
to regulate car heating and car lighting so as to secure 
the minimum power consumption. 

The power required for starting a car is six or eight 
times as great as that required to keep it in motion. A 
considerable part of" the power for operating street cars is 
due to the frequent stops which the cars make. A partial 
list of the states and cities where the skip-stop system has 
been adopted is indicated below: 



California : 


Massachusetts : 


Ohio: 


Berkeley 


All cities 


Cincinnati 


Alameda 


Maryland : 


Columbus 


Los Angeles 


Baltimore 


Dayton 


San Diego 


Michigan : 


Toledo 


Connecticut : 


Detroit 


Pennsylvania 


All cities 


Grand Rapids 


All cities 


District of Columbia 


Minnesota : 


Rhode Island : 


Delaware : 


Minneapolis 


Providence 


Wilmington 


St. Paul 


Woonsocket 


Illinois : 


Missouri : 


Newport 


Chicago 


Kansas City 


South Carolina 


Indiana : 


New Jersey : 


Charleston 


Indianapolis 


All cities 


Texas : 


Evansville 


New York : 


All cities 


Fort Wayne 


Brooklyn 


Tennessee : 


South Bend 


Rochester 


All cities 


Iowa : 


Syracuse 


Virginia : 


Des Moines 


Schenectady 


Norfolk 


Kentucky : 


Albany 


Richmond 


Louisville 


Portsmouth 



Louisiana : 
New Orleans 



Annual savings at the points which we have mentioned 
total more than 500,000 tons of fuel, all of which can be 
devoted to war purposes. When all cities in the United 
States have adopted the skip-stop system, the total annual 



January 4, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



37 



fPHE Motorman and Conductor 
of this car are members of the 

U.S. FUEL ADMINISTRATION 

and they are pledged to save 
Electricity, which means COAL 

WAR BOARD AMERICAN ELECTRIC RAILWAY ASSOCIATION 




CAR CARD IDENTIFYING CREW WITH COAL 
CONSERVATION MOVEMENT 



savings will be at least 1,500,000 tons. The skip-stop 
system not only brings about this saving in fuel at a time 
when our nation is facing a dangerous fuel shortage, but 
it also brings about an actual improvement of the service 
of the street railway companies. The elimination of stops 
enables the street cars to move their passengers to their 
destination more rapidly and with more comfort. For in- 
stance, in Minneapolis the length of a forty-minute car 
trip has been reduced to twenty-five minutes. In Wash- 
ington, a trip that was formerly forty-seven and one-half 
minutes has been reduced to forty-two minutes. 

The skip-stop system does not contemplate putting stops 
so far apart as to be unduly burdensome. The Fuel Ad- 
ministration has requested that there should not be more 
than eight stops per mile (average 660 ft. apart) in business 
districts; six stops per mile (average 880 ft. apart) in resi- 
dence districts; and four stops per mile (averaging 1320 
ft. apart) in open country. 

Before starting the skip-stop system it is suggested that 
a board consisting of five members be selected; two repre- 
senting the city, two the railway and the fifth a represen- 
tative of the Fuel Administration. The city members 
should obtain the views of the police and fire departments 
regarding dangerous points of traffic, providing they exist. 
The duty of this board is to select the car stops and see 
that instructions regarding the stop marking advertising 
and general policy are carried out that the public may be 
given the best service with maximum fuel economy. 

After the skip-stop system has been started, requests are 
often made to have stops restored. Great care should be 
selected in the elimination of stops by the committee and 
it should be remembered that if stops cut out are restored, 
we do not have the skip-stop service. The committee se- 
lecting stops are requested, therefore, to make their sur- 
veys carefully before an announcement of the stops is 
made. 

The United States Fuel Administration desires the 
adoption of this system by voluntary co-operation of pub- 
lic service commissions, municipal authorities, city com- 
missions and street railways. Since the actual fuel saving 
is so great in the aggregate, every citizen who is a car 
user will desire to have a part in this saving and to use 
his influence to effect the maximum saving. 

All mayors and those in authority are urged to have 
ordinances passed to keep vehicles off car tracks and keep 
the tracks clear of obstructions. In this way traffic will 
be accelerated and much time saved for the community. 
These extra stops waste power. 

It is also well to have the railway management and the 
city authorities make every effort to eliminate all stops 
on cars going up hill and around curves. Every effort 
should be made to see that stops at these points are re- 
duced to the absolute minimum as excessive power is re- 
quired for this operation. 

It is desirable to reduce the heating on the street cars. 
Approximately one-sixth of the operating fuel during 
the winter months is consumed in heating cars. In this 
war emergency the Fuel Administration desires that this 
heating be eliminated, except in very cold weather, and then 
only sufficient heating be used to take off the chill. In many 
cases cars have two points of heat, and it is suggested in 
these cases that the heaters be connected in series. Local 
municipal authorities and the railway companies are re- 
quested to work together on this and reduce the power 
consumption used for heat to a point that will be reason- 



able and not endanger public health or cause actual dis- 
comfort. 

All municipal authorities are urged to do everything 
they can to reduce the number of stops made by the in- 
terurban cars, especially within city limits. In a number 
of cities ordinances require these large cars, or in some 
cases, trains, to stop at a number of street intersections. 
These large cars require three to four times more power 
to start than do city cars of moderate size. 

Yours very truly, 
United States Fuel Administration. 

Exhibit III 
Letter to Electric Railway Companies 
In order to save fuel, the United States Fuel Administra- 
tion has advocated the use of the skip-stop system on all 
electric railways in cities of 25,000 population and over. 

To have the public understand the problem and give us 
their support, we are sending you a number of posters 
which read : 

Support the Skip Stop 

It will save 1,500,000 tons of coal per year. 
More coal means more steel. 
More steel means more guns and ammunition. 
More guns and ammunition, a shorter war and 
fewer casualties. 

United States Fuel Administration. 

We request that you paste these posters in some con- 
spicuous place in all passenger cars operating in city service. 

The United States Fuel Administration requests you to 
give this your personal attention and to see that the skip- 
stop service is operated so as to give satisfaction to the 
public. By so doing you will be rendering a patriotic 
service. 

Yours very truly, 
United States Fuel Administration. 

Exhibit IV 

Suggestions to Be Considered In Adopting the Skip-Stop 
System in Order That Maximum Fuel Saving and 
Reasonable Improvement in Service May 
Be Obtained 

In adopting the skip-stop system as a fuel-saving measure 
during the war, there are three fundamental principles 
which must be observed in order that the proper results 
may be assured. These are as follows: 

A. The system must be applied to the entire city, in- 
cluding the business district as well as the residence dis- 
trict, and not merely to the latter. 



CAR POSTER TO REMIND CREW OF MEANS AVAILABLE 
FOR SAVING ENERGY 




38 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 1 



B. The stopping points must be located so as to serve 
the people to the best advantage rather than to secure uni- 
form spacing or to follow any arbitrary rule. This may 
bring some of the stopping points on the near side of the 
street, some on the far side, and some in the middle of a 
block. It is better, however, to have such a diversity, with 
the points properly located, than to have uniformity if con- 
venience of location is sacrificed to secure this result. 

C. The number of stopping points must not be too 
great. There should be not more than eight per mile (aver- 
aging 660 ft. apart) in business districts, six per mile (aver- 
aging 880 ft. apart) in residence districts and four per mile 
(averaging 1320 ft. apart) in the open country. 

The remarkable improvement in the service which has 
been effected in Washington by the skip-stop system has 
been largely due to the proper observance of these prin- 
ciples. 

In addition to the above, which may be regarded as fun- 
damental, there are a number of other items which should 
be carefully considered in each case, but which, on account 
of local conditions, may or may not apply. These are : 

1. If the system is inaugurated gradually instead of 
all at once, it is preferable to put it into effect first in the 
congested downtown districts where a number of lines con- 
verge and to make it apply to all of the lines in that dis- 
trict. This will effect an immediate improvement in service 
on all of the lines and will prepare the way for a greater 
improvement when the system is extended. 

2. The stopping points should be plainly marked, pref- 
erably by signs bearing the words "Car Stop Entrance" or 
some similar designation which will be clear to anyone 
rather than merely by a colored stripe on the pole or other 
designation which is not self-explanatory. 

3. There should be a sign in each car giving a list of the 
points at which stops are made, where this is practicable, or, 
where this is not practicable, calling attention to the fact 
that the car stops only at certain streets and suggesting 
that passengers find from the conductor the nearest stop 
to their destination. 

4. Where lines diverge, the stopping points should be 
located so that the stopping of cars of one line will not hold 
back cars of the other line. A typical instance is where one 
line continues on a given street while a second line follows 
the same route for a portion of the distance and then turns 
into a side street. In such a case, if the cars of the first 
line stop in both directions beyond the point where the 
second line turns off and if the cars of the second line 
stop in both directions on the street which they alone use, 
the above object will be attained. 

5. In many cases a staggered arrangement of stopping 
points, so that if the cars bound in one direction stop at 
First Street, Third Street, etc., those bound in the other 
direction will stop at Fourth Street, Second Street, etc., 
will distribute the advantages of the system in a more 
equitable manner among all of the patrons than an arrange- 
ment by which the cars stop at a given point in both di- 
rections and skip the next former stopping point entirely. 
There are other cases, however, where this arrangement is 
not practicable. 

6. In connection with the introduction of the skip-stop 
system the matter of safety stops should be carefully re- 
viewed. There are many points at which cars are now 
required to come to a standstill where equally safe opera- 
tion can be obtained merely by having them slow down to 
a speed of 5 or 6 m.p.h. 

7. Where interurban cars enter cities, it is desirable 
that they should not be required to stop at every city car- 
stopping point (since such cars require much more power 
for starting than the city cars) but they should stop not 
oftener than every quarter mile. This can readily be ar- 
ranged for by the use of special signs at the interurban 
car-stopping points. 

8. By observing the above policies it is ordinarily pos- 
sible, when introducing the skip-stop system, to reduce the 
number of stopping points on city lines by from 30 to 40 
per cent. This usually reduces the number of stops actually 
made by about 25 per cent. Under these circumstances the 
schedule speed of the cars can, as a rule, be increased by 
from 10 to 12 per cent (without any increase in the maxi- 
mum speed) while at the same time the power required 
(and hence the fuel) is reduced by a corresponding amount. 

9. It has been more or less common, in introducing the 
skip-stop system, to begin with one or two lines and to re- 
duce the stopping points only in the outlying sections, mak- 
ing all stops as usual in the business district. Such an 
arrangement does not give satisfactory results from the 
standpoint of either fuel economy or improvement in service. 
It is in the effort to avoid the introduction of the system on 



such a basis in any future cases that we are calling especial 
attention to the above principles which it is necessary to 
follow in order to secure the desired results. 

10. Where single track is operated it is suggested that 
every other corner be skipped; that is, assuming that the 
streets are numbered 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th and 6th, to have 
the stopping places shown at 1st, 3d and 5th streets. In 
this way, confusion with reference to the placing of stop 
signs will be eliminated. This will reduce confusion in 
knowing where the car stops are located. 

11. All stops should be carefully marked. Where it is 
necessary to start the skip-stop system immediately and 
regular signs are not ready, in a number of cases tempo- 
rary signs are used. 

12. Previous to starting the skip-stop system the fullest 
publicity should be given to the established stopping places. 
This should appear in the daily papers supplemented by 
notices placed in the cars whenever practicable. 

Exhibit V 

Bulletin No. 29 of the American Electric Railway 
Association War Board 
on Skip-Stops 

The following letter has been received from the United 
States Fuel Administration regarding the operation and 
progress of the skip-stop system: 

Washington, D. C, Aug. 29, 1918. 
Mr. E. C. Faber, Manager, 

American Electric Railway Association War Board, 
950 Munsey Building, 
Washington, D. C. 

Dear Sir: 

War's excessive coal demands increasing from day to 
day, require us to conserve fuel in every possible way. 
Practically all of the industries of the country are saving 
fuel. Electric railway skip-stop operation presents one 
of the largest fields for fuel savings. The Fuel Adminis- 
tration urges that skip-stop service be adopted in the 
United States in cities having a population of 25,000 
or above. The fuel savings effected by this system will be 
at least 1,500,000 tons annually. We therefore request all 
electric railways to co-operate fully with the Fuel Adminis- 
tration in its efforts to save coal through the skip-stop 
system. 

We are sending letters to the State Fuel Administrators, 
who will in turn communicate with the public service com- 
missioners, mayors, city councilmen, and all others who 
regulate our public utilities, asking them to assist in putting 
the skip-stop system into effect Sept. 15, 1918. 

Posters will be distributed to railway companies with 
instructions to insert them in prominent places in city 
cars. The posters contain a patriotic appeal to the public, 
asking them to support the skip-stop system, and explain- 
ing why it is an essential war measure. 

Using the skip-stop system generally enables cars to be 
operated at 10 to 12 per cent higher schedule speed. The 
power saving varies from 8 to 16 per cent. Inasmuch as 
the cars operate at the higher schedule speed, it can be seen 
that the same service can be given with a lesser number 
of cars; or, providing the service warrants it, more service 
can be given with the same cars. 

The importance of having the full co-operation of rail- 
way companies in making the skip-stop system a success in 
every city cannot be emphasized too strongly. This re- 
quest from the United States Fuel Administration to the 
State Fuel Administrators and all public officials concerned, 
is merely to have the skip-stop system operative during the 
period of the war. The continuance of this economic method 
will in all probability depend upon the way the plan is 
carried out by the individual railway companies. 

The railways and public officials are also being requested 
to eliminate stops on up-grades wherever it is at all prac- 
ticable. These same officials are also being requested to 
eliminate all possible stops of interurban cars in cities, 
towns and villages. 

We are addressing this letter to you as the representative 
of the electric railway industry. We expect the American 
Electric Railway Association War Board to aid in every 
way possible in securing the maximum fuel savings that 
are consistent with proper railway service. 

We believe it is the patriotic duty of all railway men and 
of the individual members of the community to conserve fuel 
and man power by adopting the skip-stop system. 

United States Fuel Administration. 



January 4, 1919 



Electric "Railway Journal 



Electric Freight Haulage Is an Economic Duty 

Such Service Is Invaluable to City and Country — The Field Is 
Practically Unlimited, and the Service Can Be Developed by 
Making a Traffic Analysis, Providing the Proper Equipment, 
"Selling the Product" and Using Farsightedness and Imagination 

By A. B. COLE 

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company 



UNQUESTIONABLY it is the 
duty of electric railways to 
give the public the best possi- 
ble service. Therefore, it would be 
well for them to look very carefully 
into the question of public demands 
and the profitableness of freight busi- 
ness. 

Few lines would flatly say that it 
is profitable to handle freight. Most 
of them, however, would consider 
freight business profitable if they 
had "proper facilities," belts around 
cities and towns, freight houses, team 
tracks and steam road connections. 
In other words, they do not consider 
the business to be at present on a 
profitable basis, but they realize what 
is required to make it so. This en- 
tire view is somewhat pessimistic. 
Electric railways have a field entirely 
their own, and they are capable of 
giving service far superior to that of 
competitors. 

The electric railway has done more 
than all other transportation agencies 
to improve social life among both 
city and country dwellers, but it has 
met only a part of its possibilities as 
a conveyor and distributer of natural and manufactured 
goods. The electric railway, in fact, is in a position to 
do more to place the produce of the farm at the door 
of the consumer with greater dispatch and less cost than 
can be done by any other means of transportation. 

This closer co-operation with the farmer has been 
found profitable by many electric lines in more ways 
than one. For example, there is the good-will which 
now means so much to a utility, and the increase in 
tonnage that is bound to come with better crops and 
stock from more intensive and efficient operation. 
Through better transportation from the electric rail- 
way, the youth who formerly left the farm forever now 
hies himself off to the nearest agricultural college to 
become a modern farmer. 

The modern electric railway brings the city to the 
front door of the farmer. There are thousands of farm 
dwellers who date the history of their success and 
prosperity from the day when the electric interurban 
first reached their territory. In the past it was the 
case of an early start with a two-horse team and a 
hard day's ride whenever it was necessary to get into 
the city for supplies or to the market. The advent of 




A. B. COLE 

Although but nine years out of 
college, Mr. Cole is well known in the 
electrical field through his surveys of 
railway freight conditions, and his 
recent work for the Electric Railway 
War Board during the past year. 
After graduating from Purdue Uni- 
versity in 1909, he first acquired 
practical experience in the Westing- 
house shops and engineering and 
sales departments, later working his 
way upward through several divisions 
of the same company's publicity or- 
ganization. He is now assistant 
manager of that department, with 
headquarters at Pittsburgh. 



the electric interurban changed all 
this. The farmer now at any hour of 
the day finds it possible to board a 
fast electric train for a trip of a few 
hours to the city. He can ship his 
produce into the city every day in 
the week if desired, instead of hold- 
ing it for the weekly trip. He is in 
a position to take advantage of the 
market for his various commodities. 
His children are enabled to enjoy the 
educational and social advantages of 
the city and at the same time retain 
their residences on the farm. 

The electric railway has also 
proved of immediate value in bring- 
ing the school to the farm by the use 
of special trains with competent lec- 
turers and demonstrators. The sub- 
jects covered are usually dairying, 
horticulture, hog raising, poultry 
husbandry and farm management. 
Exhibits include dairy cows, hogs and 
other stock which are to prove the 
points made by the lecturers. The 
cars furnished by the railway operate 
on a fixed schedule, advance notice of 
the "Farm Special" being sent to 
every farmer in the interested ter- 
ritory, to all newspapers, commercial bodies and station 
agents. Generally, too, the merchants at towns 
along the way encourage the farmers to attend these 
"specials." The experts, who are drawn from the near- 
est schools, include specialists in everything from silos 
to eggs. 

The producing character of some districts so visited 
has greatly changed because of profitable advice given 
and followed. Thus, one district was devoted almost 
entirely to grain. Through the educational talks, the 
farmers saw that dairying, hog raising, and fruit rais- 
ing would be more desirable occupations, because of 
conditions peculiar to their territory. 

In addition to the farm specials, electric railways 
which sell power have run "Electricity on the Farm" 
and "Home" specials to demonstrate the use of elec- 
trically-operated farm tools and electric lighting. Un- 
fortunately, such practices have not been the rule. On 
many roads the freight business, like Topsy, "jes 
growed" with no general policy of development that 
would bring out the uttermost possibilities of the ter- 
ritory. 

The advantages arising from electric railway serv- 



40 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 1 



ice, however, do not lie solely with the farmers. The 
city dweller and the city merchant, for example, both 
profit by having the farm brought to their front door. 
The interurban railway brings in farm products fresh 
every day. They do not grow stale in transit but 
reach the city markets early the same day that they 
are shipped. 

In general the electric railway is considered an ad- 
vantage to the community. In many instances where 
electric railway service has been present the city mer- 
chants concede an increase of 10, 20 and 25 per cent in 
their business over a period of years, and in some cases 
the business has been of such noteworthy importance 
that it is only a question of time before the old cross- 
roads stores will go out of business, as the farmers 
prefer generally to trade in the larger towns. More- 
over, the electric service allows the storekeepers in the 
smaller outlying towns to carry smaller stocks and 
thus not tie up so much capital. 

Specimen comments regarding the value of the elec- 
tric lines follow: "They build up the towns, but turn 
trade to the cities"; "They give cheaper freight and 
more consideration of rights of shippers"; "They bene- 
fit all trading centers, large towns from smaller, and 
small towns from farmers" ; and "They gradually, but 
surely concentrate retail trade in the large cities." 

Electric Railways Are at Fault for 
Unpatronized Service 

The electric railway excels in time of transit and 
in the handling of merchandise freight. In many in- 
stances cultivation by the railway traffic department 
and proper advertising, backed up by salesmanship, 
would soon make known the wonderful facilities of the 
electric railway as a freight carrier. 

The problem before the electric railway in market- 
ing its commodity is the same as that of a manufac- 
turer who must break into the world market with a 
new product. He analyzes his field, and so must the 
electric railway in development of freight traffic. After 
proper analysis, the manufacturer launches an adver- 
tising campaign, backed by expert merchandising 
knowledge of the particular fields to be exploited. The 
electric railway must do likewise. 

Interurban Lines Need Awakening 

Despite the proved value of electric lines to the farm- 
ers and city dwellers alike, such carriers have not made 
full use of their opportunities for developing freight 
traffic. A railroad commissioner's view of the situation 
is summed up as follows : 

Apparently interurban interests have never fully 
awakened to the possibilities of freight transportation. 
Their facilities are not commensurate with the opportunity, 
and the managements do not seem to have enough confidence 
in the future to provide for possible expansion. 

The operation of single-unit trains is really an economic 
waste, in that it makes the unit cost of transportation a 
great deal higher than it should be. There is business in 
sight enough to justify multiple-unit trains in freight 
transportation on practically every interurban in the 
country — even though the bulk of the freight be not con- 
sidered. 

If the interurbans were to make a reasonably adequate 
effort to secure and handle bulk freight, the revenue de- 
rivable from freight transportation should be multiplied 
several times, as compared with present returns. 

If the interurban railways do not soon awaken to the 
situation and provide more adequate facilities, it is among 



the possibilities that they will lose a great deal of the pos- 
sible business to the several trunk lines, because of the in- 
adequacy of interurban transportation. 

Surveys made by various bodies on account of the freight 
congestion and the delay of steam railroad movement of 
l.c.l. freight, show unquestionably that the interurban rail- 
ways can be of good service to the country. They can re- 
lieve to a large extent the congestion of millions of tons 
of freight and thereby increase the car supply. 

In its case the fields to be exploited are, to speak 
broadly, carload freight, less-than-carload freight, and 
parcel dispatch. All three of these divisions, of course, 
are subdivided depending on the kinds of industries 
touched. 

To carry the merchandising parallel further, the 
manufacturer backs up his advertising campaign with 
expert salesmanship. In the case of the electric rail- 
way, these expert salesmen should be well-paid repre- 
sentatives of the traffic department under a high-grade, 
well-paid, experienced traffic manager. It is a well- 
known fact that the sales managers of first-class or- 
ganizations are often the highest type of man in the 
personnel. This should be true in the case of a traffic 
officer, and in order to obtain such talent he must 
receive a salary commensurate with his ability. 

Advertising and salesmanship of the manufacturer 
must be backed by its service from the main works; 
otherwise this expensive talent is wasted. The elec- 
tric railway is in a position to give service superior 
to that of its competitors, barring none, but unfor- 
tunately the electric railway has failed to tell the public 
of this uncomparable service. Electric railways are to 
blame for their unpatronized freight service. 

Economic Fallacy of the Motor Truck 

Motor-truck and electric railway facilities should be 
co-ordinated. The motor truck has practiced cam- 
ouflage, and the electric railway stands by and per- 
mits this competitor to take the very cream of its 
traffic. Short-haul tonnage is now being hauled by 
motor truck — a traffic which really belongs to the elec- 
tric railway, for the motor truck is economical over a 
very short distance comparatively. Yet the public has 
failed to recognize the true economic value of the elec- 
tric railway. Why? Because the majority of electric 
railways when promoted are not backed by the proper 
imagination and far-sightedness, which in turn would 
demand the aggressive methods needed to make known 
to the public the merits of such an incomparable service. 

So true is this that many chambers of commerce, 
boards of trade and other commercial bodies are help- 
ing to develop motor-truck haulage, failing to realize 
that this expensive system of transportation is entirely 
inadequate to meet the ultimate demands, while cheaper 
and better facilities — the electric railways — are avail- 
able. 

According to motor-truck promotion literature, the 
"star of the motor truck is only peeping above the 
economical horizon." The essential difference between 
the hauling of large volumes of freight by rail and sim- 
ilar volumes by motor trucks, it is said, is that in the 
first instance the rights-of-way represent private in- 
vestments, while in the latter case the rights-of-way 
are public property. But even on this basis an analysis 
will prove the economic fallacy of the motor truck for 
freight haulage, in that with its unrestricted use, there 
could be nothing less than a maximum of waste in 



January 4, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



41 



man - power and mainte- 
nance — in additional men 
for up-keep of roads, in in- 
creased demand for repair 
parts and in gasoline 
needed for other indus- 
tries. The winter of 1917- 
18 in many instances dem- 
onstrated the value of 
electric freight haulage. In 
some localities, where the 
weather was particularly 
severe, the electric railway 
showed its superiority by 
keeping traffic open and 
"delivering the goods," 
when the steam roads and 

motor trucks were at a standstill. In one instance, 
the electric line not only took care of the local pas- 
senger service when the steam roads were tied up, 
but it hauled meat, milk, coal and other necessities 
to the towns within its territory, thereby saving the 
communities from serious inconvenience if not a real 
famine. This service will not soon be forgotten by 
the patrons. If electric roads can deliver the goods 
under such extreme conditions, it is obvious that they 
can more than make good under normal conditions. 




L EQUIPMENT OF ILLINOIS TRACTION SYSTEM 



Steam and Electric Rates 
Fairly Comparable 



Not 



Having realized the folly of their original low rates, 
many electric railways have asked for, and occasion- 
ally secured, increased rates based upon the steam-rail- 
road classifications. As a rule these electric lines have 
waited for the steam competitors to take the initiative. 
With regard to the broad principle of rate-making, 
however, the electric railways have rarely fought for 
a special classification based upon their superior service. 

"Express service at freight rates" is an old slogan 
that has proved to be the downfall of many an inter- 
urban. With proper publicity, the public would pay 
the higher price that better service deserves. Such 
factors as early-morning delivery of overnight ship- 
ments and accessibility to stations entitles the electric 
railway to a differential wherever speed is the essence 
of the contract. 



Recent study has clearly 
disclosed the fact that both 
public utility commissions 
and chambers of commerce 
appreciate these inherent 
reasons for higher rates. 
In fact, they have stated 
that electric service is 
often worth at least 25 per 
cent more than steam serv- 
ice to the same destination. 
From this is would seem 
that if the railways de- 
veloped more salesmanship 
in marketing their su- 
perior product of freight 
transportation, they could 
build up more business regardless of steam rates. 

The field to which electric freight transportation may 
be offered is practically unlimited, and many lines now 
are engaged in an extensive business, accepting anything 
for transit that a steam line would. Noteworthy ex- 
amples of this practice are the Waterloo, Cedar Rapids 
& Northern Railway, the Inter-Urban Railway of Des 
Moines, the Michigan Railway, the Toledo & Western 
R.R., the Fort Dodge, Des Moines & Southern Railroad 
and the Youngstown & Ohio River Railroad. There are 
also some roads which perform special service, such as 
industrial switching between steam roads and industries, 
while others handle primarily one principal commodity, 
such as coal. An example of the former type of road 
is the Niagara Junction Railway, and of the latter 
Bellville Electric Railway. 

Moreover, there are other roads that are just break- 
ing into the heavy haulage business, such as the De- 
troit United Railway, the Chicago, North Shore & 
Milwaukee Railroad and the Chicago, Lake Shore & 
South Bend Railway. All of the foregoing handle 
freight with electric locomotives and motor-freight 
cars. The heavy interurban roads are also found han- 
dling a tremendous tonnage, principally of merchandise 
both l.c.l. and c.L, and here we find solely motor-freight 
car and trailer operation with practically no steam 
railroad interchange. Notable examples of this type 
are the Ohio Electric Railway, the Union Traction Com- 
pany of Indiana, the Northern Ohio Traction & Light 




SPECIAL At 



42 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 1 



Company, the Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus 
Railway, the Grand Rapids, Grand Haven & Muskegon 
Railway, the Pittsburgh, Harmony, Butler & New Cas- 
tle Railway and the Terre Haute, Indianapolis & East- 
ern Traction Company. An embryo freight road, 
about ready to develop its territory, is found in the 
East St. Louis & Suburban Railway. 

The commodities handled by electric lines may be 
divided into several general classes, as follows: 

Products of agriculture 
Products of animals 
Products of mines 
Products of forests 
Manufacturers 

Merchandise and other commodities 
Merchandise not included in the above 

The term freight haulage does not necessarily apply 
to package freight or l.c.l. lots, as almost every inter- 
urban electric railway is doing a considerable amount 
of this business. What many electric lines have not 
fully developed is the handling of carload freight, which 
is the mainstay of the steam railroads. An example 
of what is possible on a 35-mile interurban line is 
shown from the following statement of commodities 
handled in one year: 

Stone 816 cars 

Coal 240 cars 

Hay 226 cars 

Tomatoes 51 cars 

Tomato crates 46 cars 

Miscellaneous 42 cars 

Wheat 27 cars 

Oats 22 cars 



Pipe 21 cars 

Horses 20 cars 

Bolts 19 cars 

Brick 18 cars 

Tile 15 cars 

Lumber n cars 

Milk 6 cars 



The accompanying tables give further data of this 
sort. Table I shows the tonnage record by commodities 



for the Salt Lake & Utah Railroad during 1917. Tables 
II and III give respectively specimen operating statis- 
tics of this railway for the month of February, 1917, 
and data showing the conditions of operation of this 
company. 

How to Develop Freight Service 

The interurban is no longer the proverbial "shoe' 
string railway" that ran somewhere out into the coun- 
try, but a well organized railway capable of rendering 
valuable economic service to its territory. While many 
lines were developed primarily for passenger business, 
some of these can readily help relieve traffic conges- 
tion and improve their load factors by hauling freight- 
To this end they should : 

1. Make a traffic survey. 

2. Develop dairy traffic handled by freight-motor 
cars. 

3. Encourage merchandise shipments, handled in less 
than carloads or carload shipments by locomotives or 
motor cars and trailers. 

4. Relieve steam railroads of local traffic. 

5. Develop steam-railroad interchange. 

6. Establish sidings and belt-lines, where possible,, 
for industrial development. 

7. Cultivate commercial bodies in their territory, and 
demonstrate the possibilities of electric service. 

While freight haulage in its expanded form may call 
for the use of such special equipment as is shown by 
the accompanying illustrations of an automobile car on 



TABLE I— TONNAGE OF COMMODITIES HANDLED BY SALT LAKE & UTAH RAILROAD DURING 1917 



Commodity 


January 


February 


March 


April 


May 


June 


July 


August 


September 


October 


November 


December 


Total 


Automobiles 






37 


23 


25 


23 




5 


6 


6 


7 


6 


138 


Beets 


1.521 


"29 




348 


88 








12,078 


10,881 


7,916 


32,861 


Brick 














"63 




20 






20 


103 


Building materials 
















82 






82 


Canned goods 


25 




46 




27 








54 


54 


205 


163 


574 












23 


25 


12 


49 


63 


34 






206 


Cattle' " . . . . . . . . 
























Cement 






23 1 


181 


374 


269 


' 224 


266 


142 


178 


118 




2,003 


Coal 


490 


783 


885 


504 


683 


637 


664 


1,240 


4,367 


3,371 


1,173 


4,085 


18.882 


Coke 








56 




29 




25 




24 




246 


380 


Electrical supplies 




15 




15 




15 




15 




1 5 


75 


Explosives 




























['lie clay 




20 




20 








30 


32 








102 


Flour 








30 


37 








20 


49 


25 


67 


22& 


Fruit 


















2,914 


591 


133 




3,638 


Grain 




87 


69 


151 


315 


81 


29 


20 


132 


100 


160 


15 


1,159 


Hay 


12 


91 


217 


227 


43 




19 


121 


68 


23 


220 


1,041 


Limestone 
















36 






100 


283 


419 


Lumber 


362 


1 37 


219 


459 


478 


1,152 


688 


787 


556 


250 


111 


289 


5,488 


Machinery 










23 


33 




80 


70 


70 


6 




282 


Merchandise 


487 


589 


892 


824 


825 


810 


720 


948 


999 


984 


654 


748 


9,480 


Miscellaneous 


30 


100 


37 


12 


124 


105 


139 


41 


227 


231 


99 


46 


1,191 


Ores 




















20 






20 


Potatoes 




198 


98 


112 












613 


"272 


105 


1,416 


Rail 










162 


414 


360 


90 


18 






39 


1,101 


Salt 


"75 


"57 


88 


47 


41 






23 


45 


" "49 


"50 


31 


506 


Steel 








110 


37 


24 




31 


36 




21 


70 


329 


Sugar 


. 1.324 


2,027 


2.442 


427 


5 


53 


48 


80 


141 


' 2,664 


935 


771 


10.917 


Sewer pipe 


27 








7 














34 


Ties 

Tile 




40 


118 


71 


221 


739 


766 


808 


149 


30 


20 




2,962 


Track material 














" "7 




" ' i,8 








25 


Vehicles 




























\ egetables 


















282 


"272 


142 


215 


911 


Poles 


" 227 


"ii4 


50 


34 


68 


40 


103 


20 


40 






30 


726 


Cereal 


15 






18 


















33 


Corn 


37 


51 






















88 


Syrup 


181 


70 


72 




"55 








359 


612 


194 


627 


2,170 


Junk 




21 


36 


138 


80 


62 


42 


65 


58 








502 


Iron pipe 






188 


79 




6 






38 


35 






390 


Wire 




37 


57 


8 


35 








1 1 








148 


Agricultural implements.. 




30 


39 


115 


28 


33 


22 




13 








280 


Slags 








99 


















99 


Beet seed 








64 






29 


15 










108 


Wagons 








28 










23 




17 


68 


Iron 








80 


43 


40 








16 






179 


Miii stuff 




... .5 


17 












21 


26 


79 


Freight cars 










162 


60 


12 


12 




220 






466 


Boxes 












55 


49 




36 


24 


15 




179 


■Spikes 












66 












66 


Horses 














"M 












14 


Soda ash 














58 












58 


Silo 














279 


36 








315 


Oil . 
















17 










17 
139 


Shooks 
















no 




29 






Baskets 
















80 


59 






139 


Asphalt 




















'316 


76 




392 



Total. 



4,813 4,511 5,838 4,283 4,024 4,776 4,049 5,179 11,174 23,026 15,441 16,094 103.208 



January 4, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



43 



the Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern Railway and a 
coal car of the Illinois Traction System, it requires 
only simple equipment to begin the handling of local 
freight. Many a road has started by using one or 
two freight motor cars, each able to haul three or 
four trailers. As business grew, one or two freight 
locomotives were secured. Motive power equipment is 
available which has such characteristics that operating 
an "off-peak" freight service would not necessarily re- 
quire any additional substation, power house or feeder 
capacity or in anyway interfere with regular traffic. 
Low-speed field-control locomotive motors can handle 
heavy drags of freight cars with no greater power de- 
mands than those required by a single high-speed large 
interurban car. 

One of the secrets of the rapid and extensive growth 
of freight business on some electric lines is that they 
have complete traffic arrangements with steam and elec- 
tric connecting lines, and a well-organized method of 
securing business. Invariably, too, it is found that the 
electric railways which do the heaviest freight business 
usually have former steam railroad men in charge of 
this branch. With the nationalization of the steam rail- 
roads there should be available for re-employment some 
steam traffic men who could easily prove invaluable to 



any electric railway which wants to build up its freight 
business. Such men not only know how to secure busi- 
ness and move traffic; they are also familiar with the 
complex practices peculiar to steam railroad interchange 
of traffic and equipment. 

The disease of "localism," or deliberately building 
non-interchangeable equipment, must be cured if the 
electric railway wants to do more than a village business. 
In several instances it has been found that through a 
mistaken sense of standardization the policy of the 
mechanical department actually hindered the develop- 
ment of inter-line freight business. For example, be- 
cause one property was using the same type of coupler 
on both passenger and freight cars it could not handle 
M. C. B.-equipped cars in interchange. Some roads dis- 
courage interchange because of their unwillingness to 
have their rolling stock travel on foreign electric lines, 
being quite devoid apparently of consideration for the 
meaning and the value of car interchange pooling 
practice. 

These points, although small in themselves, are very 
important in connection with the development of elec- 
tric freight on a large scale. It is neglect of points of 
this kind that causes steam railroads to fail to deliver 
a car at the designated place on the electric line, despite 



TABLE II— SPECIMEN OPERATING STATISTICS OF SALT LAKE & 
UTAH RAILROAD FOR MONTH OF FEBRUARY, 1917 
Freight Statistics 

Number of tons of freight carried earning revenue 4,51 1 

Number of tons of freight carried one mile 72,020 

Number of tons of freight carried one mile per mile of road 1,081 

Average distance haul of one ton 15.9 

Average amount received for each ton of freight $0 96874 

Freight revenue per mile of road $65 61531 

Freight revenue per train-mile $1 . 25430 

Freight revenue per ton per mile $0 06068 

Average number of tons of freight per loaded car-mile 5.1 

Average number of freight, cars per train-mile 5.1 

Average number of loaded ears per train-mile 4.1 

Average number of empty cars per train-mile 1.0 

Average mileage operated during month 66.6 

Average operating cost per ton per mile $0 06825 

Average operating cost per freight train-mile $1 41090 

Miscellaneous Statistics 

Revenue from transportation per car-mile $0 49535 

Revenue from transportation per car-hour $8 40951 

Revenue from transportation per train-mile $0 73323 

Revenue from other railway operations per car-mile $0 00963 

Revenue from other railway operations per ear-hour $0 16685 

Operating revenues per car-mile $0 50518 

Operating revenues per car-hour $8 57634 

Operating revenues per train-mile $0 74781 

Operating revenues per mile of road $476. 07702 

Net operating revenues per car-mile $0. 13012 

Net operating revenues per car-hour $2. 20909 

Net operating revenues per train-mile $0 1 9262 

Gross operating expenses per car-mile $0 38751 

Gross operating expenses per car-hour $6. 57877 

Gross operating expenses per train-mile $0. 57364 

Gross operating expenses per mile of road $365. 19099 

Freight, mail and express car mileage 17,795 

Freight, mail and express ear-hours 1,852 

Maintenance of way per mile of track $73 . 34 

Average maintenance cost per passenger car $23.99 

Average maintenance cost per freight car $4 16 

Average maintenance cost per car of electric motive power $29. 90 

Station and terminal expense per passenger-mile $0 00193 

Station and terminal expense per ton-mile $0 02509 

Maintenance not dependent on train movement per mile of road. . $67. 39 

Per cent of freight revenue, loss and damage freight 01 501 

Passenger Statistics 

Regular fare passengers carried 52,396 

Revenue transfer passengers carried 

Free transfer passengers carried _ 

Average number of passengers per car-mile 19.2 

Average number of passengers per train-mile. 22 2 

Average number of passenger cars per train-mile 1.2 

Revenue passengers carried 1 mile 862,072 

Revenue passengers carried one mile per mile of road 12,944 

Average distance each passenger carried 16 4 

Average fare received from each passenger $0 39724 

Average passenger train revenue per mile of road $312 52147 

Average passenger-mile revenue $0 024 1 6 

Average passenger-mile operating costs $0 01317 

Passenger car mileage 44,968 

Passenger car-hours 

Average operating cost per passenger car^mile $0. 25248 

Average operating cost per passenger train-mile $0 29177 

Average passenger revenue per car-mile $0. 46286 

Average passenger revenue per train-mile $0. 53486 



-DATA SHOWING OPERATING CONDITIONS OF 
SALT LAKE & UTAH RAILROAD 



Utah-Idaho Sugar Companies Beet Loading Platfo, 



< i ranger 
Morherg 
Lehi 
Salem 



Harmon 
Redwood 
Manila 



Bello 

Riverton 

Springville 



Fifteenth South 

Bluffdale 

Keeler 



Industries Srried Through Conntcting /., 



All industries in; Salt Lake City and Provo, other than are reached directly by 
the tracks of the Salt Lake it Utah Railroad, are served through reciprocal switch- 
ing agreements between this road and steam roads. 

Routes and Rates: 

Through routing and rates are in effect with all lines in connection with the 
Union Pacific System, thus giving the industries located on our tracks all the 
benefit of their rates and routing. 



Proportion of Intrastate and Interstate Freight Business: 

(65 per cent intrastate and 35 per cent interstate) 

During the calendar year of 1917, the Salt Lake & Utah Railroad handled 1 708 
carloads moving on interline rates: 

Carloads 

Coal 462 

Grain and hay 46 

Green fruit 294 

Lumber and forest products 23 1 

Potatoes 41 

Sugar and syrup 325 

Miscellaneous 311 

In addition to the carload interline business, more than 2,000,000 pounds of 
interline package freight was handled. . 

For the same period, the handling of purely local Ireight, ,. ,., Ireight picked up 
and laid down along the line, approximated 1,500 carloads of solid carload freight,, 
and 1 8,000,000 pounds of less than carload freight. 

Passenger: 
No interline business. 
Equipment Owned: 

Freight Equipment: 

Tons (_ apacity 

Three electric locomotives 750 

Twenty-six box cars ,n2'22n 

Twenty all steel side' dump gondola cars 100,000 

Ten best cars 80,000 

Seven flat cars £0.000 

Four refrigerator cars 80,000 

Two freight cabooses 

Passenger Equipment: 

Two all-steel motor express cars 
One all-steel trailer express cars 

Eleven all-steel combined express and passenger motor cars 
Four all-steel passenger coaches 

Men employed 143 

Fuel used Hydroelectric power, purchased from the Utah Power i: 

Light Company, and obtained by them from various 
mountain si reams in Utah and Idaho. 



44 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 1 



billing instructions and regardless of the inconvenience 
to the consignee. If electric railways wish to deal with 
the steam railroads, they must play according to the 
rules of the game. 

Choosing the Proper Freight Organization 

The quantity of business and the methods by which it 
is handled naturally control the size and the character 
of a freight traffic organization. While steam railroads 
have a fairly standardized freight department regard- 
less of size, the electric railways of the United States, 
when viewed from the goods-handling standpoint, are 
divided into six different classes, as follows : 

1. Purely passenger lines. 

2. Lines over which an old-line express company 
operates on a percentage basis (usually 55 per cent of 
receipts) and offers a wagon collection and delivery serv- 
ice at rates slightly above those fixed by steam roads 
for straight rail transportation. 

3. Lines which have entered into agreements to form 
a co-operative express package company organized and 
operated as a separate corporation with wagon collec- 
tion and delivery service and with rates practically equal 



Messengers 



to those of the old-line express company. For example, 
the Electric Package Express Company, Cleveland, Ohio. 

4. Lines which operate less-than-carload freight busi- 
ness at steam railroad rates with a dispatch service at 
twice first-class steam rates, as for material within the 
100-lb. limit and carried upon passenger cars. 

5. Lines which operate a general freight and ex- 
press business including both carload and less-than- 
carload shipments, with interchange relations, carrying 
through rates with steam roads, but exclusive of a 
through freight business. 

6. Lines operating a general freight business on ex- 
actly the same basis as steam railroads, and considered 
practically as electrically operated steam railroads. The 
Piedmont & Northern Lines, the Fort Dodge, Des 
Moines & Southern Railroad, the Inter-Urban Railway 
of Des Moines, the Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern 



Railway and the Toledo & Western Railway are ex- 
amples. This class includes terminal, belt and switch- 
ing lines, such as the Niagara Junction Railway, the 
Bush Terminal Railroad and the Hoboken Shore Road. 

In each of the classes where freight or express is in- 
volved an entirely separate department with a special 
type of organization should be created. The accompany- 
ing organization charts are illustrative of methods now 
in use. The Detroit United Railway has heavy inter- 
urban l.c.l. freight traffic, while the Waterloo, Cedar 
Falls & Northern Railway has freight traffic similar to 
that under steam operation. The Aurora, Elgin & 
Chicago Railroad has a large amount of dispatch pack- 
age freight, and the New York State Railways a con- 
siderable amount of pick-up and a large amount of par- 
cel freight. The service on these two lines is more or 
less alike, the main difference lying in the rapid transit 
of the former. 

Hints For Organization 

Where a line has been operating a strictly local freight 
and express, the ideal organization would include a 
general freight and passenger agent in charge of the 



securing of business and the general handling of mate- 
rial to and from cars. His duties are such that the 
freight business need not be separated from passenger 
business except in routine matters, and the latter may 
be handled by clerks. This official should be the court 
of last resort in all traffic matters, including the di- 
rection of all division agents, advertising, issuance of 
tariffs, etc. He should be in close touch with all in- 
dustrial, commercial and trade organizations. He must 
also be familiar with such transportation as relates 
to the handling of regular and special trains. Through 
his acquaintance with shippers and the methods of bill- 
ing and handling in transit, he can give excellent coun- 
sel to claim investigators, who may work under his 
supervision or under that of the auditing department. 

Enough district freight and passenger agents to cover 
the territory should be appointed by this general freight 




January 4, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



45 



and passenger agent. These district agents must cul- 
tivate their respective sections to the extent of ac- 
quaintanceship with their large shippers and all pros- 
pects. In soliciting, agents should carry on an in- 
vestigation along the following lines : 

1. List all city and suburban points which require 
through freight service. 

2. Determine the amount of outbound and inbound 
business to and from the heavy shipping points. 

3. Prepare maps — one on a large scale to show each 
community ; another on a smaller scale to show the sur- 



dexed later by a clerk in the office of the general traffic 
agent. Learn and record the special requirements of 
each shipper. 

5. In farm and orchard sections, learn in advance 
what the car requirements of each producer will be at 
the stated crop time. Such data of forehandedness 
should be indexed. 

6. On completing these surveys, record and map the 
expected tonnages to predetermine the economical equip- 
ment required in beginning freight service. 

The district agent should act in an advisory capacity 



ORGANIZATION CHART 
OF THE 
WATERLOO, CEDAR FALLS 
& NORTHERN RAILWAY 



Supcn 
Bridges and 
Buildings 



C Shpp°' 
Foreman ; 





rounding country, and also one of company properties 
that may possibly be used for freight stations, including 
lots acquired. 

4. Show on the maps the distance of the commercial 
center or the center of the city from all proposed freight 
stations, and note the corresponding distance of steam 
stations. Map also all prominent houses, bakeries, mar- 
kets, packing houses, factories, quarries, sand pits, 
dairies, truck gardens, large farms, mines, grain ele- 
vators and other sources of traffic — these items may be 
catalogued on the maps by number or symbol and in- 



to the local or way station agent, who usually knows his 
public's whims and fancies. All matters regarding the 
handling and the delivery of freight through the ware- 
house and way station should come through the local 
agent under the district agent's supervision. The fact 
that several station agents are under the jurisdiction of 
one district agent permits comparison of respective 
efficiencies and is a general stimulus to improvement in 
getting and handling freight traffic. 

At larger freight stations the personnel, in addition 
to the local agent and regular clerical help, usually in- 



46 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 1 



eludes day and night foremen who supervise the check- 
ers, receiving clerks and truckers. These foremen report 
directly to the local agent. The job of warehouse fore- 
man is not easy, and it is highly necessary that a man 
appointed to this position should have the tact to handle 
subordinates and teamsters. 

The treatment of the teamster is particularly im- 
portant, for he is the shipper's representative and often 
embodies the only contact that the railway may have 
with the customer for months. Therefore, facilities 
should be provided to enable the teamsters to deliver 
goods and secure receipts without delay. Much can be 
accomplished in securing their good will by properly 
paved driveways and adequate weather awnings or can- 
opies. 

It is also highly important that great care should be 
given to the movement of freight through the ware- 
house. Inferior men paid less than the steam railroad 
scale cause a large number of "overs" and "shorts" and 
also damage merchandise. The cost of better-paid men 
will more than offset the cost of dissatisfied customers 
and freight claims that often exceed the actual gross 
freight revenue. Claims may be kept down also by using 
an experienced man or stevedore to stow shipments into 
the cars. Where business is not too great, the local 
agent should supervise the loading of freight, thereby 
assuming personal responsibility for its condition and 
loading. 

Usually the local or way-station agent reports to all 
the proper departments regarding matters under his 
supervision. His ability should be equal to or better 
than that of the steam agent in the same community. 
Where it would not be profitable to keep a salaried agent, 
a store-keeper whose place is near the station often will 
act as agent, his compensation being based on the quan- 
tity of business handled. 

Current practice on many electric lines is to combine 
the job of agent with that of substation attendant. 
This is satisfactory only when the business through the 
station is small and non-competitive. Such an agent's 
first duty is that of substation attendant, and he should 
not be expected to solicit business, collect bills and make 
adjustments outside the station unless he has an as- 
sistant. With the advent of the automatic substation, 
this difficulty may eventually be eliminated. 

At points where there is not enough business to war- 
rant a station, many roads have some local teamster act 
as the local agent, meet all trains and make collections 
and deliveries of freight. This teamster-agent acts as 
a way-station agent except that he has nothing to do 
with the sale of tickets to passengers. As this service 
does not require all of his time, he is able to do general 
teaming. 

After the traffic begins to develop it is usually found 
that the simple traffic organization outlined above cannot 
handle all the work. It must be enlarged and special- 
ized. Generally the dairy business is the first to demand 
this attention. A dairy agent can go a long way toward 
increasing this traffic, not only by looking after the de- 
tails but also by inducing the farmers to organize co- 
operative milk depots and by arranging for lectures by 
experts from local educational institutions on increased 
efficiency in dairy output. After this division has been 
established, use may be found for an industrial agent 
to organize farmers into elevator companies, interest 



manufacturers to locate their plants along the line, ar- 
range for sidings to nearby plants, etc. 

It may also be found necessary to employ an agent 
for soliciting freight. This agent may cover not only 
his own property but also that of competitive steam 
lines. He is especially valuable when able to secure the 
personal acquaintance of large shippers, even if he does 
not increase the local l.c.l. business. This can be better 
fostered by the local agent and his assistant, whose in- 
timacy with the community leads them to be favored. 

More business also leads to enlargement of the de- 
partment for investigating and settling freight claims. 
The usual head of this department is a freight claim 
agent who reports directly to the general manager, 
since the results of his investigations often require that 
employees of other departments be disciplined. Enough 
claim investigators should be employed to permit ex- 
peditious handling of claims through personal investi- 
gation and correspondence. The shortest way to stop 
a claim is for the local and way-station agents to re- 
port all freight matters directly to the claim agent, with 
a copy to the traffic manager or other head of the traffic 
department. 

A Specimen Growth From Small Beginnings 

In developing any freight business, it seems logical 
to cultivate the local business first and then look for 
other territory to be served. A specific case of growth 
from small beginnings is the Waterloo, Cedar Falls & 
Northern Railway. This road was chartered originally 
in 1895, under the name of the Waterloo & Cedar Falls 
Rapid Transit Company. It adopted the present name 
in 1904, having in the meantime built up an extensive 
steam-road extension, of which one line of 33 miles was 
opened in 1903. In 1904 the company leased a 22-mile 
branch of the Chicago Great Western Railroad (steam) 
between Waverly and Sumner, Iowa. 

In 1910, however, operation of the Chicago Great 
Western branch was discontinued, a line being built from 
Denver Junction to Waverly. In 1912 the company 
started a line from Waterloo to Cedar Rapids, completed 
it in September, 1914, and placed it in operation as a 
1300-volt d.c. railway in March, 1915. 

A few years ago this system had a very inadequate 
freight terminal in the city of Waterloo. It had traffic 
connection with but one steam line, which it reached 
only through the city streets. Freight cars could be 
handled only at night, and property owners protested. 
The management, realizing that good freight terminals 
were necessary to develop a large carload business, pro- 
ceeded to build an outer belt line. This extends around 
the factory district of Waterloo and ties together all 
steam lines entering Waterloo. In connection with this 
belt line, trap-car service is operated to supplement the 
terminal freight operation in East Waterloo. The East 
Waterloo terminal is only five or six blocks from the 
principal business district of Waterloo. 

At the terminal on the Denver Division, 17 miles 
north, connection is made with the Chicago Great 
Western Railroad to secure a shorter route to points 
north and west. A traffic agreement was entered into 
whereby freight directed to or coming from points north 
or west of Waterloo is turned over from the steam road 
to the electric line for handling. This agreement opened 
up a great territory for the jobbers and merchants of 



January 4, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



47 



Waterloo and enabled both the steam and electric lines 
to develop business in the new territory. It also helped 
the steam line to win competitive business which it had 
not been able to secure before on account of its inability 
to meet the time schedule of other steam lines. 

Real Freight Salesmanship 
One of the small country towns on the Waterloo, 
Cedar Falls & Northern line was visited by a traffic 
officer. Through conversation with a bank cashier he 
learned that the bank was in correspondence with four 
or five farmers in Illinois with reference to securing 
farms at some point in Iowa. Following up this slight 
clue, the officer went to Illinois to see the farmers, ex- 
pecting, if successful, to secure the haulage of six or 
seven carloads of household goods and farm implements. 
The farmers, impressed by such intelligent inquiry, be- 
came interested to the extent that they bought farms 
located at different points along the electric line. All 
these farmers were progressive men. One of the first 
things they did on occupying their new farms was to 
begin tiling them for drainage. The older farmers in 
this vicinity were so impressed that several hundred 



trial shipments to and from the various points and 
from farms along the line, including milk shipments for 
city dairies. The milk, which is picked up at country 
road crossings by the passenger cars, is handled by the 
duplicate ticket arrangement, each milk can bearing a 
ticket of the required denomination. Milk tickets are 
on regular sale at any of the company's stations. At 
various country crossings several co-operative creameries 
deliver to the road their butter shipments for Chicago 
and New York. This traffic, which is handled in re- 
frigerator cars, averages one or more cars a week 
throughout the year. 

To speak strictly, the express business is handled by 
the American Express Company, which looks after the 
development of this line. Therefore the responsibility 
for handling express does not fall upon the railway. 

The traffic department of the Waterloo, Cedar Falls & 
Northern Railway is headed by a general freight and 
passenger agent, who is in complete charge of all traffic. 
Under him are two assistant general freight and pas- 
senger agents at two important terminals, and a travel- 
ing freight agent who makes his headquarters at the 
largest terminal city. The assistant general freight 



©ft 




!LWAT©Ig 
• ®es Hike ILLINOIS ° 
TRACTION SYSTEM 



§j| &ivo the producer tho advantage? 
of a short , quick, economical 
haul to tho citu market • • 



"there POWERFUL 
LECTRIC LOCOMOTIVES 




BUILDING FREIGHT TRAFFIC WITH CAR CARDS ON THE I. T. S. 



more cars of drain tile are shipped annually to this 
territory than in former years. 

This line was further developed by keeping in touch 
with building contractors and men handling materials 
for new construction. By watching the award of con- 
tracts and following them up, it has been possible to 
secure the routing over the electric line of large quan- 
tities of brick, cement, plaster, hollow block, stone, sand, 
etc., purchased at points in the tributary territory. 

In developing l.c.l. shipments, or package freight, a 
careful investigation was made of the shipments of milk 
and express parcels. When the Cedar Valley road placed 
in operation several years ago the line between Waterloo 
and Cedar Falls, and package freight was first handled, 
it was necessary to meet the competition of a dray line 
in order to get the business. The two towns were only 
8 miles apart, but the slow dray service was well devel- 
oped. A motor express car service of two round trips 
per day was installed. This service was well advertised. 
By degrees the dray competition was eliminated, so 
that now practically all the package freight between 
the two cities is handled by the interurban motor freight 
express cars at a great saving in time. This service is 
also handled in connection with the Chicago Great 
Western Railroad, shipments from Chicago into Cedar 
Falls aggregating a considerable amount daily. 

In the factory district the electric line handles indus- 



and passenger agent at the headquarters of the railway 
is in charge of assigned special duties, while the other 
assistant has charge of the solicitation of traffic. The 
traveling freight agent makes all competitive towns on 
the system, and a general agent in a small city on one 
of the branches has charge of all local traffic solicitation 
there. Then come the usual way-station agents. 

To secure business to and from any point in the 
United States the general freight and passenger agent 
spends about one-half of his time in visiting the various 
trunk-line points throughout the country. His work is 
followed up by special agents across the United States. 
These call upon those large manufacturers who prohibit 
trunk line solicitations but who may be prevailed upon 
to route via electric lines. Agents and representatives 
of foreign lines with whom the electric line has business 
are also visited. These remarks apply before govern- 
ment control went into effect. 

Records compiled from information secured by the 
traffic department are used to keep track of both the 
volume and the origin of business. These records are 
kept according to firms, towns, comparison reports and 
information secured by personal contact with brokers. 

In addition to the use of facilities like grain elevators 
and stockyards, several other excellent means new to 
freight business are pursued to increase traffic. Thus, 
competitive points are visited by the traveling freight 



48 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol 53, No. 1 



agent to induce elevator men to ship their grain over 
the electric line. Milling-in-transit arrangements permit 
grain coming from points' on the electric line, its trunk- 
line connections or other points in Iowa and surround- 
ing states, to be milled in transit and then shipped to 
destination as a completed product. For instance, a 
carload of corn routed to Chicago via the electric line 
is set out at Cedar Rapids, milled into starch and then 
forwarded to destination on the original billing. Thus 
the electric line can offer every advantage of the steam 
railroad in addition to its superior speed. 

Reciprocal switching arrangements between the elec- 
tric line and all trunk lines making connections in cities 
served by the former enable business industries located 
on other roads to be handled as if they originated on the 
electric line itself. By this arrangement all classes of 
business can be solicited regardless of location. For 
example, a complete train of automobiles routed from 
a connecting steam railroad was shipped from Flint, 
Mich., to Waterloo, Iowa, via the electric line. 

Very often the projectors of an electric railway will 
find in examining territory that little more than a few 
stagnant villages and some discouraged farmers exist, 
but a closer study of the country itself will often 
disclose an enormous number of verdant forests, un- 
developed quarries, sand-pits, ice-producing lakes and 
promising fruit and dairy-lands. It is not enough 
for the railway men to consider furnishing merely the 
means of transportation for these products. It is just 
as important that they assist considerably in encourag- 
ing the investment of capital in order to exploit these 
resources so that a profitable outlet may be found for 
each product and dormant communities may be aroused 
to the new possibilities that stand before them. 

Freight Service Must Be Advertised 

While it has always been the custom of railroads, both 
steam and electric to advertise their passenger business 
elaborately, in many instances electric lines have failed 
to foster their freight business, by means of advertising 
and constructive publicity. 

It is not sufficient to advertise on the time table that 
a company has fast freight service. It is important that 
other mediums be used. First of all a small double- 
column newspaper "ad" about 2 in. deep, run every day, 
is one form of keeping the service before the public. 

Another good form is the use of car cards. A notable 
example is the case of the Illinois Traction System, 
which advertises its facilities, not only motive power, 
but also grain elevators. Two of this company's cards 
are reproduced on page 47. 

In connection with advertising motive power, it is 
always well to bear one thought in mind. This is, that 
it is highly necessary for confidence to be established 
in the minds of the shipping public. This is possible 
through telling them about the service and then, in 
turn, about the facilities that make this service possible, 
showing them that the company has the proper rolling 
stock to insure prompt and reliable transit. 

Blotters are also an effective means of advertising 
freight service. The company publication, which is 
generally placed in the car rack, is an excellent medium 
to keep this service constantly in the minds of the public. 

Another effective medium is bill-board advertising. 
A few bill-boards placed at strategic points along the 



line may be of considerable service, as generally an at- 
tractively painted billboard is hard for a passerby — be 
he riding or walking— to get away from. A number 
of electric lines have resorted to this type of advertising 
for passenger service. Why not consider using such 
for freight service, which is much more profitable? 

The Union Traction Company of Indiana, through a 
monthly publication known as the Union Indiana Trac- 
tion System Magazine, distributes articles on truck 
farming and other subjects of interest to its communi- 
ties. This magazine has proved to be of considerable 
force in fostering friendly feeling. 

This Is the Situation 

In conclusion, the outstanding points of the electric 
railway freight situation are these: 

1. Electric railway freight haulage is economically 
one of the most important factors in many of the rapidly 
growing communities of the country, especially in the 
Middle West. The field for hauling electric railway 
freight has not been thoroughly developed, because 
operators of electric railway properties have not gone 
into this phase of railroading in an analytical way. 

2. A study of operating statistics will show that 
electric railways have handled freight as a side issue. 
Very few electric railway properties throughout the 
country show a freight business of more than 15 per 
cent of their gross revenue and many not 5 per cent. In 
the case of steam railroads the freight business has 
always been the backbone of gross receipts. 

3. The "jitney" took millions of dollars from the 
electric railway before it was regulated, and the motor 
truck will take many more if electric railway manage- 
ments do not wake up to the fact that they have an 
economic duty to perform for the communities served. 
This duty must be fulfilled by developing to the utmost 
the commercial and social side of the public by giving 
adequate freight service and last, but not least, first-class 
passenger service. 

4. To develop freight business properly, it is necessary 
not only to analyze the field to be served, but also to 
employ proper facilities in the way of: A well-organized 
traffic bureau ; station facilities according to the charac- 
ter of business to be handled ; proper motive-power and 
rolling-stock equipment; a large number of trailer 
freight cars and last an unlimited and unrestricted 
imagination. 

Denver Union Station Loop Improvements 

Since the article on the layout of the Union Station 
loop in Denver, published in the issue of the Electric 
Railway Journal for Dec. 28, 1918, was prepared, in- 
formation regarding several improvements at this point 
has been received. It has been agreed by the city and 
the Union Station interests, on the one hand, and the 
Denver Tramway on the other, that a covered runway 
will be built from the viaduct stairs to the point where 
the route to car is shown in the panoramic picture on 
page 1032 of that issue. A telephone booth, an in- 
spector's station and a sand box will be placed at this 
point, and a large concrete platform will be put in. This 
will be another stopping point for cars going around 
the loop, as well as a transfer point to and from all 
north-side, east-side, and south-side lines that come 
together at the viaduct. 



January 4, 1919 ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



49 



New Electric Rolling Stock for 1918 

The Number of New Cars Ordered, Together with Those Built in 
Shops of Various Railways, Is Approximately the Same as in 1917, 
but the Number of Companies Ordering Cars Decreased Consider- 
ably — The Increasing Demand for One-Man Cars Is Shown by the 
Large Number of This type Ordered as Compared with Previous Years 



IN THE TABLES given herewith is this journal's 
annual compilation of the statistics for new rolling 
stock ordered by electric railways or built in their 
shops during the past year. While the total number 
of new cars placed in service is less than for any pre- 
vious year recorded, the closeness of the 1918 total 
to the number for the year 1917 is especially encourag- 
ing, and comes somewhat as a surprise as it was the 
general opinion of most officials that very few cars had 
been ordered during 1918. 

This compilation of figures received from the various 
electric railways in the United States and Canada repre- 
sents the railways having about 97 per cent of all the 
electric cars operated. The total number of new cars 
so reported for this year is 2419 and is but thirty-six 
cars less than the number so reported for the year 1917. 
The number of companies which reported new equip- 
ment is 140 as compared with 182 for the year 1917. 

Table I gives a comparison in condensed form of 
rolling stock purchased since 1907. The cars are clas- 
sified according to the service in which they are used 
as city, interurban and miscellaneous. In this sum- 
mary cars for operation on subway and elevated lines 
have been classed as in city service, and those for inter- 
urban or a combination of both interurban and city 
service have been placed in the interurban column. Elec- 
tric locomotives, freight and express cars, snowplows 
and sweepers, and work cars for line and track, have 
been placed in the miscellaneous column. The numbers 
of interurban and miscellaneous cars purchased during 
1918 has increased slightly over the figures given for 
the year 1917, and the number of city cars has decreased 
slightly. 

Some of the special features that have been brought 
out by the canvass are given in Table II, and for com- 



TABLE I— NEW ROLLING STOCK ORDERED SINCE 1907 





City 


Interurban 


Freight and 




Year 


Cars 


Cars 


Miscellaneous Cars 


Total 


1907 


3,483 


1.327 


1,406 


6,216 


1908 


2,208 


727 


176 


3,111 


1909 


2,537 


1,245 


1,175 


4,957 


1910 


3,571 


990 


820 


5,381 


1911 


2,884 


626 


605 


4,015 


1912 


4,531 


783 


687 


6,001 


1913 


3,820 


547 


1,147 


5,514 


1914 


2,147 


384 


479 


3,010 


1915 


2,072 


336 


374 


2,782 


1916 


3,046 


374 


522 


3,942 


1917 


1,998 


185 


272 


2,455 


1918 


1,842 


255 


322 


2,419 



number of interurban trailers increased from twenty- 
seven for 1917 to fifty-five for the past year. Trailers 
which may be considered for city service numbered but 
130. This included fifty for train operation on the Bos- 
ton Elevated System. The difference from former years 
is affected by previous orders for subway trailers pur- 
chased by the Interborough Rapid Transit Company, 

65 | 1 1 1 1 1 1 p — i p 1 1 

(oQ 

, 

| 50 == ■ 

D 

r 45 _ 

340 

! 55 



2 



r-cOS^O - N to ifl <£> r- <o 

O OO— — — — — — — — — 

51 <5i 51 Si CJi cji cji <5i 51 Si <S> 

CARS ORDERED PER YEAR SINCE 1907 

this latter company having purchased no cars during 
1918. The number of locomotives ordered was forty- 
four, which is a decrease of five from the previous year. 

The largest orders of passenger cars for an indi- 
vidual company reported were for 280 cars for use on 
the lines of the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company, 
part of which were ordered by the United States 
Emergency Fleet Corporation for service to shipyards 
and part by the United States Housing Corporation, 
particularly for service to the League Island Navy Yard 



TABLE II— SPECIAL COMPARISONS OF NEW ROLLING STOCK 

1918 1917 1916 



Numberof railways reporting new equipment 140 182 250 

Total number of cars ordered 2,419 2,455 3,942 

Number of one-man cars ordered . 644 280 187 

Number of two-men and trail cars ordered for citv 

service * 1 . 1 98 1,718 2,859 

Numberof locomotives purchased 44 49 31 

Numberof cars built in railway companies' shops 89 281 445 

Numberof interurban trailers purchased 55 27 71 

Numberof city trailers purchased 130 402 128 



* Includes 100 motor cars for subway and elevated use. 



parison the results for 1916 and 1917 have been in- 
cluded. The most notable of these is the increase in 
the number of one-man cars purchased. There were 
644 purchased during the past year as compared with 
187 and 280 for 1916 and 1917 respectively. Cars of 
all kinds built in railway shops total but eighty-nine, 
which is a large decrease over previous years. The 



and the Frankford Arsenal, and an order for 200 motor 
cars and fifty trailers placed by the Boston Elevated 
Railroad. The United States Housing Corporation re- 
ported a total of 280 passenger cars which it had ordered 
for various railway properties. In the accompanying 
list the various railways reporting new equipment have 
been arranged alphabetically. Space limitations have 



50 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 1 



made it necesssary to condense the data as much as pos- 
sible. All cars are specified as either passenger or mis- 
cellaneous, and locomotives are entered separately. The 
classification of cars for city or interurban service has 
been made here in the same manner as previously ex- 
plained. No attempt has been made to give details of 
construction other than over-all length. The majority 
of passenger cars are of either semi-steel or all-steel 
construction. 

Although reports from all companies were not re- 
ceived in time for compilation and while studies of this 



magnitude which must close on a definite date which 
necessarily precludes the possibility of a 100 per cent 
report from the industry, still the figures present very 
complete and accurate data. Through the courtesy and 
co-operation of the various car builders, equipment 
manufacturers and government organizations which 
have been interested in electric railways as a war meas- 
ure, complete lists have been obtained so that it has 
been possible to check the companies' figures from 
several different sources. This courtesy and co-opera- 
tion in supplying statistics is fully appreciated. 



New Electric Rolling Stock Ordered in 1918 



Railway _g a u gj 

S o o 

Allis-Chalmers Co 1 Sn.Pl. 28' 0" 

Auburn & Syracuse Elec. R.R... 1 Loco 50 ton 

Augusta.Aiken Ry. & Elec. Corp. 14 Psgr. City 

Bamberger Electric R.R 3 Psgr. 63' 0" Int. 

1 Psgr. 56' 0" Int. 
3 Psgr. 63' 0" Int. 

Bangor Ry. & Elec. Co 23 Psgr. 27' 91" City 

Boston Elevated Ry 200 Psgr. 48' 91" City 

50 Psgr. 48' 21" City 

6 Swpr. 39' 0" City 

Brockton & Plymouth St. Ry... 2 Psgr. 27' 91" City 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co 50 Psgr. 45' 6" City 

Buffalo, Loekport & Rochester 

Ry 1 Swpr. 28' 0" Int. 

Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction Co. 10 Psgr. 50' 0" Int. 

12 Psgr. 50' 0" Int. 

3 Exp. 50' 0" Int. 

Capital Traction Co 20 Psgr. 43' 111" City 

Charleston Consolidated Ry. & 

Ltg. Co 6 Psgr. 41' 0" City 

10 Psgr. 41' 0" City 

10 Psgr. 27' 9i" City 

Charleston Interurban R.R 2 Psgr. 47' 3" Int. 

2 Psgr. 40' 6" Int. 
2 Psgr. 40' 6" Int. 

Chester & Eddystonc St. Ry 22 Psgr. 45' 4" Int. 

Chicago, Lake Shore & South 

Bend Ry 1 Psgr. 43' 0" Int. 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul 

Ry 5 Loco. 76' 0" 

2 Loco. 41' 6" 

10 Loco. 90' 6" 

Chicago, North Shore & Mil- 
waukee R.R 1 Loco. 37' 4" 

Chicago* West. Towns Ry 2 Psgr. 40' 0" 

Cincinnati & Columbus Traction 

Co 1 Frt. 50' 0" 

Cleveland, Alliance & Mahoning 

Valley R.R 1 Psgr. 55' 0" 

Colorado Springs & Int. Ry 24 Psgr. 27' 91" 

Columbia Ry. Gas & Elec. Co.... 3 Psgr. 50' 0" 

8 Psgr. 45' 0" 

Columbus R.R. of Georgia 8 Psgr. 27' 91" 

Columbus Ry. Pr. & Lt. Co 9 Psgr. 48' 01" 

Concord, Maynard & Hudson St. 

Ry 4 Psgr. 43' 0" 

1 Psgr. 27' 91" 

Connecticut Co 20 Psgr. 27' 91" 

50 Psgr. 43' 10" 

4 Misc. 38' 0" 

1 Misc. 45' 0" 

Cumberland County Pwr. & Lt. 

Co 8 Psgr. 44' 0" 

Denver Tramway I Sand 33' 24" 

Detroit United Ry 1 Psgr. 46' 10' 

2 Sn.Pl. 23' 2" 

Douglas Traction & Lt. Co 1 Psgr. 27' 91" 

Eastern Texas Elec. Co 5 Psgr. 27' 9 \" 

East St. Louis Ry 2 Psgr. 27' 91" 

Easton Transit Co I Sn.Pl. 40' 0" 

El Paso Elec. Ry 20 Psgr. 27' 91" 

Empire State R. R. Corp 1 Sn.Pl 

Fort Dodge, Des Moines & 

Southern R.R 1 Psgr. 29' 3?" City 

1 Psgr. 45' 0" Int. 

Fort Wayne & N. Indiana Trac- 
tion Co 25 Psgr. 30' 7" City 

1 Sn.Pl. 22' 0" City 

Galveston Elec. Co 5 Psgr. 27' 91" City 

Gary Street Ry 10 Psgr. 48' 0" Int. 

4 Psgr. 50' 0" Int. 

10 Psgr. 27' 91" City 

Gary & Valparaiso Ry 2 Psgr. 54' 71" Int. 

Glendale & Montrose Ry 3 Psgr. 27' 91" City 

Grafton & Upton R.R 2 Loco. 26' 0" 

Grays Harbor Ry.&Lt. Co 6 Psgr. 27' 91" City 

Hammond, Whiting & East Chi- 
cago Ry 10 Psgr. 48' 0" City 

Harrisburg Rys 5 Psgr. 43' 10" Int. 

Hot. Springs Street Ry 7 Psgr. 27' 91" City 

Houston Elec. Co 8 Psgr. 27' 91" City 

Hull Electric Co 1 Swpr. 46' 0" 



Mot. 



Mot. 
Mot. 
Mot. 
Mot. 
Trail 
Mot. 
Mot. 
Mot. 



Mot. 
Mot. 
Mot. 
Mot. 
Mot. 



Mot. Two 

Mot. Two 

Mot. Two 

Trail 

Mot. One 

Mot. Two 

Trail 

Mot 

Mot. One 

Trail 

Mot 

Trail 

Mot. Two 

Mot 

Mot. Two 

Mot. Two 

Trail 

Mot. One 

Mot. Two 

Mot. Two 
Trail 
Mot. 



Two 
Two 



Int. Mot. 

Int. Mot 

Int. Mot 

50 ton Mot 

City Mot. Two 

Int. Mot 

Int. Mot. Two 

City Mot. One 

City Mot. Two 

City Mot. Two 

City Mot. One 

City Mot. Two 

Int. Mot. Two 

City ' Mot. One 

City Mot. One 

City Mot. Two 

City Trail 

City Mot 

City& 

Int. Trail 

Mot 

City Mot. Two 

City Mot 

City Mot. One 

City Mot. One 

City Mot. One 

Int. Mot 

City Mot. One 

Int. Mot 



One 
One 



One 
Two 
One 



Two 
Two 
One 
One 



Hydro-Elec. Power Commission. 12 
1 

2 

200 

Illinois Traction System 6 

Indianapolis & Louisville Trac- 
tion Ry I 

Inland Steel Co 1 

International Ry 30 

Inter-Urban Ry I 

Iowa Ry. & Lt. Co 1 

Kansas City Rys 25 

Laconia Street Ry 2 

Lehigh Valley Transit Co 15 

2 

Lewisburg, Milton & WatBon- 
town Psgr.Ry 3 

Lewiston, Augusta & Waterville 

St. Ry 6 

1 

Louisville & S. Indiana Trae. Co. 10 
1 

Madison Rys 5 

Mahoning & Shenango Ry. & Lt. 

Co 1 

Manhattan Bridge 3-cent Line... 2 
Manila Elec. R.R. & Light Corp. 15 
ManslieldPublicServiec&Utility 

Co 7 

1 

Middlesex & Boston St. Ry 6 

Mobile Lt.& R.R 3 

6 
3 

Monongahela Valley Trac. Co. . . 6 
4 
2 

Newport News & Hampton Ry., 

Gas & Elec. Co . 28 

Newport & Providence Ry 1 

New York Municipal Ry 100 

Nipissing Central Ry 2 

North Coast Pr. Co 3 

Northern Elec. Ry 1 

Northern Texas Trac. Co 10 

Oklahoma Ry 10 

1 

Oklahoma Union Ry 2 

Pacific Electric Ry 35 

Pan Handle Trac. Co 9 

Peekskill Lighting & R.R. Co.... 4 

Peninsular Ry 5 

Petersburg - Hopewell & City 

Point Ry 8 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co.. . 240 
15 
25 

Philadelphia Rys 15 

Philadelphia & West Chester 

Trac. Co 1 

Pittsburg County Ry 6 

Pittsburg, Mars & Butler Ry . . . 2 

Pittsburg Rys 6 

Port Arthur Trac. Co 4 

Portland Ry. Lt. & Pr. Co 25 

Public Service Ry. (N. J.) 25 

33. 

Puget Sound Trac, Lt. & Pr. Co. 15 

Reading Transit & Lt. Co 2 

1 

I 

Richmond Lt. & R.R 24 

Rochester, Syracuse R.R., Inc. . 1 

Sacramento, Northern R.R 1 

San Francisco-Oakland Terminal 
Rys 10 



s ^ 

H O 
Locos. 36' 0" 

Sn.Pl 

Work Cars 

Dumo Cars— 20 c 
Loco. 32' 0" 



Mise. 
Swpr. 
Psgr. 
Loco. 
Psgr. 
Psgr. 
Psgr. 
Psgr. 
Si, PI. 



72' 0" 
28' 0" 
50' 0" 
60 ton 
58' 0" 
27' 91" 
27' 9\" 
47' 0" 
40' 0" 



Psgr. 45' 6" 
Sn.Pl. 41' 4" 
Psgr. 27' 91' 
Swpr. 28' 0" 
Psgr 



Psgr. 
Psgr. 
Psgr. 



45' 



rswpr. 
Psgr. 
Psgr. 
Psgr. 
Psgr. 
Psgr. 
Psgr. 
Exp. 
Loco. 



48' 0" 
45' 0" 
45 ton 



Psgr. 46' 0" 
Psgr. 27' 9\> 
Subw'y 67' 0" 



52' 0" 

40' 0" 

27' 9*' 

37' 4" 

27' 91' 

32' 0" 

36' 0" 



Psgr. 
Loco. 
Psgr. 
Psgr. 
Loco. 
Psgr. 
Psgr. 
Psgr. 
Psgr. 
Psgr. 



48' 0" 

27' 91" 

57' 10" 

27' 94" 

27' 91" 



Psgr. 47' 0" 

Psgr. 45' 6" 

Psgr. 47' 8" 

Psgr. 27' 94' 

Psgr. 47' 8" 



City 
Int. 
Int. 
Int. 
City 
City 
City 
Int. 



|1 H 

S O 
Mot.' 

Trail 

Mot 

Mot. Two 



Mot. 
Mot. 
Mot- 
Mot. 
Mot. 



Frt. 50' 0" City 

Psgr. 27' 91" City 

Psgr. 27' 91" City 

Swpr. 28' 0" City 

Psgr. 27' 91" City 

Psgr. 27' 9}" City 

Psgr. 50' 10" City 

Psgr. 48' 41" City 

Psgr. 27' 91" City 

Psgr. 30' 0" City 

Line 32' 0" City 

Work 45' 0" City 

Swpr. 28' 0" City 

Psgr. 36' 6" City 

Swpr Int. 

Loco 50 ton 

Psgr City 



Two 
One 
One 
Two 



Int. 
City 
City 
City 

City 
City 
City 

City 
City 
City 
Int. 
Int. 
Int. 
City 
Int. 
Int. 
Int. 

City 
City 
City 

Int. 
Int. 

City 

60 ton 

City 

City 

40 tons 

Int. 

City 

Int. 

City 

City 

Int. 
City 
City 
City 
City 



Mot. Two 

Mot. Two 

Mot 

Mot. One 

Mot 

Mot. Two 

Mot. Two 
Mot. Two 
Mot. Two 

Mot. One 

Mot 

Mot. One 
Mot. Two 

Trail 

Mot. Two 
Mot. Two 
Mot. Two 

Mot 

Mot 



Mot. 
Mot. 
Mot. 

Mot. 
Mot. 
Mot. 
Mot. 
Mot. 
Mot. 

Mot. 
Mot. 
Mot. 
Mot. 
Mot. 

Mot. 
Mot. 
Mot. 
Mot. 
Mot. 



Two 

One 

Train 

Opr. 

Two 

One 



Two 
One 
Two 
One 
One 

Two 
Two 
Two 
One 
Two 



Mot 

Mot. One 
Mot. One 

Mot 

Mot. One 
Mot. One 
Mot. Two 
Mot. Two 
Mot. One 
Mot. Two 

Mot 

Mot 

Mot 

Mot. Two 
Mot 

Trail 



January 4, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



51 



Saginaw Bay City Ry. 



Scioto Valley Trae. Co. 



Seattle Municipal Ry 

Sheffield Co 

Shore Line Elec. Ry 

Southern New York Pr. & Ry. 

Corp 

Southern Public Utilities Co. . . . 

Southwest Missouri R.R 

Springfield Trac. Co 

Stark Elec. R.R 

St. Cloud Public Service Co 

Steubenville, East Liverpool & 

Beaver Valley Tr. Co 

St. Joseph Ry. Lt., Ht. & Pr. Co. . 

Stockton Electric R.R 

Tacoma Municipal Ry 

Tacoma Ry. & Pr. Co 

Tampa Elec. Co 

Terre Haute, Indianapolis & 

Eastern Trac. Co 











urban 




Man 


umbe 


£ 




Leng 


ity or 
Inter 


[otor^ 


ne or 


Z 






O 




O 






42' 


0" 


City 






14 


Psgr 


27' 


91" 
0" 


City 


Mot.' 


One 


1 


Swpr. 




City 


Mot. 


Two 




Sn.Pl. 


4 r / 


6" 


City & 
Int. 


Mot. 


Two 




Line 
















30' 


0" 


City 






2 


Psgr. 


60' 


0" 


Int. 


Mot] 


Two 


4 


Psgr. 


60' 


0" 


Int. 


Mot. 


Two 






50' 


0" 


Int. 


Mot. 




6 


rrt. 


42' 


0" 


Int. 


Traii 




'! 


Psgr. 




91" 


City 


Mot- 




25 


Psgr. 


43' 


21" 


City 


Mot. 


iwo 


9 




44' 


0" 


City 


m"' 1 




2 


Psgr. 


45' 


81" 


Int. 




Two 




Box for 


mai! 








4 


Psgr. 


38' 


2" 


City 


Mot. 


Two 


7 


Psgr. 


44' 


0" 


Int. 


Mot. 


Two 


12 


Psgr. 


27' 


91" 


City 


Mot. 


One 


2 


Psgr. 


55' 


0" 


Int. 


Mot. 


Two 


4 


Psgr. 


34' 


0" 


City 


Mot. 


One 




Swpr. 


28' 


0" 


City 


Mot. 




12 


Psgr. 


27' 


91" 

,91" 


City 


Mot. 


One 


5 


Psgr. 


27' 


City 


Mot. 


One 


20 


Psgr. 


43' 


0" 


City 


Mot. 


Two 


29 


Psgr. 


27' 


91" 


City 


Mot. 


One 


24 


Psgr. 


27' 


91" 


City 


Mot. 


One 


5 


Frt. 


40' 


0" 


Int. 


Trail 





z 

Terre Haute Trac. & Lt. Co 30 

Texas Elec. Ry 6 

Tontrup, Geo. H. (St. Louis)*. . 50 
Trenton & Mercer County Trac. 

Corp 20 

I 

Tuscaloosa Ry. & Utilities Co.. . . I 

Union Ry 1 

Union Street Ry 6 

United Rys. & Elec. Co 50 

Utah-Idaho Central R.R 5 

Vicksburg Lt. & Trac. Co 4 

Virginia Ry. & Pr. Co 50 

Washington, Haltiniore & Annap- 
olis E. R.R 5 

Washington Ry. & Elec. Co 50 

Washington-Virginia Ry 22 

20 
5 

Waterville, Fairfield & Oakland 
Ry 2 

Webster, Moiiessen. Hello Vernon 
& Fayette City St. Ry 3 

Western New York & Penn. Trac. 
Co 2 

West Penn. Rys 4 

4 

Western Washington Pr. Co 10 

Wheeling Trac. Co 29 

Winnipeg Elec. Ry 1 

* Included to have table represent t 



Psgr. 27' 91" 
Psgr. 27' 9i" 
Psgr. 27' 91" 



Psgr. 
Psgr 
Psgr. 
Sn PI 
Psgr. 
Psgr. 
Psgr. 
Psgr 
Psgr. 

Psgr. 
Psgr. 
Psgr. 
Psgr. 
Psgr. 

Psgr. 

Psgr. 



27' 91" 

43' 5" 

49' 0" 

44' 6" ' 

44' 8" 

27' 91" 

27' 9J" 

27' 9\" 

57' 0" 

43' 111" 

48' 0" 

48' 0" 

45' 0" 



32' 0" 



47' 0" 

57' 10" 

28' 0" 

48' 0" 



Psgr. 
Psgr. 
Swpr. 
Psgr. 
Psgr. 50' 0" 
Psgr. 45' 81" 
Swpr. 37' 8" 
.11 known orders. 



g 




s 


1 




g 


u u 

>M 


o £ 


u o 
o £ 




2^ 


<uH 


u 




O 


City 


Mot. 


One 


City 


Mot. 


One 


City 


Mot. 


One 


City 


Mot. 


One 


City 


Mot. 


Two 


City 


Trail 










City 


Mot.' 


Two 


City 


Mot. 


One 


City 


Mot. 


One 


City 


Mot. 


One 


Int. 


Mot. 


Two 


Int. 


Mot. 




Int! 


Mot] 


w 


Int. 


Trail 




Int! 


Mot. 


w 


City 


Mot. 


Two 


City 


Mot. 


Two 


Int. 


Mot. 


Two 


Int. 


Mot. 


Two 


Int. 


Mot. 




Int. 


Mot. 


Two 


City 


Mot. 


Two 


City 


Mot. 


Two 


City 


Mot. 





An Engineering Magazine to Be Published 
in Spanish 

REALIZING the value of the international exchange 
of ideas on things engineering, the McGraw-Hill 
Company on March 1 will begin publication of a maga- 
zine dedicated to that purpose. While eventually it is 
expected to appear in editions in several languages, the 
original issue will be in Spanish, under the name La 
Ingenieria International, aimed to serve Latin-America 
and Spain. 

The purpose of the new magazine, which has been 
under consideration for some years, is to afford a 
medium for presentation of those developments in 
American engineering which may be of value to engi- 
neers, contractors and manufacturers in other lands. 
At the same time, following the practice of the present 
McGraw-Hill publications, a far-flung editorial organi- 
zation will be developed, so that there will be drawn 
into the paper the best of engineering practice in Latin 
America, Spain and other Spanish-speaking countries. 
Aside from this function, the new magazine will be an 
important developer of international good-will, and at 
the same time a medium by which American manufac- 
turers engaging in export trades can carry their mes- 
sage to prospective buyers in foreign lands. 

It may be a cause for surprise that the McGraw-Hill 
Company, whose specialized papers circulate so widely 
overseas, should establish a magazine to serve the 
foreign field. The reason, however, is not hard to find. 
The present highly-specialized papers appeal primarily 
to those who are situated where engineering enterprise 
has made such progress that there is room for the 
specialist and need for the last refinement in equipment 
and design. 

But everywhere the world over are territories 
newly developing, where the engineer, the contractor 
and the manufacturer must undertake not one but 
many lines. It is to serve the general practitioner 
so situated that the new magazine, and its later com- 
panions in other languages, will be started. The spe- 



cialized papers in English will still hold their place as 
the recorders of the best in the advanced practice of 
engineering in America and abroad. 



1917 Census of Street and Electric Railways 
Due Soon 

SL. ROGERS, Director of the Census, in his annual 
• report to the Secretary of Commerce, made public 
in Washington the past week, announces that his bureau 
will soon be able to present to the public the result 
of the census of electrical industries which was taken 
during 1917. The census, which was begun in April, 
will present information as to the number of estab- 
lishments engaged in electrical industry, character of 
ownership, traffic, equipment, expenses, employees, 
salaries and wages, finances, etc. The compilation of 
this information is now under way. An abstract of the 
1912 census report was printed in the issues of the 
Electric Railway Journal for Jan. 9 and 16, 1915, 
pages 96 and 130. 

In his annual report Director Rogers says: 

This census, which, under the act creating the permanent 
Census Bureau, has been taken quinquennially since 1902, 
covers central electric light and power stations, street and 
electric railways, telephones and telegraphs, and municipal 
electric fire alarm and police patrol signaling systems. The 
current inquiry is being made as of Dec. 31, 1917. 

By reference to the various records available, supple- 
mented by correspondence with some 14,000 postmasters 
throughout the country, with state telephone associations, 
and with public service commissions, a card index of es- 
tablishments engaged in electrical industries was prepared. 
In formulating the schedules used, criticisms and sugges- 
tions were requested and obtained from the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission, the American Telephone & Telegraph 
Company, the independent telephone companies, the Ameri- 
can Electric Railway Association, the American Railway 
Accountants' Association, and the National Electric Light 
Association, and a number of conferences were held with 
representatives of these organizations. All the organiza- 
tions named have given their hearty co-operation and have 
rendered valuable assistance to the bureau in the revision 
of the schedules and the preparation of the reports. 



52 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 1 



New Track Constructed and Track Rebuilt 

During 1918 

Reports Received from the Various Electric Railways in the United 
States and Canada Show a New Electric Mileage of 346 Con- 
structed During the Past Year and 275 Miles of Steam Lines 
Electrified — The Amount of Track Reconstruction Was Very Small 



THE single track mileage for new lines built or 
electrified during the year 1918 together with the 
mileage of track rebuilt by electric railways in 
the United States and Canada is given in the accom- 
panying tabulation. The data for this record have been 
received from electric railways comprising about 97 
per cent of the total mileage under electric operation 
and are quite complete in view of the difficulties involved 
in conducting a canvass of such large proportions. 

In order to facilitate comparison with similar data 
for previous years the following table has been prepared 
from the statistical tables published by the Electric 
Railway Journal for the years since 1907. In this the 
amount of electrified steam mileage has been separated 
from the new electric mileage. 

The total new electric railway track mileage exclusive 
of the electrified steam lines for the year amounting 
to 314 is but 63 miles less than that reported during 
1917. When the difficulties that most roads have ex- 
perienced in obtaining new rails and special work is 
considered this record is very gratifying. However 
most of this is made of spurs and short extensions and 
few additions of any considerable extent were carried 
out due to the extreme conditions. Of the 314 miles of 
new electric railway track built, 80.85 miles was for 
the various additions to new rapid transit lines in 
New York City. In addition to this there was 
135.56 miles of new track built for city service and 
97.4 miles constructed for interurban operation. Al- 
though a comparison of the new electrified mileage 
placed in operation in the last two years shows a de- 
crease from the figures of 1916 still the year 1918 more 
nearly approached these figures. Both the 1916 and 
the 1918 electrified mileages were augmented by the 
extensions of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul elec- 
trification which amounted to 225 miles in 1916 and 



211 miles in 1918. Outside of this the greatest amount 
of electrified mileage reported for this year was 51.15 
miles of main and branch line track together with sid- 
ings and yards electrified by the Norfolk & Western Rail- 
way. 

In the general compilation of the statistics received 
the usual plan of grouping the roads by states has been 
followed. New York heads the list of states with a 

COMPARISON OF NEW TRACK BUILT — BY YEARS 





New Electric 


Electrified 


Total New 




Railway Track 


Steam 


Electric 


Year 


Built 


Line 


. Mileage 


1907 






1,880.0 
1,258.5 


1908 


1,174.5 


84^0 


1909 


774.7 


112.4 


887. 1 


1910 


1,204.8 


192.4 


1,397.2 


1911 


1,105.0 


86.5 


1,191.5 


1912 


869.4 


80.8 


950.2 


1913 


974.9 


119.0 


1,093.9 


1914 


716.5 


229.0 


946.4 


1915 


596.0 


448.2 


1,044.2 


1916 


356.3 


388.0 


744.3 


1917 


376.7 


66.0 


442.7 


1918 


313 82 


275.7 


589.53 



total of 87.93 miles of new track and 25.59 miles of 
track rebuilt. This, of course, excludes the states of 
Montana and West Virginia, in which large amounts 
of steamroad electrification were included. Following 
this comes California with 28.94 miles and Washington 
with 24.65 miles of new track constructed, the greater 
part of which was for city service. 

In Canada the Niagara Construction Railway built 
28 miles of interurban track between Stamford, St. 
David's and Queenstown, Ontario. This was the greatest 
amount reported. 

The total rebuilt mileage for the year was 155.43 as 
compared with 375.4 miles for the year 1917 or less than 
half as much. Most of this was in short stretches, there 
being but seven companies which rebuilt more than 5 
miles and the largest amount reported was but 9 miles. 



ALABAMA 

Mobile & Pensacola Ry. & Navigation Co. 
Peoples Raiload 



Intercity Terminal Ry. 



ARKANSAS 



CALIFORNIA 



Municipal Railway of San Francisco. 

Pacific Electric Railway 

Pacific Gas & Klectric Co 

Petaluma & Santa Rosa Ry 

San Diego Electric Ry 

United Railroads of San Francisco. . 



COLORADO 
Lt. & Pr. Co 



New 




Track, 


Rebuilt 


Miles 


Mileage 


0.00 


2.00 


1.50 


0.00 


1.50 


2.00 


0.00 


1.10 


0.00 


1.10 


9.72 


0.00 


15.04 


0.00 


0.04 


0.00 


0.16 


0.00 


1.31 


2.00 


2.67 


2.50 


28.94 


4.50 


0.00 


2.25 


0.24 


0.63 


0.24 


2.88 



New 
Track, Rebuilt 
CONNECTICUT Miles Mileage 

Connecticut Co 1.57 1.15 

The Shore Line Electric Ry 0.00 1.10 

1.57 2.25 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 

Capital Traction Co 1.02 0.59 

Washington & Maryland Ry 0.93 0.00 

1.95 0.59 

FLORIDA 

Jacksonville Traction Co 6.41 0.00 

6.41 0.00 

GEORGIA 

Columbus R. R 0.50 0.00 

Savannah Electric Co 4.98 0-00 

5.48 0.00 

IDAHO 

Caldwell Traction Co 12.00 0.00 

12.00 0.00 



January 4, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



53 



New 
Track, Rebuilt 
ILLINOIS Miles Mileage 

Chicago Surface Lines 7.00 8.50 

Chicago & Interurban Traction Co 0.00 0.30 

Chicago & Oak Park Elevated R. R 0.00 2.37 

Chicago, North Shore & Milwaukee R. R 2.30 0.00 

Evanston Ry 0.00 1.00 

Hammond, Whiting & East Chicago Ry 0.85 0.23 

Metropolitan West Side Elevated Ry 0.00 0,34 

Northwestern Elevated R. R 0.00 1.52 

10.15 14.26 

INDIANA 

Chicago, South Bend & Northern Indiana Ry 5.00 0.00 

Fort Wayne & Northern Indiana Traction Co 0.79 1.30 

Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Co.. 0.00 0.50 

Union Traction Co. of Indiana 0.00 0.77 

Vincennes Traction Co 0.60 0.40 

6.39 2.97 

IOWA 

Moline, Rock Island & Eastern Traction Co 0.70 0.00 

Ottumwa Ry. & Light Co 0.00 0.27 

Tri-City Ry 1.72 0.82 

2.42 1.09 

KANSAS 

Kansas City, Lawrence & Topeka R. R 0.00 0.06 

Manhattan City & Interurban Ry 0.10 0.00 

0.10 0.0.6 

LOUISIANA 

New Orleans Ry. & Lt. Co 1.67 1.07 

1.67 1.07 

MAINE 

Bangor Ry. & Electric Co 0.00 0.27 

Lewiston, Augusta & Waterville Street Ry . 1.84 0.44 

Portland R. R 0.29 0.62 

Waterville, Fairfield & Oakland Ry 0.00 0.25 

2.13 1.58 

MARYLAND 

United Rys. & Electric Co 4.75 9.15 

4.75 9.15 

MASSACHUSETTS 

Blue Hill Street Ry 0.00 1.50 

Boston Elevated Ry 3.64 9.00 

Holyoke Street Ry 0.00 1.00 

Middlesex & Boston Street Ry 0.00 0.35 

Springfield Street Ry 0.00 1.00 

Union Street Ry 0.11 1.56 

Worcester Consolidated Street Ry 0.98 1.50 

4.73 15.91 

MICHIGAN 

Detroit, Jackson & Chicago Ry 0.00 0.12 

Detroit United Ry 11.18 1.88 

Escanaba Traction Co 0.00 0.80 

11.18 2.80 

MISSOURI 

Kansas City Rys 1.61 4,42 

Missouri Electric R. R 0.21 0.00 

Southwest Missouri R. R 15.00 0.00 

St. Louis & Jennings Ry 0.00 1.25 

United Rys. Co. of St. Louis 4.01 10.41 

Vicksburg Lt. & Traction Co 0.00 5.00 

20.83 21.08 

MONTANA 

Anaconda Copper Mining Co 1.0 0.00 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Ry 211.0 0.00 

212.0 0.00 

NEBRASKA 

Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Ry 0.00 1.00 

0.00 1.00 

NEW JERSEY 

Millville Traction Co 0.00 0.50 

Public Service Ry 3.04 0.00 

3.04 0..50 

NEW MEXICO 

Las Vegas Transit Co 0.00 1.06 

0.00 1.06 

NEW YORK 

Auburn & Syracuse Electric R. R 0.23 0.00 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit System (Surface) 0.00 6.90 

Buffalo & Depew Ry. . 0.50 3.00 

Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction Co 3.80 0.76 

Bush Terminal R. R 0.06 0.00 

Hornell Traction Co 0.00 0.10 

Interborough Rapid Transit Co 55.60 7)700 

International Ry 0.00 1.36 

New York Central R. R 1.56 0.00 

New York Municipal Ry. Corp.. 25.25 0.00 

New York Rys 0.00 1.04 

New York State Rys. (Syracuse-Utica Line) 0.09 1.93 

Niagara Junction Ry 0.58 0.00 

Southern New York Pwr. & Ry. Corp 0.00 3.00 

Third Ave. Ry 0.26 7.50 

87.93 25.59 



New 
Track, 

NORTH CAROLINA Miles 

Durham Traction Co 0.0ft 

Tidewater Pwr. Co 4.00 

4.00 

NORTH DAKOTA 

Northern States Power Co 0.00 

0.00 

OHIO 

City Ry., Dayton 0.00 

Columbus, Delaware & Marion Electric Co 0.00 

Mahoning & Shenango Ry. & Lt. Co 4.90 

Northern Ohio Traction & Lt. Co 2.96 

The Oakwood Street Ry 0.57 

Ohio River Electric Ry. & Pwr. Co 0.00 

Richland Public Service Co 0.00 

Springfield Terminal Ry. & Pwr. Co 0.10 

8.53 

OKLAHOMA 

Enid City Ry 0.00 

Oklahoma Union Ry 10.00 

Sand Springs Ry 3.00 

13.00 

OREGON 

Pacific Pwr. & Lt. Co 0.05 

Portland Ry., Lt. & Pwr. Co 0.16 

0.21 

PENNSYLVANIA 

Conestoga Traction Co 0.23 

Harrisburg Rys 0.00 

Lewisburg, Milton & Watsontown Psgr. Ry 0.31 

Penn Central Ry 3.50 

Philadelphia Rys 4.75 

Pottstown & Phoenixville Ry 0.00 

Reading Transit & Lt. Co 0.00 

Woodlawn & Southern Street Ry 018 

8.97 

RHODE ISLAND 

The Rhode Island Co 0.00 

0.00 

SOUTH DAKOTA 

Sioux Falls Traction System 0.00 

0.00 

TEXAS 

Dallas Ry 3.43 

Eastern Texas Eiectric Co 0.00 

El Paso Electric Ry (K00 

3.43 

VIRGINIA 

Newport News & Hampton Ry., Gas & Elec. Co. . 4.04 

4.04 

WASHINGTON 

Seattle Municipal Street Ry 23.00 

Tacoma Municipal Ry 1-65 

24.65 

WEST VIRGINIA 

Charleston Interurban R. R 1.90 

Lewisburg & Ronceverte Electric Ry 0.70 

Monongahela Valley Traction Co 4.00 

Norfolk & Western Ry 51.15 

57.75 

WISCONSIN 

Madison Rys 0.21 

Wisconsin Ry., Lt. & Pwr. Co 0-00 

0.21 

MANITOBA 

Suburban Rapid Transit Co n -2o 

Winnipeg Electric Ry L7° 

2.01 

ONTARIO 

Grand River Ry 2.00 

Guelph Radial Ry 0.00 

Niagara Construction Ry „ 

Port Arthur Civic Ry 0-00 

Sandwich, Windsor & Amherstburg Ry 3.00 

Toronto Civic Ry 199 

34.99 

QUEBEC 

Hull Electric Ry 1-33 

Levis County Ry 0.00 

Shawinigan Falls Terminal Ry 1-00 

2.33 

Total for all companies 589.53 



Rebuilt 
Mileage 
0.75 



0.33 
0.33 



1.5 ft 
0.0ft 
0.04 
0.0ft 



0.3ft 
0.00 
3.0ft 



8.00 
3.00 
2.25 
0.00 



3.10 
3.1ft 

0.7ft 
0.70 

2.71 
0.1ft 
0.75 



0.20 
0.20 



6.30 
0.0ft 
0.18 
0.00 



0.00 

0.00 
0.50 
0.00 
0.92 
0.00 
0.00 

1.42 



1.33 
4.00 
0.00 

5.33 

155.43 



54 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 1 



Data on Automatic Substations 

THE automatic control of substation equipment, and 
to a less extent that of power plant equipment, is 
a development of but a few years. So far but one 
manufacturer has gone into this field extensively, but 
one other has already entered it and others may be 
expected to do so in time. War conditions have ham- 
pered progress but the installations and the apparatus 
ordered, as listed in the accompanying table, make a 
creditable showing. Interest in the "automatic" is so 
great now that the year 1919 should bring a substan- 
tial increase in its application. 

It has seemed wise to include the automatic control 
equipment for electric generators in this first table. 
Another year may make a separate list of this desirable. 
Included in the table also is an automatic synchronous 
condenser control used for correcting power factor on 
the lines of the Interstate Light & Power Company. 
This is another field automatic control which illustrates 
the flexibility and adaptability of the fundamental 
scheme. 

The forerunner of the automatic substation, the 
remote-control substation installed by the Detroit 
Edison Company in 1913, is not included in the table 
as being outside of its scope. This substation should 



not be overlooked, however, as the Detroit Edison is 
now operating five of these 500-kw. remote-controlled 
lighting converter substations on its 4600-volt, 60-cyclfc 
supply lines. The last one was put into commission in 
1918. The pioneer true "automatic" was that started 
in July, 1915, on the line of the Elgin & Belvidere 
Electric Company, as shown in the second line of the 
table. 

Details of the novel features of practicably all of 
this equipment listed in the table have been given in 
recent issues of the Electric Railway Journal. In 
an early issue Charles H. Jones will take up the substa- 
tion of the Chicago, North Shore & Milwaukee Railroad, 
and other articles will supplement those already printed. 



Coal-Saving Bonus in London 

The London County Council is distributing a coal- 
saving bonus among motormen and conductors on its 
tramways. During the past quarter the saving was 
more than $16,000, one-half of which has been dis- 
tributed. This is slightly under 5 per cent of the value 
of the total consumption, and it is expected that even 
better results will be secured as the possibility of saving 
becomes more clearly understood by the men. 



AUTOMATIC SUBSTATIONS INSTALLED BY, OR ON ORDER FROM, THE GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY 



New South Wales Government Railways 

Elgin & Belvidere Electric Co 

Potomac Electric Company 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Company.. . 

Interstate Light & Power Co., Hazel Green, 111.. 

Des Moines City Railway • 

DesMoinesCity Railway 

Inter Urban Railway, Des Moines, Iowa 

Inter Urban Railway, Des Moines, Iowa 

Grand Rapide, Grand Haven & Muakegon Railway 

Adirondack Electric Power Corporation 

Rhode Island Company 

Rhode Island Company 

Chicago & Interurban Traction Company 

Columbus Railway, Power & Light Company 

Boston & Maine Railroad 

DesMoinesCity Railway 

Butte Electric Railway 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad 

Chicago & Interurban Traction Company 

Iowa Railway & Light Company 

Kansas City Railway 

Chicago, North Shore & Milwaukee Railroad. . . . 
Des Moines City Railway 

Chicago, North Shore & Milwaukee Railroad 

New York State Railways 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Company 

Kansas City Railways 

Transit Supply Company 

New York State Railways. 

Chicago, North Shore & Milwaukee Railroad. . . . 

Chicago, North Shore & Milwaukee Railroad 

Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Railway 

Chicago & Joliet Electric Railway 

Salt Lake, Garfield & Western Railway 

Oklahoma Union Railway 

Conestoga Traction Company 

New South Wales Government Railways 

Dulutli Street Railway 

Des Moinrs City Railway 

Cincinnati, Lawrenceburg & Aurora Electric Street 

Railway 

Duluth Street Railway 

Pacific Electric Railway 

Pacific Electric Railway 

Wisconsin Light, Heat & Power Company 

Inter Urban Railway, Des Moines, Iowa 

Inter Urban Jtailway, Des Moines, Iowa 

Chicago, North Shore & Milwaukee Railroad 

Sacramento Northern Railway 



Type of Machine 



3000 Synchronous converter 

500 Synchronous converter 

500 Synchronous converter 

300 Synchronous converter 



500 
500 
300 
300 
300 
500 
500 
112 
500 

500 
500 
300 
500 
500 
500 
500 

500 
300 
500 
1000 
1500 
250 
500 
1000 
1000 
300 
600 
300 
500 
200 
500 
500 



Synchronous converter 
Synchronous converter 
Synchronous converter 
Synchronous converter 
Synchronous converter 
Synchronous converter 
Synchronous converter 
Water wheel generator 
Synchronous converter 



Synchronous 
Synchronous 
Synchronous 
Synchronous 
Synchronous 
Synchronous 
Synchronous 



converter 
converter 
converter 
converter 
converter 
converter 
converter 



Synchronous converter 
Synchronous converter 
Synchronous converter 
Synchronous converter 
Synchronous converter 
Synchronous converter 
Synchronous converter 
Synchronous converter 
Synchronous converter 
Synchronous converter 
Motor generator set . . . 
Synchronous converter 
Synchronous converter 
Synchronous converter 
Synchronous converter 
Synchronous converter 

Synchronous converter 
Synchronous converter 
Synchronous converter 
Motor generator set. . . 
Motor generator set . . . 
Synchronous converter 
Synchronous converter 
Synchronous converter 
Synchronous converter 



~ <$M s^; Remarks "2 

s t£ ad £ 

H &< h a. 

600 6,600 25 Remote control February, 1916 

600 26,400 25 J July, September 

(October, 1915 

600 12,500 25 . June, 1916 

1200 13,200 25 Two maehinB operating 

in series May, 1917 

600 2,300 60 February, 1917 

600 2,250/4,500 25 October, 1916 

600 4,500/22,500 25 Portable substation .. . Septembers 1916 

600 22,500 25 (December, 1916 

I February, 1917 

600 22,500 25 .. . November, 1917 

600 17,500 30 April, 1917 

600 17,300 40 

600 13,200/11,200 25 Operate in Paralul. .. . May, 1918 

600 11,000/22,000 60 February, 1918 

600 33,000 25 August, 1917 

600 13,200/22,800 60 Remote control March, 1918 

500 Direct feed July, 1917 

600 2,200/4,400 25 (November, 1917 

I January, 1918 

600 3,800 60 January, 1918 

600 26,400 25 August, 1918 

600 33,000 25 Portable 

600 16,500/33,000 60 April, 1918 

600 6,600/13,200 25 Portable June, 1918 

600 33,000 25 April, 1918 

600 2,250/4,500 25 (April, 1918 

\May, 1918 

600 33,000 25 December, 1917 

600 60,000 40 

600 22,000 60 

600 6,600 25 

600 12,500 35 

600 11,000 25 

600 33,000 25 November, 1918 

600 13,200/33,000 25 

600 13,200 25 

600 13,200 60 

1500 44,000 60 One— remote control 

600 6,600 60 

600 11,000 25 

600 6,600 25 Remote control. .. . 

600 13,200 25 

600 2,250/4,500 25 

600 33,000 60 

600 13,200 25 

600 15,000 50 

600 15,000 50 

600 66,000 60 

600 22,500 25 

600 22,500 25 

600 13,200/23,000 25 

600 2,300 60 



January 4, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



55 



The Worst Year the Industry Has Experienced 

Mileage Placed in Receivership in 1918 Is Three and a Half Times the 
Average for the Last Ten Years— Nearly 500 Miles and $16,525,000 of 
Capitalization Involved in Dismantlement or Suspension of Service 



A HARD YEAR for electric railways — such must 
be the conclusion reached after a review of the 
- receiverships, foreclosure sales and abandonments 
in the industry during 1918. The high cost of operation, 
owing to the increased prices of labor and materials, and 
the difficulty of securing compensatory revenues left 
many a company in a crippled condition. Of course the 
financial difficulties of some companies were the result 
of accumulated burdens of regulation, of unrestricted 
competition, of over-capitalization or of organization 
weaknesses, but the chances of such companies being 
able to effect satisfactory reorganizations so as to insure 
the continuance of service were greatly reduced during 
the last year on account of the decreased net earning 
power of the industry. 

The year 1918 has resulted in more than the usual 
number of companies being operated or sold under court 
orders for the protection of investors or creditors. This 
fact, however, does not indicate the most significant 
phase of the situation. The big point in the year's 
record is that so many properties have grown weary 
from hope long deferred and have preferred dismantle- 
ment at present-day scrap prices rather than prolonged 
existence as losing ventures. Almost three score com^ 
panies have suspended service in whole or in part, and 
in most cases they have dismantled or have secured per- 
mission to dismantle their lines. Sometimes the owners 
have voluntarily scrapped the properties; and some- 
times, in the case of forced sales, the junk dealer has 
been the only bidder. 

The total wrecks of the year, it will be noticed, were 
in the main small properties, and without a doubt some 
had probably been founded upon hopes rather than upon 
a sound knowledge of utility operation and community 
needs and thus had at best a restricted future. Yet all 
the abandoned companies had managed to live through 
other lean years, and their final collapse in 1918 is only 
cumulative evidence of the grievous burdens that today 
are bearing down upon every company, be it small or 
large. 

These burdens, of course, have made themselves felt 
in different ways and in varying degrees for individual 
cases. The accompanying compilations are designed to 
cover all companies from those for which court aid was 
sought in 1918 to those whose car wheels then turned for 
the last time. These do not show to the full, however, 
the damage of 1918 to the industry, for many other 
companies are near the danger line as far as earning 
power, credit and adequate service are concerned. Many 
dividends have been cut or omitted; many interest pay- 
ments have been allowed by bondholders to run at de- 
fault in the hope of friendly readjustments, and many 
companies have announced that curtailment or suspen- 
sion of service will be inevitable unless relief is granted. 
No effort has been made to tabulate such instances, but 
the fact that they exist is mentioned to make more 



emphatic the statement that the financial condition of 
all electric railways not included in the compilations 
can by no stretch of the imagination properly be con- 
sidered as sound. 

To take up the compilations in turn, consider first 
the receiverships. The accompanying record for the 
last ten years shows clearly the extent to which the 
number, the mileage and the capitalization of companies 
placed in receivers' hands in 1918 far exceeded those 
of 1915, the record year theretofore. The 1918 mileage 
was about three and a half times the average for the 
preceding nine years. The receivership of the Brooklyn 
Rapid Transit Company on the last day of 1918 nat- 
urally runs the totals for this year to a high figure, 
but even without this company the 1918 figures are in 
the main larger than in any preceding year. The mile- 
age placed under receivership during 1918 represents 
more than 4 per cent of the total mileage of the country. 



RECORD OF ELECTRIC RAILWAY RECEIVERSHIPS 

Number of Miles of Outstanding Outstanding 

Companies Track Stock Funded Debt 



1909 22 558.00 $29,962,200 $22,325,000 

1910 II 696.61 12,629,400 75.490,735 

1911 19 518.90 29,533,450 38,973,293 

1912 26 373.58 20,410,700 11,133,800 

1913 18 342.84 31,006,900 47,272,200 

1914 10 362.39 35,562,550 19,050,460 

1915 27- 1,152.10 40,298,050 39,372,375 

1916 15 359,26 14,476,600 10,849,200 

1917 21 1,177.32 33,918,725 33,778,400 

1918 29 2,107.61 92,130,388 163,257,102 



It should be added that the receivership figures for 
1917 have been adjusted to include the following cases, 
information about which was received too late for use 
in connection with last year's compilation: Abilene 
(Tex.) Street Railway— 4.75 miles, $25,000 of stock and 
$30,000 of funded debt; Morgantown & Wheeling (W. 
Va.) Railway— 27 miles, $345,800 of stock and $354,000 
of funded debt; and Lewisburg (W. Va.) & Ronceverte 
Electric Railway— 6.2 miles and $50,000 of stock. 

Table I presents the details of electric railway re- 
ceiverships in the last calendar year. An effort was made 
in every case to secure figures from the most up-to-date 
and authoritative source, and to obtain the correct data 
in case of disagreement among financial reports, a not 
infrequent occurrence. The railways thrown into re- 
ceivers' hands in 1918 were in the majority of cases 
small in mileage. In each of nine receiverships, how- 
ever, 48 miles or more of single track were involved, and 
in each of the two leading cases, Pittsburgh and Brook- 
lyn, more than 600 miles. 

Most of the receiverships were caused by a default 
in interest due to the generally disappearing margin 
between revenues and expenses, or to operation in terri- 
tory of a poor character or to inherent defects in or- 
ganization, or to a combination of these conditions, but 
in certain instances special reasons existed. For ex- 
ample, the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company was con- 



56 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 1 



fronted with large capital requirements for new con- 
struction, the possibility of heavy damages because of 
a recent severe accident, delay in the opening of vitally 
necessary sections of the new city rapid transit lines 
and opposition on the part of city officials to relief 
through a higher fare. The receivership in Des Moines 
was precipitated by a construction company after the 
company had for three months unsuccessfully tried to 
secure a higher fare. The Southern Traction Company, 
Inc., Bowling Green, Ky., was placed in receivership by 
the city, after service had been suspended, in order to 
prevent dismantlement if possible. Automobile compe- 

RECORD OF ELECTRIC RAILWAY FORECLOSURE SALES 



1912. 
1913 
1914 

1915. 
1916. 
1917. 



tition brought the receivership of the Rockland, South 
Thomaston & St. George (Me.) Railway, and municipal 
restrictions that of the Fort Scott (Kan.) Gas & Elec- 
tric Company, while the effort of the receiver of the 
Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction Company to abandon the 
lease of the Buffalo & Lackawanna Traction Company 
caused the latter company to be placed in the hands of 
a receiver. 

A 1918 receivership not included in the list is that 



Number of 


Miles of 


Outstanding 


Outstanding 


Companies 


Track 


Stock 


Funded Debt 


21 


488.00 


$22,265,700 


$21,174,000 


22 


724.36 


19,106,613 


26,374,065 


25 


660.72 


91,354,800 


1 15,092,750 




267.18 


14,197,300 


10,685,250 


17 


302.28 


15,243,700 


19,094,500 


11 


181.26 


26,239,700 


44,094,241 


19 


308.31 


30,508,817 


16,759,997 


19 


430.14 


13,895,400 


22,702,300 


26 


745.19 


27,281,900 


27,313,045 


23 


524.22 


37,740,325 


20,149,384 



of the Washington Electric Railway, Chehalis, Wash. 
The reason for the omission is that this company in 

1916 disposed of its 19-mile line to the Cowlitz, Chehalis 
& Cascade Railway, which is now operating the line, and 
the receivership of the predecessor company is simply 
for the purpose of making a final settlement of its cor- 
porate affairs. 

The foreclosure sales in 1918, as shown by the ac- 
companying record for the past decade, were of more 
than average importance. Although the number of 
companies and the mileage involved were less than in 

1917 (which year is adjusted to include the belated re- 
turn of the South Fork-Portage Railway with 7.5 miles, 
$150,000 of stock and $230,000 of bonds), the capitali- 
zation in 1918 was greater. Moreover, the 1918 figures 
generally exceeded those for the other years before 1917 
with the exception of 1910 and 1911. Two factors have 
undoubtedly tended during 1918 to keep the foreclosure 
sales from numbering even more than they did — first, 
the fact that financial conditions rendered difficult of 
accomplishment the readjustments that usually accom- 
pany the foreclosure sales of large properties and thus 
made advisable the continuation of some receiverships 
until more settled times ; and second, the fact that more 
than a few companies deemed their situation so hopeless 
that they voluntarily went out of business without going 
through receivership and forced sale. 

The detailed foreclosure sales are shown in Table II, in 
the preparation of which all the various forms of re- 
organization, readjustment and change in ownership 
without formal foreclosure sales were passed over. The 



TABLE I— ELECTRIC RAILWAY RECEIVERSHIPS IN 1918. 

Outstanding Outstanding 

Miles Stock Funded Debt 

Binghamton (N. Y.) Ry 49.74 $978,995 $2,390,000 

Brooklyn (N. Y.) Rapid Transit Co.. . 754.82 75,571,368 119,588,927 

Buffalo & DepewRy , Buffalo, N. Y... 13 59 305,000 350,000 

Buffalo & Lackawanna Traction Co., 

Erie, Pa. (a) 8.80 100,000 1,000,000 

Claremont (N. H.) Railway & Light- 
ing Co 8.60 160,000 150,000 

Columbus, Mi.Kii.-n.-Sprms».& North- 
ern Ry., Ri. hwnod, Ohio (6) 18.50 230,000 250,000 

Consolidated Street Ry., Strong 

City, Kan 2.00 10,000 None 

Cumberland Ry , Carlisle, Pa 12 .40 350,000 404,700 

Denver & Interurban R.R., Denver, 

Colo 51.94 101,500 1,079,000 

Des Moines (la.) City Ry 85.00 1,305,000 5,995,000 

Evansvillednd.) Rys 61.50 1,519,400 2,129,000 

Fort Scott (Kan.) Gas & Electric Co. (c) 7.00 116,700 97,000 

Hartford & Springfield Street Ry., 

, Warehouse Point, Conn 48 .00 785.000 961,000 

Iola (Kan.) Electric R.R 10.50 150,000 150,000 

Lewiston, Augusta & Waterville 

Street Ry., Lewiston, Me 165 .65 3,000,000 3,659,000 

Memphis & Rugby (Tenn.) Ry 2 .50 80,000 

Paducah(Ky.) Traction Co 19.34 350,000 1,023,000 

PennYan(N.Y.)& Lake Shore Ry... 10.00 94,000 100,000 

Pittsburgh (Pa.) Rys 605.25 5,000,000 18,534,000 

Plymouth & Sandwich (Mass.) 

Street Ry 17 .43 151,800 None 

Rockland, South Thomaston & St. 

George Ry., Rockland, Me 5 71 122,400 37,575 

St. Joseph Valley Traction Co., Elk- 
hart, Ind 9.00 110,200 240,000 

St. Paul (Minn.) SouthernElcctric Ry. 17.54 658,225 364,400 

St. Petersburg (Fla.) & Gulf Ry 26 .1 1 300,000 250,000 

Scranton (Pa.) & Binghamton R.R... 50.00 250,000 4,100,000 
Southwestern Interurban Ry., Win- 
field, Kan 25.00 150,000 50,000 

Southern Orc»<»i Traction Co., Med- 

ford, Ore 8.19 150,000 150,000 

Southern Traction Co., Inc., Bowling 

Green, Ky. (d) 4.50 10,000 24,500 

Springfield (Vt.) Electric Ry 9.00 100,800 100,000 

2,107.61 $92,130,388 $163,257,102 

(a) Receivership resulted from petition of receiver of Buffalo & Lake Erie 
Traction Co. to abandon its lease of the Lackawanna line. 

(b) Sale has been set for Jan. 15, 1919. See "Suspensions" in Table of 
Abandonments. 

(c) Railway investment represents approximately one-third of company 
capitalization. 

(tf) This company suspended service in 1917, but the city has caused a re- 
sumption of service under a receiver. 



TABLE II— ELECTRIC RAILWAY FORECLOSURE SALES IN 1918 

Outstanding Outstanding 
Miles Stock Funded Debt 

Adirondack Lakes (N.Y.) Traction Co. 5 00 $60,000 $94,000 
Central Crosstown R.R., New Yorkj 

N.Y. (a) 6 32 1,250,000 3.570,809 

Cincinnati, Mttf ord & Loveland (Ohio) 

Traction Co 37 .00 1,649,425 441,000 

Claremont (N. H.) Ry. & Lighting Co. 8 60 160,000 150,000 
Consolidated Street Ry., Strong City, 

Kan 2.00 10,000 None 

Eastern New York R.R., Ballston Spa, 

NY 15.00 275,000 150,000 

Freeport (N. Y.) R.R 2 92 20,000 50,000 

Lewisburg & Ronceverte Electric Ry., 

Lewisburg, W. Va 6.20 50,000 None 

Memphis & Rugby (Tenn.) Ry 2 .50 80,000 

Minneapolis, St. Paul, Rochester & 

Dubuque Electric Traction Co., (b) 42.00 6,248,250 750,000 
Northern Cambria Street Ry., Pat- 
ton Pa 13 00 431,750 395,000 

Northern Electric Ry., Chico, Cal. . . . 217 .65 25,000,000 12,137,000 
Orleans-Kenner Electric Ry., New 

Orleans, La 1 1 60 250,000 250,000 

Petaluma & Santa Rosa (Cal.) Ry.... 43.41 994,100 872,000 
Rockland, South Thomaston & St. 

George Rv., Rockland, Me 5.71 122,400 37,575 

St. Joseph Valley Traction Co., Elk- 
hart, Ind 9.00 110,200 240,000 

St. Louis, Lakewood & Grant Park 

(Mo.) Ry. (c) 4.00 300,000 85,000 

San Angelo (Tex.) Power & Street 

Ry.Co.(rf) 1 00 25,000 None 

Selma (Okla.) Street & Suburban Ry. 8.00 125,000 125,000 

Southwestern Interurban Ry., Win- ,,„„„„ „ „ „ 

field, Kan 25.00 150,000 50,000 

Ware & Brookfield (Mass.) Street Ry. 11.71 100,000 135,000 

Woodstock & Sycamore Traction Co., -„-,„« 

Genoa, 111 . . 26.50 292,600 485,000 

Worcester & Warren Street Ry., ,,,-„„ = 

Brookfield, Mass 20.10 "6.600 52,000 

524.22 $37,740,325 $20,149,384 

(a) The sale covered the lease of the Christopher & Tenth Street Railroad, 
which is included. ,. ,, ,„,_ , . 

(6) A 14-mile section of this road was sold to bondholders in 1917 and in- 
cluded in the 1917 Table of Foreclosure Sales. The other part was sold in 1918 
to an organization of citizens along the line. They then bought in the 14-mile 
section, and the whole property is now in the hands of a reorganized company, 
the Minneapolis, Northfield & Southern Railway. 

(c) Not in operation since flood of 1915. 

(d) This company abandoned service in 1916 and disposed of most of its 
4-mile property The remainder came into possession of the city under an agreed 
judgment of the district court and was sold in 1918 to the San Angelo Water, 
Light & Power Company. This company has rchud some track in connection 
with street paving but has not yet operated its I to H mile line. 



January 4, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



57 



items in the table generally speak for themselves, but a 
few special points merit comment. The Northern Elec- 
tric Railway sale was the culmination of a reorganiza- 
tion pending since 1914. The part of the Minneapolis, 
St. Paul, Rochester & Dubuque Electric Traction Com- 
pany not sold in 1917 was sold this year and, as ex- 
plained in detail in the note in the table, has been re- 
united in a new company with the other section. The 
Claremont (N. H.) Railway & Lighting Company was 
purchased by local manufacturers to save the line. The 



majority of the properties foreclosed in 1918 are still 
operating in some reorganized or new form, but nine out 
of the total of twenty-three either went on to the junk 
dealer or seem headed in that direction. 

These wrecked companies, together with those whose 
abandonment in 1918 was a voluntary act or the after- 
math of receivership and sale in prior years, are shown 
in Table III. An effort was made to segregate abandoned 
companies into two classes, the first, or "Dismantle- 
ments," including properties actually scrapped in whole 



I . Dismantlements 

Adirondack Lakes (N.Y.) Traction Co. 

Billings (Mont.) Traction Co. (a) 

Bluffton (Ind.), Geneva & Celina 

Traction Co 

Bristol (Tenn.) Traction Co. (a a).... 
Carolina Traction Co., Rock Hill, 

S. C. (b) 

Clarkesville (Ga.) R.R 

Central of Florida Ry., Daytona, Fla. 
Consolidated Street Ry., Strong City, 

Kan 

Covington & Oxford (Ga.) Street Ry. 
Dayton, Springfield & Xenia Southern 

Ry., Dayton, Ohio (c) 

Denton (Tex.) Traction Co 

Gettysburg (Pa.) Ry 

Interurban Ry. & Terminal Co. 

Cincinnati, Ohio (<i) 

Lake Erie, Bowling Green & Napoleon 

Ry., Bowling Green, Ohio (e) 

London & Lake Erie Ry. & Trans- 
portation Co., London, Ont 

Martha's Vineyard (Mass.) Street Ry. 

Memphis & Rugby (Tenn.) Ry 

Middletown (Ohio) Street Ry 

Montecito R.R., Los Angeles, Cal 

New Jersey Rapid Transit Co., Sea 

Isle City, N.J 

Northwestern Traction Co., Brazil, 

North Dakota 

Norwood, Canton & Sharon Street 

Ry., Foxboro, Mass. (Norwood 

Division) (/) 

Oak Bluffs (Mass.) Street Ry 

Oklahoma Union Ry., Sapulpa, 

Oklahoma (n) 

Richmond (Va.) & Rappahannock 

River Ry. (ft) 

Rockland, South Thomaston & St. 

George Ry., Rockland, Me 

Rutland Ry., Light & Power Co., 

Rutland, Vt 

St. Joseph Valley Traction Co., Elk- 
hart, Ind. (i) 

St. Louis, Lakewood & Grant Park 

R.V. (J) 

St. Simons R.R., Brunswick, Ga 

Sand Point (Ida.) & Interurban Ry., 

Ltd. 

Sioux City, Crystal Lake & Homer 

Elee. Ry., Dakota City, Neb 



TABLE III — ELECTRIC RAILWAY ABANDONMENTS IN 1918 



San Jose (Fla.) Trait ion Co., Jackson- 
ville, Fla 

Taunton & Pawtucket Street Ry., 
Taunton, Mass., (k) 

Topeka (Kan.) Ry 

Twin Falls (Ida.) R.R 

Uvalde & Leona Valley (Tex.) Inter- 
urban Ry 

Ware & Brookfield (Mass.) Street 

Ry 

Woodstock & Sycamore Traction Co., 
Genoa, 111 

Worcester & Warren Street Ry., 
Brookfield, Mass 

Yazoo (Miss.) Municipal Street Ry. . . 

Total dismantlements 



Miles 


Outstanding 
Stock 


Outstanding 
Funded Debt 


5 00 
6.00 


$60,000 
100,000 


$94,000 

None 


15 °0 


675,000 


None 
192,500 


L25 




100,000 


I ' 00 


13',600 


NoSe 


12.00 
4.50 
6.50 


159,425 


150,100 
47,000 


23.00 


946,750 


446,325 


12. 50 


346,000 


218,600 


28.00 
1. 10 
2.50 
1.00 
1.46 


2,000,000 
8,000 

20,000 


840,000 

None 
80,000 

None 


8.00 


200,000 


120,000 


5.00 






2 50 
6.47 


12,500 
60,000 


1 1,500 

None 


1.50 


24,000 




16.30 


321,000 


314,580 


5.71 


122 400 


37,575 


t2 50 


120,000 


75,000 


7 50 


110,200 


240,000 


4.00 
1.70 


300,000 
12,000 


85,000 
18,000 


6.00 


312,100 


None 


4.00 


50,000 


10,300 



2. Suspensions 

Bay State (Mass.) Street Ry. (I) . . . 

Berkshire (Mass.) Street Rv. (m) 

Bristol & Norfolk Street Ry., 

Randolph, Mass. (mm) 

Columbus, Magnetic Springs & 

Northern Ry., Richwood, Ohio (;i) . 
Conway (Mass.) Electric Street Ry.. . 

Fernandina (Fla.) Municipal Ry 

Fort Scott (Kan.) Gas & Electric 

Co. (o) 

Fryeburg (Me.) Horse R.R. (p) 

Hamilton (Ont.) Radial Elec. Ry. (pp) 

Laconia(N.H) Street Ry. (<j) 

Lebanon & Franklin Traction Co., 

Dayton, Ohio 

Madison Light & Ry. Co., Madison, 

Ind. (r) 

Mt. Vernon (Ohio) Ry. (s) 

Norwood, Canton & Sharon Street 

Ry., Foxboro, Mass. (Sharon Div.) (0 
Ocean City (N. J.) Electric R. R. (t t) 
Oxford Electric Co., Norway, Me. (i/) 
Parkersburg ( W. Va.) & Ohio Electric 

Ry., (>') 

Plymouth & Sandwich (Mass.) Street 

Ry-, (to) 

Total suspensions 

Grand total 



Miles 


Outstanding 
Stock 


Outstanding 
Funded Debt 


3.00 


*50,000 




14.00 
tl.50 
12 00 


100,000 
45,000 
*500,000 


200,000 
39,600 
250,000 


8,00 


32,000 


*26,000 


1171 


100,000 


135,000 


26.50 


292,600 


485,000 


20 10 
4.00 


116,600 


52,000 
50,000 


327.10 


87,542,975 


$4,318,080 


t30.40 
+5 05 


$834,000 
69,215 


$827,700 
69,215 


6 44 


100,000 


70,000 


18 50 

6.60 
2.00 


230,000 
100,000 


250,000 
100,000 

None 


7 00 
3.00 
29 10 
tl.30 


116,700 
5,175 
111,150 
20,580 


97,000 

160,000 
19,250 


10 80 


80,000 


135,000 


3 50 
9 00 


150,000 
10,000 


146,000 
40,000 


4 00 
10.00 
2. 13 


20,000 
100,000 
80,000 


18,500 
75,000 
175,000 


5 00 


150,000 


150,000 


17.43 


151.800 


None 


171.25 


$2,328,620 


$2,332,665 


498.35 


$9,871,595 


$6,650,745 



* Authorized amount; outstanding amount not ascertainable, 
t This represents only a small fractional abandonment; in other words, 
almost all of the old mileage of this company is still in operation. 

(a) Partially dismantled in 1917; heirs of chief stockholder refuse to operate 
losing line, and the property remaining is for sale. 

(a a) This company suspended service in 1917. Early in 1 9 1 8 an effort was made 
to operate the outlying 10-mile Holston Valley division, but now this and the 
city lines have both been dismantled. 

(b) The company's three storage battery cars have been sold, but the tracks 
and charging plant have not yet been removed. 

(c) The branch line from Beavertown to Spring Valley has been torn up. 
The company's remaining trackage, 27.97 miles, is being operated. 

_W) Dismantled section represents Bethel division only. The company 
still operates 62 miles. 

(e) The company was sold in 1916, with the option to junk. The 12-mile 
section between Bowling Green and Pemberville was sold to and is being operated 
by the Toledo, Fostoria & Findlay Railway. Dismantlement was begun on the 
remaining part, but the final authorization for junking was not received from the 
Ohio Supreme Court until 1918. 

(!) See same company in "Suspensions" below. Service on the whole 6 5 
mile line was suspended in March, and in this month the company was sold, 
not at public auction, to a New Jersey syndicate represented by a Mr. Tarr of 
Boston. The 2.5 mile Norwood division has been junked, but the 4-mile Sharon 
division lies untouched at the moment. 

(7) Abandoned under commission order because controlled Sapulpa Electric 
Interurban Railway served same territory for slightly greater distance. 

(k) A 9 10 mile section of this 25.40 mile property, which went into receiver- 
ship in 1917, was sold under court decree in 1917 to the Richmond <t Seven Pines 
Railway. The remainder is now abandoned as the result of the voluntary disso- 
lution of the Richmond & Rappahannock Railway. 

(i) See this company in Table of Receiverships and Table of Foreclosure 
Sales. The whole line was sold to a junking company, but W. H. Foster, mayor of 
Elkhart, purchased a 1} mile sect ion in that city and is now operatingit. 

(!) Not in operation since flood of 1915. 

(k) This company's 1 7 5 mile line was all sold in 1917 under the unsatisfied 
mortgage of the predecessor company, the Bristol County Street Railway, and 
all has now been abandoned except a 3 5 mile sec tion purchased by the city of 
Attleboro for $18,000 to form the "A. B. C. Railway." 

(0 In March the court authorized the discontinuance of 125 mi. of unprofit- 
able lines, but up to the latest report furnished only 30.4 of unsafe track had 
actually been closed down. A petition, however, for the discontinuance of 288.2 



miles at least during the winter months because of failure to earn operating ex- 
penses is now pending. 

(m) Operation temporarily suspended on line from Lanesboro to Cheshire. 
Capitalization represented is arbitrarily halved between stock and bonds. Line 
from East Lee to Huntington, 23.84 miles, is not included as the express service 
is still in operation, although all passenger service has been discontinued. 

(m m) The securities of this company were purchased at a private sale by junk 
dealers. Service was suspended on Dec. 2, and it is the intention to foreclose soon. 

(n) Service suspended on Dec. 31. 19 18; sale set for Jan. 15, 1919. 

(0) Railway investment represents approximately one-third of company 
capitalization. 

(p) Railway has gone out of business as far as operation is concerned but 
still holds its organization and charter for electric line. 

(p p) Complete suspension followed failure to secure higher fare. It is reported 
that proceedings are being taken to declare the company insolvent and that dis- 
mantlement will probably result in this event. 

(5) An effort is being made to save the remainder of this 8.87-mile line 
through reorganization of service and finances. 

(r) The intention to discontinue service was announced last August, and 
according to advice late in December formal permission was about to be granted. 

(s) This line was sold for junk in 1917 and included in the Table of Abandon- 
ments of that year. The dismantling, however, was stopped late in 1918 by an 
injunction from the Ohio Supreme Court. 

(t) See same company in "Dismantlements" above. The company last 
March was notified not to resume operation until re-inspected by the Massa- 
chusetts Public Service Commission, for the roadbed was said to be in a dangerous 
condition. 

(tt) Company suspended service in October, 1918, and says that it will not 
operate again. Committee of local business men is trying to interest capital for 
purchase of the property. 

(u) It is expected that this suspension will result finally in dismantlement and 
sale. 

(v) Sale is awaiting decision by federal courts; receiver, who has been in 
power since 1911, states that line will be dismantled. 

(w) Property is awaiting decision of Massachusetts Supreme Court relative 
to writ of mandamus to compel town of I'lymouth to keep its promise to pay the 
road $50,000 toward the construction ..f I 1.5 mile extension (total cost, $250,000) 
from Fresh Pond to Sagamore completed in 1916. Town voted to contribute thi.- 
sum, but. selectmen refused to obey vote, and service was suspended pending 
settlement of matter in the courts. 



58 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 1 



or in part, in the process of being so scrapped or with 
the necessary legal sanction for such treatment, as well 
as certain small companies which are known to be out 
of business and of which nothing can be learned to give 
hope of a reopening. The second class, or "Suspen- 
sions," includes those companies whose service has been 
in whole or in part discontinued either temporarily or 
permanently, but which in the latter event have not re- 
ceived, the necessary permission for dismantlement. 

In 1918 the number of companies involved in dis- 
mantlements and suspensions was about three times as 
large as in 1917, and the mileage and the capitalization 
concerned were about two-and-a-half times as great. 
The following record of the last two years tells a plain 
story of increased burdens: 





Number of 


Mile 


s of 


Outstanding 


Outstanding 




Companies 


Track 


Stock 


Funded Debt 


1917 f Dismantlements 


13 


126 


97 


$2,048,900 


$2,006,450 


\ Suspensions. . . . 


7 


80 


51 


1,173,300 


1,542,000 


Total 


20 


207 


48 


$3,222,200 


$3,548,450 


/ Dismantlements 




327 


10 


$7,542,975 


$4,318,080 




18 


171 


25 


2,328,620 


2,332,665 


Total 


59 


498 


35 


$9,871,595 


$6,650,745 



It will be observed that Table III includes a few oper- 
ating companies which — the Bay State Street Railway 
is the leading example — abandoned a small part of their 
lines in 1918 and even in some cases scrapped this part 
of their properties. The list of cases of this sort is not 
intended to be complete, for no canvass has been made of 
all operating companies to ascertain to the last inch 
how much track has been torn up or allowed to become a 
streak of rust. The cases cited are those which have 
attained prominence before commissions, courts or city 
authorities, and they are included merely to indicate the 
necessity which companies feel of curtailing unprofit- 
able service. The capitalization in these cases is pro- 
rated on a mileage basis. 

Regarding the seven companies reported in last year's 
list of suspensions, it may be said that three have since 
been dismantled, the Bristol (Tenn.) Traction Com- 
pany, the Bluffton, Geneva & Celina Traction Com- 
pany and the Taunton & Pawtucket Street Railway. 
The Richmond & Chesapeake Bay Railway has not re- 
sumed service, but at a recent sale all bids were refused 
because no one would state an intention to operate the 
line. The Fort Smith-Oklahoma Light & Traction Com- 
pany is likewise still existent but inoperative, and there 
is said to be no indication of a resumption of service in 
the near future. As before stated, the Southern Trac- 
tion Company, Inc., Bowling Green, Ky., is being oper- 
ated by a receiver. The Amarillo (Tex.) Street Railway 
has not yet resumed operation. 

The special circumstances attaching to individual 
cases of dismantlement or suspension in the 1918 table 
are believed to be sufficiently explained in the notes, but 
a few references to companies not included in the table 
will be used to complete the story as follows : 

The 1917 purchasers of the Southwestern Traction 
Company, Temple, Tex., have been desirous of dis- 
mantling the property, but suspension of operation has 
been prevented by an injunction secured by citizens, city 
councils and county officials in the company's territory. 

The Gary & Interurban Railroad, Gary, Ind., sold in 
1917, was succeeded by the Gary Street Railway as far 
as the original Gary & Interurban and the controlled 



East Chicago Street Railway lines were concerned. A 
third constituent part of the old system, the Goshen, 
South Bend & Chicago Railway, was included in the 
1917 Table of Abandonments; and the remaining sec- 
tions, the Gary Connecting Railways and the Valpa- 
raiso & Northern Railway, seemed destined also to meet 
an early end. The Gary & Valparaiso Railroad, how- 
ever, was incorporated to operate these last two lines 
pending an appeal to restrain dismantlement, and dur- 
ing 1918 this company has been aided by the govern- 
ment in its rehabilation work, as described elsewhere 
in this issue. 

The Dunkirk (N. Y.) Street Railway, after repeated 
efforts, has at last secured permission from the Public 
Service Commission for the Second District of New 
York to abandon parts of its system, with an "if" at- 
tached. The commission's order is not to become effec- 
tive until certain security is given to the city for taxes 
and until the receiver of the holding company, the 
Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction Company, obtains au- 
thorization from the Supreme Court for the abandon- 
ment. 

The California Railroad Commission has just granted 
the owners of the Fresno Interurban Railway the right 
to suspend passenger service on its line in the city of 
Fresno. Like the Berkshire Street Railway line noted 
in Table III, however, the Fresno company is not in- 
cluded in the list of suspensions because some class of 
service is still maintained, this being freight service to 
the end of its 15-mile line. 

In New York State numerous petitions have been pre- 
sented to the Second District Commission for approval 
of declarations to abandon parts of lines. The Fishkill 
Electric Railway, the New York, Westchester & Connec- 
ticut Traction Company, the Yonkers Railroad and the 
Westchester Electric Railroad have all taken this step, 
but the applications are still pending. The three com- 
panies last named are controlled by the Third Avenue 
Railway, New York, N. Y. 

Other petitions for the abandonment of certain por- 
tions of the property are pending before the courts or 
the commissioners in the cases of the Danbury & Bethel 
(Conn.) Street Railway; the Washington Water Power 
Company, Spokane, Wash.; the Los Angeles (Cal.) Rail- 
way; the Kansas Electric Utilities Company (Parsons 
Division), and the Exeter, Hampton & Amesbury Street 
Railway, Exeter, N. H. In addition the Indiana Utilities 
Company has a case pending before the State commis- 
sion for the abandonment of the Angola-Lake James 
railway property, and the Los Angeles & San Diego 
Beach Railway one before the California Railroad Com- 
mission for complete discontinuance of service and dis- 
mantlement. 

The twelfth year of operation of the tramways in 
Penang, Straits Settlement, was somewhat uneventful, 
the usual services being maintained without accident or 
serious interruption. The revenue totaled $87,275 
(gold), and the gross profit was 10 per cent. The num- 
ber of passengers carried showed a satisfactory increase, 
but enhanced prices had to be paid for all materials, 
and no work of a capital nature was carried on owing 
to the impossibility of obtaining materials. An electric 
locomotive to deal with freight haulage was ordered 
from America. 



January 4, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



59 



Electric Railway Statistics 

Figures Are Given by States of the Miles of Track 
and Numbers of Cars Owned 

THE accompanying table gives statistics of the miles 
of track and cars of the electric railway companies 
in the United States, made up from the August, 1918, 
"Electric Railway Directory" of the McGraw-Hill Com- 
pany. The dates of the reports in this directory aver- 
age about June, 1918, so that the table may be con- 
sidered to represent the statistics of the industry at 
about that time. 

A comparison of the totals given in this table with 
those in a somewhat similar table, published in the 
issue of Jan. 5, 1918, will show that for all states a total 
of 991 companies instead of 1,029, a decrease during the 
year of 38. The miles of track this year total 48,484 as 
compared with 48,175 in June, 1917, an increase during 
the year of 209, and the motor passenger cars this 
year total 80,270 as compared with 81,393, last year, a 
decrease of 1,123. The total number of cars, according 
to the table, increased from 102,359 to 102,379, or a 
total of 20. The decrease in the number of companies 
is due in part to the abandonment of operation of elec- 
tric lines by companies which had not found the service 
financially profitable, and in a number of cases to the 
abandonment of gasoline motor lines. There were a 
few consolidations and also several cases of the splitting 
up of former consolidated properties by action of the 
court or for some other reason. Some of these cases of 
segregation have brought changes in the mileage cred- 
ited to the different states, because, under the plan 
followed, the miles of track and number of cars belong- 
ing to each company are credited to the state in which 
the greater part of the mileage lies. Nominally there 
has been an increase of 200 miles, but this increase is 
not significant, in the opinion of the compilers, as it is 
less than one-half of 1 per cent, and owing to the un- 
avoidable limitations in the method of compiling the 
statistics, accuracy within that figure is not claimed. 
The same statement applies to the figures on cars. 
This is one reason why an attempt should not be made 
to establish a very close comparison between the figures 
in this table and in those elsewhere in this issue on 
track built and abandoned and cars purchased during 
the year. Another reason of course is the difference in 
period, the other tables being for the calendar year 
while these are approximately for the year ended in 
June. The figures do not differ greatly, however, indi- 
cating that all are approximately correct. 

A few other words of explanation are necessary. The 
electrified mileage of steam railroads is included, but as 
this is reported to the Directory usually as route mile- 
age, that figure is continued in the table, although the 
mileage of the city and interurban companies is fig- 
ured as single track as usual. Under "Cars" the statis- 
tics include for electrified steam railroads only the 
electric locomotives and the motor passenger cars. Gas- 
oline motor cars are classified under the head of "motor 
passenger cars." 

Many companies seem to use the expressions "express 
cars," "freight cars," and "service cars" as interchange- 
able terms. The table shows the way in which cars of 
these types are reported by the different companies, but 
what is known as a service car on one road may be called 



a freight car or an express car by another road. In a 
few cases where a company owns a large number of 
freight cars compared with the number of passenger 
cars owned, the total number of such freight cars has 
been intentionally omitted from the table. The most 
notable instances of this are the Chicago Tunnel Com- 
pany with 3000 "other" cars, the Fort Dodge, Des 
Moines & Southern Railway with 2,300 "other" cars and 
the East St. Louis & Belleville Electric Railway with 
510 "coal" cars. In fact, "other cars" as reported by a 
company may mean almost anything other than motor 
cars. 

Every effort was made to prevent duplication of mile- 
age and cars when reported by a holding company and 
again by an operating company, but there may be cer- 
tain cases of this in the table. 



TABLE SHOWING STATISTICS OF ELECTRIC RAILWAY COMPANIES 
IN THE UNITED STATES 



NewEngland 
Stales : 

Connecticut... 7 1,608 1,922 

Maine 16 535 511 

Massachusetts. 39 3,227 7,873 

New Hampshire 14 248 285 

Rhode Island. . 3 428 1,030 

Vermont 10 128 131 



Total. 



Eastern States: 

Delaware 

District of Co- 
lumbia 

Maryland 

New Jersey. . . . 

New York 

Pennsylvania. . 



153 

425 
685 
1,595 
5,633 
4,746 
581 
652 



1,066 
2,114 
3,285 
6,989 
8,154 
891 
574 



104 300 123 

11 85 30 151 
9 29 33 1,076 
2 6 41 

246 

1 12 14 

126 421 75 1,651 

81 

438 

13 19 70 92 

2 19 4 77 
151 65 35 2,116 

3 24 86 1,365 
14 .... 117 

12 20 5 53 



312 14,470 33,382 1,371 



,339 



Central States: 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kentucky 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Missouri 

Ohio. 

Wisconsin 



3,757 
2,463 
885 
464 
1,736 
737 



5,999 
1,730 
967 
1,005 
2,384 
1,320 
1,137 2,512 
4,254 5,501 



763 



Total. 



297 16,196 22,331 



52 9 1,125 517 

39 85 455 

16 3 354 

12 70 

16 80 598 

7 1 171 

1 285 

14 59 24 1,285 

2 67 79 

147 316 1,149 3,814 



Southern States 

Alabama 

Arkansas 

B lorida 

Georgia 

Louisiana 

Mississippi. . . . 
North Carolina 
South Carolina. 
Tennessee 



Total. 



15 


365 


411 


28 


10 


122 


242 




9 


191 


289 


13 


16 


499 


679 


19 


11 


330 


687 




1 1 


120 


150 


' ' 2 


12 


285 


314 




5 


129 


188 


"25 


14 


482 


799 


57 


103 


2,523 


3,759 


144 



Western States: 





4 


54 


44 














( 'alifurnia .... 


38 


3,313 


3,733 


84 


66 




467 


1,531 


119 




13 


494 


415 


149 


6 


57 




206 


2 




5 


185 


61 


2 


3 






22 




Kansas 


17 


546 


411 


14 




32 


ii 


157 


'3 




9 


663 


134 


20 


42 




17 






6 


253 


578 


10 


1 






65 






2 


1 1 


12 














New Mexico. . . 


2 


11 


16 














North Dakota.. 


4 


27 


58 










"8 
73 






16 


312 


301 












< )regon 


10 


682 


721 


' 85 


22 


26 


449 


206 




South Dakota.. 


3 


25 


30 






1 




8 




Texas 


34 


1,001 


1,221 


134 




31 




162 




Utah 


5 


453 


269 




7 


2 




251 




Washington 


20 


1,069 


1,027 


28 


27 


7 


442 


483 


' '43 


Wyoming 


2 


22 


15 


10 








4 




Total 


190 


9,121 


9,046 


541 


174 


165 


1,310 


3,194 


172 


Total of all 
States .... 


991 


48,484 


80,270 


3,613 


645 


,107 


2,745 




182 



66 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol 53, No. 1 



Railway Conditions are Encouraging 

War Has Proved Need of Public for Dependable 
Service — Some Sort of Service-at-Cost 
Plan of Operation Favored 

By Clarence Renshaw 

General Engineer Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing 
Company, East Pittsburgh, Pa. 

THE beginning of the new year on a peace basis finds 
the electric railways with much to be thankful for. 
While in many cases their revenues are shamefully in- 
adequate, their physical property run down and their 
working forces depleted by the severe strains they have 
been through, there is every reason to believe that the 
bottom has at last been reached, and that the future 
will bring improvement. 

The war has brought many hardships to the industry, 
but it has also destroyed several handicapping prejudices 
which had seemed so deep-rooted as to be almost impreg- 
nable, and in their place it has established some valuable 
precedents. Its effects, therefore, have not been en- 
tirely without compensation. 

Among the most important of the ideas which have 
been relegated to the past is the mysterious idealization 
of the nickel as the necessarily logical unit of car fare 
and the strong conviction that only a single unit should 
be charged within the boundaries of a given munici- 
pality, no matter how great the mileage. The neces- 
sity for stopping the cars at every street corner, also, 
regardless of the fact that in many cases these corners 
are only five or six car lengths apart, has likewise been 
removed and a rational basis generally recognized for 
the location of stopping points. 

Important Precedents Established 

In the matter of precedents the national recognition 
which has been given to the necessities of the electric 
railways and to the value of- their services is an im- 
portant item. It is stated on reliable authority that of 
the 158' cities having a population of 40,000 or more, in- 
creased rates in one form or another have been granted 
in ninety, or nearly 60 per cent, and that they are pend- 
ing in fifty-one others. In many instances, it is true, 
the granting to the railway companies of the increased 
rates for which they asked has not proved a solution of 
their financial problems. However, the recognition of 
the fact that rates must be adjusted to meet costs, which 
these increases have shown, is extremely encouraging, 
especially in view of the idea previously prevalent that 
fares could be changed in the downward direction only. 

The most convincing testimonial, perhaps, as to the 
value of local transportation has been the loaning to 
electric railways in various parts of the country, by at 
least two different departments of the national govern- 
ment, of money at reasonable interest where such financ- 
ing was necessary to secure service for important in- 
dustries. Another encouraging recognition of the same 
sort was the practice adopted by manufacturers in many 
cases of loaning men from their own forces to the rail- 
way companies for operating cars during the rush hours. 
The difference between the amounts paid these men by 
their employers and those refunded by the railway com- 
panies, often amounting to nearly $5 a day per car, 
was cheerfully assumed under the circumstances as a 
legitimate charge for readiness to serve. These prac- 



tices, moreover, are not merely recognitions of service. 
They are precedents which will be carefully borne in 
mind on account of their possible bearing on the ultimate 
solution of the transportation problem. 

With such a background, there is every reason why 
the electric railways should attack their problems in 
a spirit of optimism. Never before has the idea of 
justice and fairness been so noticeable among the people 
and their representatives as now at the conclusion of 
a war entered for the sake of these principles. Never 
before has the management of the railways been con- 
trolled by such broad-minded and skillful executives, 
and never before have the manufacturers of equipment 
been so adequately prepared to supply the physical needs 
of the industry. What the results will be it would, of 
course, be rash to predict. Certain tendencies, however, 
can be recognized with a fair degree of certainty. 

Tendency is Toward Service 
at Fair Rates 

The general trend in public relations will apparently 
be away from the municipal franchise with its iron- 
clad provisions and toward state control by the more 
flexible commission form. In those cases where previous 
relations have been severely strained, the tendency will 
be to adopt some form of service at cost with more or 
less fixed guarantees of capital return. Where condi- 
tions have been better, however, and proper technical 
skill is utilized, it will most likely be feasible to devise 
means for profitable operation under present forms of 
control. 

To operate successfully under the latter alternative, 
commercial methods must be more generally adopted. 
Service of the proper kind, not too much nor too little, 
but rightly gaged to the needs of the community, must 
not only be given but must be widely advertised. Reli- 
able, rather than cheap equipment, must be employed 
with train operation, one-man cars and other modern 
devices where necessary. Obviously, this will mean 
highly-trained men in both traffic and mechanical de- 
partments. Rates properly proportioned to encourage 
maximum use of the transportation for sale will likewise 
be an essential element. Restrictive legislation will not 
handicap any railway which operates on this basis, for, 
presenting the case in its bearing on service to the 
people rather than its effect on the company, it will be 
able to secure any enactment for which it asks. 

On either basis the electric railways in the future 
will undoubtedly be run for the benefit of the community, 
and this being properly made known with suitable pub- 
licity of all matters of management, the people will be 
entirely willing to pay the necessary price. 



The importance of studying the employees outside of 
working hours was emphasized in some remarks recently 
made by Edward Marshall before the station operating 
committee of the Ohio Electric Light Association. He 
said, "Do you think most of us give our help the proper 
consideration and attention? Should we not have in 
each plant some one whose duty it is to investigate 
each employee's home life and the conditions under 
which he labors ? Should we not know whether our em- 
ployees are living economically? We all know that a 
man in debt is not a good employee. Some system of 
education and relief for such should be provided." 



January 4, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



61 



Renewing "K" Controller Shafts 
and Handles 

The Position of Controller Contacts Should Be 
Located Accurately from the Machined 
Portion of the Shaft 

By R. S. Beers 

General Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y. 

THE handles of most "K" controllers are made re- 
movable, which requires that the hole in the handle 
be slightly larger than the shaft. The continual use of 
the operating handle increases this difference in size, 
until in extreme cases the fit may become so loose that 
the controller cannot be turned fully "on" or "off." Usu- 
ally, rebushing the handle will be found sufficient to cor- 
rect the trouble. 

But in other cases where the shaft is badly worn it 
may be brought back to its original dimensions by cut- 



Drill and Rivet after New End 




F1G.1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 



METHOD FOR RENEWING "K" CONTROLLERS AND 
HANDLES 

Fig. 1 — Method of renewing handle fit on controller shaft. Fig. 
2— Handle end of shaft for K-10, K-ll, K-12, K-27 and K-63 con- 
trollers. Fig. 3— Handle end of shaft for K-6, K-28. K-29, K-36. 
K-36, K-40, K-51 and K-66 controllers 

ting off the worn end and drilling a hole to receive a 
new shaft end as indicated by Fig. 1. The part that 
goes in the hole of the old shaft should be turned to 
a drive fit. 

A simple plan for locating the new shaft end is to 
put the cylinder in a controller frame, with the pawl in 
the "off-position" notch of the star wheel. Then the 
new shaft end is put into a new handle, the handle is 
set in the "off position" as indicated by the "off-posi- 
tion" stop on the cap plate and the new shaft end is 
driven into place. After it is driven in, the shaft is 
removed and drilled and the new end is pinned to the 
old shaft. This method of repairing removes the oil- 
way to the upper bearing but a substitute oil-way can 
be made by drilling a small hole through the water 
cap. 

A second and much more difficult method of repair 
is to build up the shaft end with a welding outfit. This 
has the advantage of maintaining the original strength 
of the shaft as well as the oil-way to the upper bearing. 
It has the disadvantage, however, of requiring that, 
while the weld is being made, the shaft be kept cool 
where the insulation begins. In addition it is nec- 
essary, on the repaired cylinder, to machine the end for 
the handle in a milling machine having an index head, 
or else an angle plate and surface gage must be used. 
Care must be taken to insure that the fiat surface for 
the handle will be correctly located. 

In the manufacture of controller cylinders the milled 
end for the handle-fit is located by measuring from one 
of the fiat sides of the hexagon or, in the case of the 
round-shaft type, from the keyway. All other angular 
distances such as those to segment screw holes and star- 
wheel notches are located from this milled end. Where 
a new end for the handle is to be made the operation 



should be reversed, in the following manner: Take a 
new cylinder and determine the angular distance from a 
segment screw hole to one of the milled surfaces and 
use the distance for locating this surface on a repaired 
cylinder. Fig. 2 gives the dimensions of the handle end 
of the main cylinder shaft for the K-10, K-ll, K-12, 
K-27 and K-63 controllers. Fig. 3 gives similar dimen- 
sions for the K-6, K-28, K-29, K-35, K-36, K-40, K-51 
and K-66 controllers. 

Recently several handles have been put on the mar- 
ket that are provided with an adjustment to take up the 
wear on old controller shafts. At the present time the 
manufacturers of "K" controllers furnish such a handle 
with their standard equipments. This particular one is 
known as a "wedge-lock handle," because the wear is 
taken up by a wedge forced into place by a spring. 



Tractor Made from Rebuilt Ford Expedites 
Terminal Work 

FOR use at the Sausalito terminal of the Northwest- 
ern Pacific Railroad in California, Model T. Ford 
automobiles have been rebuilt into tractors for convey- 
ing mail, baggage and express trucks from boats to 
trains and vice versa. The tractors have now been in 
operation for about a year and are said to have reduced 
the time as well as the man power required for the 
transfer between rail and water. Their operation is re- 
ported to be very economical. 

The tractors have a tread narrower than the automo- 
bile standard, the new axles being made of the same 
length as those on the baggage trucks. The original 
rear axles were cut down so as not to project. The new 
rear axle is set ahead of the original and is driven by 
chain and sprocket on each end, thus permitting the use 




TRACTOR FOR BAGGAGE, MAIL AND EXPRESS TRUCKS 



of the differential just as arranged for the standard 
car. The diameter of the front wheels is 14 in. and of 
the rear wheels 12 in., solid rubber tires being provided 
throughout. A large water tank was built in under the 
seat so that the total weight of the machine could be 
brought up to 1900 lb. This was considered necessary 
as at low tide considerable traction is required in draw- 



62 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 1 



ing a string of loaded trucks up the inclined apron from 
the boat. The fuel tank was set on top of the water 
tank, arranged as a back rest for the operator. 

JThe speedy transfer from boat to train is important 
at this point because it is the custom for the mail and 
express to be taken from the front end of the boat 
before the passengers are permitted to land. This 
makes possible transfer from the trucks into the trains 
while the passenger coaches are filling up, and thus 
trains can pull out quicker than if the trucks were not 
taken from the boat until the passengers were ashore. 
Making the passengers wait, however, did not gain pop- 
ularity for the system, particularly when the baggage 
trucks had to be pulled up an incline, one at a time, in 
front of the waiting throng. Since the advent of the 
tractors the passengers are released much quicker as a 
tractor backs onto the boat immediately the apron is 
lowered and all of the trucks are coupled on and taken 
off in a single trip. The tractors are provided with a 
very convenient coupling device, as shown in the ac- 
companying view, which automatically locks over the 
baggage truck handle when the latter is hastily thrust 
into place. The tractors were built in the shops of the 
Northwestern Pacific Railroad under the direction of 
J. K. Brassil, superintendent. 



Some Facts About Monel Metal 

IN A RECENT issue, London Engineering gives some 
valuable data regarding monel metal, for which many 
uses are now being found. Readers of the Electric 
Railway Journal will remember that one of the earli- 
est electric railway uses was in the resistance strips 
connecting the armature windings and commutator 
bars in the single-phase railway motor. According to 
the Engineering article, the ore from which the metal 
is produced is mined at Sudbury, Canada, and it is 
called a "natural alloy" in that the proportions of the 
constituents are about the same in the refined alloy as 
in the original ore. Roughly, the composition is as fol- 
lows: Nickel, 66 per cent, copper 29 per cent, manga- 
nese and iron, 3£ per cent, silicon from 0.1 to 14 per 
cent. Traces of phosphorus, sulphur and aluminum are 
also present. 

The tensile strength of the metal is about 80,000 lb. 
per square inch and the yield point about 40,000 lb. The 
strength of the metal is largely "natural" and does not 
depend much upon the physical treatment. The struc- 
ture is a solid solution, and the rolled metal shows 
sharply defined crystal grains, usually twined. The 
cast material shows only the cord arrangements found 
in such alloys as German silver. The metal has been 
largely used on account of the strength which it pos- 
sesses at high temperature. 



According to a report presented to the Dover (Eng- 
land) Tramways Committee recently by Dick, Kerr & 
Company, the corporation tramways in that city are in 
bad shape. As a result of failure to provide proper al- 
lowance for maintenance the corporation is faced with 
the alternative of spending a considerable sum of 
money at a time when materials are very expensive or 
selling the whole equipment as scrap. In commenting 
on this situation the Electrician notes that the tram- 
ways have literally been starved as regards upkeep. 



Chipping and Sand Blasting of Glass 
at Omaha 

Cost of Chipping Is Reduced 85 Per cent — 
Sand Blasting Equipment Made 
In Shop 

THE Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Railway, Omaha, 
Neb., uses chipped glass quite extensively in the 
various windows of some of its rolling stock. Like any 
other glass this is subject to constant breakage, and to 
replace at the market price would make quite an item 



Sand 




FIG. 1— SAND BLASTING EQUIPMENT MADE IN 
OMAHA SHOPS 

of expense, as chipped glass costs about 40 cents per 
square foot. 

As a matter of economy the company does all of its 
own glass chipping. The glass is cut entirely from 
scrap material, and the work is done during the winter 
months when there are not enough cars in the shop to 
keep the men busy. A piece of heavy brown paper is 
pasted around the edge to give a clear edge, and then 
the glass is covered with a coating of carpenters' glue. 
When the glue dries the glass chips off with it. This 
offers a salvage for all scrap glass, and costs about 6 
cents a square foot for labor. 

Instead of painting signs and instructions on the 




FIG. 2— SAMPLES OF GLASS SAND BLASTING AND 
CHIPPING DONE AT OMAHA 



January 4, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



63 



glass car doors and bulkhead windows, to be washed 
off in cleaning, the Omaha company sand blasts the 
words into the glass. Many fancy borders are also put 
on in this way. The lettering is put on by pasting heavy 
brown paper over the glass, using a templet and pounce 
bag, and cutting the letters out with a sharp knife. The 
glass is then ready for the sand blast. 
. The sand blaster shown in the accompanying sketch, 
Fig. 1, is a simple piece of equipment made in the rail- 
way shops at very slight expense. Sand feeds by grav- 
ity from a galvanized iron-box through a l-in. pipe into 
a 14-in. V. Air entering through a l-in. pipe passes 
through a l-in. T to the li-in. Y, and forces the sand 
up through a l-in. nozzle pipe. A piece of l-in. pipe 
with the end sealed is screwed into the lower end of the 
T, and the pipe is split, forming a standard, which 
is screwed inside the bottom of a box 30 in. x 
48 x 3 ft. high. The end of the l-in. nozzle 
pipe is I in. below the lid of the box, and directly over 
the pipe is a hole lb in. in diameter. A square piece 
of rubber matting on the top of the lid serves as a 
cushion for the glass, and the edge of the hole is lined 
with a cast-iron flange. 

The Omaha company not only does all of its own 
work, but also handles some commercial work for outside 
interests. A sample of both the sand blasting and the 
chipping is shown in Fig. 2. 



Compact Testing Stand for 
Air-Brake Valves 

RAILWAY companies using air brakes, particularly 
automatic air brakes, find it necessary to provide 
means for testing triple valves, feed valves, operating 
valves, etc., and various kinds of testing stands are in 
use. A compact stand, shown in the accompanying 




AIR BRAKE VALVE TESTING STAND AT 
FREMONT, OHIO 



photograph, is used in the Fremont, Ohio, shops of the 
Lake Shore Electric Railway. 

In this arrangement the air-brake cylinder and res- 
ervoir, with piping, are mounted under the table and 
the valves are placed at a height convenient for in- 
spection and adjustment above it. Gages are tapped in 
at points necessary to show the condition of all parts 
of the equipment when the brake application is made. 



Letter to the Editors 



The "Latest" in Arc Welding 

Arc Welding Machine Company, Inc. 

New York, N. Y., Dec. 27, 1918. 

To the Editors : 

We have read your resume of the report of sub- 
committee A on welding of the Association of Railway 
Electrical Engineers. This report undoubtedly repre- 
sents standard practice of to-day. However, it does 
not by any means represent the LATEST practice, as the 
title of your abstract seems to indicate. 

Several new developments in arc-welding equipment 
have been put on the market in the last few years, that 
are not even mentioned in this report, probably, be- 
cause they have not come into any extensive use, al- 
though one of them has been used extensively in railway 
jobs. 

I refer to the alternating-current welding transformer, 
the 35-volt generator with automatically regulated re- 
sistance in series with the arc, and the constant-current 
closed-circuit system. All of these systems eliminate 
the major portion of the power loss, which is the chief 
objection to the constant-potential system. Two of these 
systems provide automatic control of the current, and 
one of them gives voltage limitation. Therefore, no 
article under the head of "latest practice" would be com- 
plete, without including a description of these three sys- 
tems. O. A. Kenyon, Chief Engineer. 



Campaign for Public Works Construction 

A GREAT building campaign, involving the construc- 
l \ tion of highways, public works of other character, 
homes and public utilities, is about to be undertaken 
by the government, largely for the purpose of making 
certain that employment will be found for demobilized 
soldiers. An organization to conduct the campaign is 
now being created in Washington, with headquarters 
at 16 Jackson Place, under the general supervision of 
Secretary Wilson of the Department of Labor, with the 
co-operation of the American Federation of Labor and 
other labor interests. The following slogan for the cam- 
paign has been adopted: "Build now for greater and 
better America. A billion for roads; two billions for 
public works ; three billions for a million new American 
homes. What are you doing to help this campaign?" 

The Department of Labor is sending the following 
message to wage earners throughout the country : "Use 
your influence with your city fathers, your selectmen 
and other town officers to start at once municipal and 
town improvement." Cities and towns are being urged 
to build school houses, engine houses, roads, canals and 
other improvements. To those who believe that the cost 
of building will be less in a few years from now than it 
is now, the Department of Labor is replying that 
"probably 95 per cent of the cost of a residence ulti- 
mately goes to labor whenever a home is built, so that 
the cost is almost immaterial to wage earners as a class." 
Secretary Baker of the War Department is also co- 
operating in the campaign, and has asked all the Gov- 
ernors of the States, to urge in their inaugural messages 
the immediate resumption of building of every character. 



G4 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 1 



Recent Happenings in Great Britain 

Reform from Within Speedily Carried Out Is the Plan for Settling 
Problems Fancied and Real 

(From Our Regular Correspondent) 



At the time of writing, Great Britain 
and Ireland face a general election (the 
first that has taken place for eight 
years). The Coalition party which will 
doubtless be returned to power has put 
forward a program of reform and re- 
construction ambitious and far-reach- 
ing beyond all precedent. It is a Brit- 
ish manifestation by way of ordered 
development of that new heaven and 
new earth idea which is a product of a 
great war and which in some other 
European countries is producing revo- 
lution and in some cases anarchy. 
There is a widespread feeling that if 
we are to escape revolution, drastic 
social and economic changes must be 
speedily brought about through the 
agency of the existing government in- 
stitutions. The bulk of promised bene- 
fits is apparently to go to the working 
classes. All other people are called on 
to labor, not for their own advantage 
so much as for that of manual workers. 

Railway Transformation Promised 

Transportation is among the sub- 
jects in regard to which a transforma- 
tion is promised. In the tremendous 
program which the leaders of the coali- 
tion have put forward, the subject of 
development of railways, tramways, 
road automobile transport and canals 
is given a prominent place. It has at 
length been borne in on British states- 
men—albeit they admit the fact only 
tacitly — that the development of means 
of transport in this country has for 
years been smothered by legislative and 
municipal action. This is especially 
true as regards street tramways and 
interurban light railways. Expert 
committees appointed by the govern- 
ment have recently reported on the sub- 
ject in unmistakable terms. 

In the manifesto to the electors of 
the United Kingdom issued by the 
Coalition leaders, Lloyd George and 
Bonar Law, the following passage oc- 
curs : 

Help the Agriculturist 
"A systematic improvement in the 
transport facilities of the agricultural 
areas must form an essential part of 
every scheme for the development of 
the resources of the soil, and the gov- 
ernments are preparing plans with a 
view to increasing these facilities on a 
large scale." 
And again: 

"By the development and control in 
the best interests of state, and the 
economical production of power and 
light of the railways and the means 
of communication . . . output 
will be increased, new markets opened 
out and great economies effected in in- 
dustrial production." 

Lloyd George, who, as the highly suc- 
cessful Prime Minister associated with 
the winning of the war, speaks with 
authority in this country, was a little 



more explicit in an address with which 
he opened the election campaign. As 
a collateral subject he spoke of the 
necessity for the development of a 
great electric power supply scheme for 
all purposes, but he insisted on the 
necessity for improved transportation 
for the revival of dead rural life and 
for the development of housing 
schemes in suburban and rural areas. 
"You must," he said, "have good serv- 
ices of tramways, light railways, lor- 
ries and whatever enables people and 
goods to pass along great spaces in 
order to make use of the surface" of 
the country. "The war has demon- 
strated that transportation is a service 
for which the state should accept di- 
rect responsibility . . . Unless 
this happens, the poorer neighborhoods 
will always suffer." 

From all this it is clear that for- 
midable changes lie ahead. The point 
on which practical men want informa- 
tion is where there is to be state own- 
ership and operation of public utilities, 
or where there is simply to be state 
aid and facilities for development along 
with a certain amount of state co-ordi- 
nation and control. For the sake of 
the country itself as well as for the 
sake of development of the industries 
concerned, it is to be hoped that the 
latter will be the alternative. In any 
event, it is quite clear that a whole 
host of obstructions to transportation 
development are likely to be swept 
away. The municipal as well as the 
Parliamentary deadhand should be re- 
moved. The latest development at the 
time of writing is a recommendation by 
a parliamentary committee in favor of 
unified ownership and management of 
chief railways either under the state 
or under a company. 

Jealousy Crops Out 

Fresh opportunities continue for the 
display of jealousy by the English 
municipal tramway element of all that 
concerns companies' interests in the 
matter of tramways. When months 
ago the Board of Trade appointed a 
tramways committee to settle priority 
of claims for materials and to see that 
under war scarcity conditions all tram- 
ways essential for war work should 
be operated to the fullest extent, the 
municipal element complained that it 
was not sufficiently represented on the 
committee and that the chairman of it 
was a company, not a municipal, man. 
An additional municipal representa- 
tive was then added to the committee, 
which consists of tramway managers. 
Fuel has now been added to the old fire 
by the appointment of A. H. Pott to be 
visiting technical officer to the com- 
mittee at a salary of £750 a year. The 
municipal grievance is that Mr. Pott 
has been "a company man," having 
been engineer and manager to the Lon- 
don United Tramways and the Metro- 



politan Electric Tramways. No doubt 
exists as to his qualifications for the 
post. Perhaps the municipal jealousy 
may be mollified by the reflection that 
as the war has come to an end the ne- 
cessity for the existence of the tram- 
ways (Board of Trade) committee 
should disappear. 

Other Changes in Personnel 

The appointment of Mr. Pott is one 
in a series of linked changes which 
have recently been made in the man- 
agement of some of the most important 
tramway systems in England. The 
great organization associated under the 
name of the Underground Electric 
Railways, London, has from time to 
time attracted to its service some of the 
most prominent municipal tramway 
managers in Britain. The latest trans- 
fer of the kind, which took place during 
the autumn, was that of C. J. Spencer, 
manager of Bradford Corporation 
Tramways, and honorary secretary of 
the Municipal Tramways Association. 
He entered the service of the London 
group without any public notification of 
the post which he was to fill. On the 
appointment of Mr. Pott to the tram- 
ways (Board of Trade) committee, re- 
ferred to above, it was announced that 
Mr. Spencer was appointed manager of 
the Metropolitan Electric Tramways 
and the London United Tramways, 
both of which undertakings are con- 
trolled by the Underground Electric 
Railways, London. Mr. Spencer's 
place at Bradford was filled by the ap- 
pointment of R. H. Wilkinson, tram- 
way manager and engineer to the Hud- 
dersfield Corporation, while now it is 
announced that A. A. Blackburn, chief 
engineer and assistant to the manager 
of the Belfast Corporation Tramways, 
takes the place of Mr. Wilkinson at 
Huddersfield. 

Some importance to tramway and 
electric raliway undertakings attaches 
to a report by the Advisory Council of 
the Ministry of Reconstruction on the 
standardization of railway equipment. 
Among other things, the Council pro- 
poses that the standardization of 
wheels, axles, wheel centers, tires, 
running gear, draw gear, buffing gear, 
bogies, brakes and underframes should 
be dealt with immediately by the engi- 
neering standards committee. That 
committee has done valuable work for a 
number of years in bringing about 
standardization in engineering indus- 
trial products. 

Committee on Production 
a Misnomer 

That official body with the misleading 
name, the committee on production, is- 
sued in the end of November an award 
on a further demand by British tram- 
way employees for increases of wages 
to meet the still advancing cost of liv- 
ing. Some of the claims are not al- 
lowed, but for adult men and also for 
women who are doing the work of men 
pay is increased to 30s. per week above 
pre-war rates. Thus the financial posi- 
tion of many tramway undertakings 
becomes more and more difficult. 



News of the Eledric Railways 

FINANCIAL AND CORPORATE . TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION 
PERSONAL MENTION 



Mopping Up 

New York Putting the Finishing 
Touches to Its $300,000,000 of 
New Rapid Transit Lines 

A review by the Public Service Com- 
mission for the First District of New 
York of the progress made in 1918 of 
the rapid transit work under the dual 
system shows that about 75 per cent of 
the work is finished, and the promise is 
made that nearly all of the remaining 
25 per cent will be ready for the opera- 
tion of trains before the end of 1919. 

City Administration Must Help 

Emphasis is laid on the fact that it 
will not be possible to keep this prom- 
ise unless there is cordial and prompt 
co-operation between the commission 
and the Board of Estimate of the city 
of New York not only in relation to the 
work yet to be contracted for, but as to 
the work now under way and for which 
appropriations are needed. 

There are 341 track-miles in the en- 
tire system, and not more than 35 
track-miles, or thereabout, will re- 
main uncompleted twelve months 
hence. Within a few months after New 
Year's Day in 1920 trains will be op- 
erating over the entire stretch of this 
rapid transit highway, and plans for 
the extension of the system will be 
ready for consideration. 

These new plans are known to in- 
clude: 

1. The extension of the Queensboro 
subway from Times Square, its pres- 
ent Manhattan terminus, west to the 
Hudson River. 

2. A subway in Eighth Avenue ex- 
tending south to the Battery and north 
to the northern edge of the Bronx. 

3. The extension of the Broadway 
subway from Fifty-ninth Street, where 
it will turn east and go to Queens via 
tunnel at the foot of Sixtieth Street, 
direct north under Eighth Avenue to 
the Bronx. 

4. A moving platform from Times 
Square to the Grand Central Station in- 
stead of the present shuttle, with exits 
and entrances at all intersections. 

Few Unawarded Contracts 

The contracts still to be let for the 
completion of the dual system provide 
for the construction of the elevated 
part of the Fourteenth Street-Eastern 
line in Williamsburg, the extension of 
the steel work on Westchester Ave- 
nue east of the Bronx River on the Pel- 
ham Bay Park line, the extension of 
the Queensboro subway from Park Ave- 
nue to Times Square, and for the Nas- 
sau Street subway connecting the 



Centre Street loop in the Municipal 
Building with the Whitehall Street- 
Montague tunnel to Brooklyn. 

These contracts will be ready to let 
early in 1919 as well as other contracts 
for track installation, station finish and 
the odds and ends to make the work 
complete. Other important work to be 
done will be the acquisition of real es- 
tate for storage yards for the Pelham 
Bay Park line, the Corona Elevated 
line and the Livonia Avenue branch of 
the Eastern Parkway line in Brooklyn. 
The time of trouble in getting steel to 
carry on the work is past, the commis- 
sion believes, and the hope is expressed 
that from now until the end there will 
be plenty of men and material and 
plenty of money, too, if the Board of 
Estimate will lend a helping hand. 

Contracts already made by the com- 
mission for the city-owned lines of the 
dual system aggregate approximately 
$208,000,000. The operating companies, 
exclusive of real estate, have spent 
about $102,000,000 for equipping these 
and company-owned lines. 



Arbitrators Will Fix Wreck Costs 

Whether the Brooklyn (N. Y.) Rapid 
Transit Company shall charge to op- 
erating expenses the costs growing out 
of the Malbone Street tunnel accident 
on Nov. 1 is to be decided by a board 
of arbitration consisting of Louis Mar- 
shall of the law firm of Guggenheimer, 
Untermyer & Marshall, who was 
named by the Public Service Commis- 
sion, ex-Secretary of War Lindley M. 
Garrison of the law firm of Horn- 
blower, Garrison, Miller & Potter, who 
was chosen by the company, and ex- 
Justice Charles E. Hughes, who was 
named by Chief Judge Frank H. His- 
cock of the Court of Appeals, because 
the company and the commission could 
not agree upon the third member. 

Under the dual contracts between the 
company and the city the latter is en- 
titled to a share of the receipts after 
operating expenses are met. If all the 
expenses of the accident were charged 
against operating expenses the result 
would be that the city would •be paying 
at least half of the costs of the acci- 
dent. It was also provided in the con- 
tract that any disagreement con- 
cerning charges should be determined 
by arbitration. 

The commission has notified the mem- 
bers of the Board of Estimate that ar- 
bitration proceedings are under way, 
so that care can be taken to keep any 
expenditures due to the accident out 
of the accounts showing the city's in- 
terest on investment or its share in re- 
ceipts. 



Labor Reports 

Supply and Demand Seem to Be Pretty 
Well Equalized in Most of the 
Country 

The statement as to labor conditions 
throughout the country made up from 
the weekly reports obtained by the De- 
partment of Labor by telegraph from 
local representatives of the United 
States Employment Service shows that 
in Portland, Me., the indications are 
that supply and demand are equal. In 
Boston, Lynn and Worcester, Mass., 
there have been slight decreases from 
firms reporting, caused by the laying 
off of men. The rest of the State shows 
supply and demand equal. Reports from 
Providence indicate a reduction in em- 
ployees, with supply and demand equal. 
Connecticut, according to reports re- 
ceived, is the only state in New Eng- 
land that shows any marked surplus. 

In New York Buffalo appears to be 
the only city in the State reporting a 
large surplus. 

In New Jersey a shortage is indi- 
cated by most of the cities reporting, 
with a marked reduction in Newark. 

No surpluses are indicated in Penn- 
sylvania. Throughout that State the 
principal shortages indicated are found 
among electricians, laborers, machin- 
ists, railroad workers and blacksmiths. 

Heavy unemployment is indicated in 
reports from Cleveland and Dayton. 

In Illinois supply and demand are 
now reported to be about equal. Es- 
pecially is this true of Chicago. 
Throughout the State there appear to 
be shortages in labor, railroad workers, 
and agriculture. Detroit, Mich., re- 
ports a large surplus, probably caused 
by holiday lay-offs and inventory. A 
small laying-off of men in Minneapolis 
and St. Paul is reported. Reports from 
Duluth indicate a slight increase. 

Atlanta, Baltimore, Norfolk continue 
to show shortages. Shortages in Geor- 
gia are indicated in carpenters, laborers 
and textile workers, with a heavy short- 
age in Maryland of coal miners and 
laborers. Nashville reports a surplus 
of 2000. In New Orleans supply and 
demand are about equal. 

Salt Lake City still indicates a sur- 
plus, though slight, with a shortage 
from Little Rock. Kansas City reports 
a slight lay-off, St. Louis a slightly 
increased lay-off. 

San Francisco indicates a surplus of 
7500 as against 7000 in a previous re- 
port. The Oakland surplus is still 
given as 2500. In Los Angeles supply 
still equals demand. There is a short- 
age in Seattle, but supply and demand 
are about equal in Portland, Ore. 



66 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 1 



Revenue Bill Provisions 

Some Provisions of Measure Regarded as Working Further Hardship 
on Public Utility Companies 



The revenue bill has passed the Sen- 
ate and is now before the conference 
committees of Congress. Two sections 
of the bill are of pai'ticular importance 
to public utility companies. 

One of these is Section 240. It deals 
with the consolidated returns of pub- 
lic utility companies, and was amended 
by the Senate. The Washington rep- 
resentative of the Electric Railway 
Journal reports that public utility men 
who have recently visited Washington 
from various sections of the country 
hope that the Senate amendment in 
respect to consolidated returns will be 
acquiesced in by the House conferees. 
These representatives of the utilities 
express the opinion that the Senate 
amendment gives an apparent equity 
and convenience to holding companies 
whose properties are widely scattered 
and are operated under varying con- 
ditions of public regulation. 

Bill Unduly Burdensome 
The other section of the bill of in- 
terest to public utilities is that em- 
bodied in Senate Amendment 488. Pub- 
lic utility men recently in Washington 
in this instance, however, regard this 
amendment as imposing an undue bur- 
den upon public utility companies for 
the reason that during the war a great 
shrinkage occurred in the real value 
of public utility stocks. As the bill 
was passed by the Senate, the basis of 
computing for capital stock tax was 
made "the net assets shown by the 
books," instead of "the fair average 
value of the capital stock for the pre- 
ceding year." In connection with this 
measure representatives of the utili- 
ties point out that during and since the 
war, in connection with the great 
shrinkage in the real value of their 
stock, dividends have been suspended 
in order that funds might be made 
available for the carrying out of the 
numerous requirements for extensions 
and betterments of service as demand- 
ed by public authorities and by the 
government's needs in the prosecution 
of the war. 

It is stated, therefore, that the book 
assets of the companies do not repre- 
sent an equitable measure of taxable 
value and that the use of such a basis 
would constitute a gross injustice to 
the industry, which has been burdened 
more than any other during the war 
because of its inability automatically to 
increase its rates sufficiently to ab- 
sorb the enormous advances in the 
cost of materials, fuel and labor, all 
of which have been adjusted upwards 
through agencies of the federal gov- 
ernment. 

It is regarded as of the utmost im- 
portance that the section as changed 
by Senate Amendment 488 should not 
be approved by the House conferees 
and that the former basis of comput- 
ing the tax from "the fair average 



value of the capital stock for the pre- 
ceding year," should be reinstated. 

The language of the two sections of 
the bill in question is as follows: 

CONSOLIDATED returns, 
SECTION 240 

(a) That corporations which are affiliated 
within the meaning of this section shall, 
under regulations to be prescribed by the 
Commissioner with the approval of the 
Secretary, make a consolidated return of 
net income and invested capital for the 
purposes of this title and Title III, and the 
taxes thereunder shall be computed and 
determined upon the basis of such return. 

In any case in which a tax is assessed 
upon the basis of a consolidated return the 
total tax shall be computed in the first 
instance as a unit and shall then be as- 
sessed upon the respective affiliated cor- 
porations in such proportions as may be 
agreed upon among them, or, in the absence 
of any such agreement, then the basis of 
the net income and invested capital prop- 
erly assignable to each. There shall be 
allowed in computing the income tax only 
one specific credit of $2,000 (as provided in 
section 311) only one specific exemption of 
$3,000 ; and in computing the excess profits 
credit (as provided in section 312) only 
one specific exemption of $3,000. 

(b) For the purpose of this section, two 
or more corporations engaged in the same 
or related business shall be deemed to be 
affiliated — • 

(1) If one corporation owns directly or 
controls through closely affiliated interests 
or by a nominee or nominees substantially 
all the stock of two or more corporations 
is owned or controlled by the same inter- 
ests, or if one such corporation buys from 
or sells to another products or services at 
prices above or below the current market, 
thus effecting an artificial distribution of 
profits, or in any way so arranges its finan- 
cial relationships with another corporation 
as to assign to it a disproportionate share 
of net income or invested capital. 

(2) A foreign corporation shall not be 
deemed to be affiliated with a domestic cor- 
poration unless a majority of the voting 
stock is owned or controlled by such do- 
mestic corporation or a resident taxpayer 
or group of resident taxpayers or by such 
domestic corporation and a resident tax- 
payer or group of resident taxpayers closely 
affiliated with the management of said do- 
mestic corporation. Where under this sub- 
division a foreign corporation is affiliated 
with a domestic corporation, the total tax 
(computed as a unit as above provided) 
shall be reduced by the credit authorized 
in section 238. 

TITLE X.— SPECIAL, TAXES, 
SECTION 1000 

(a) That on and after July 1, 1918, in 
lieu of the tax imposed by the first sub- 
division of section 407 of the Revenue Act 
of 1916: 

(1) Every domestic corporation shall 
pay annually a special excise tax with re- 
spect to carrying on or doing business, 
equivalent to $1 for each $1,000 of the 
excess over $5,000 of the amount of its net 
assets shown by its books as of the close 
of the preceding annual period used by the 
corporation for purposes of making its 
income tax return ; but if the corporation 
made no such return, then of the excess 
over $5,000 of the amount of its net assets 
shown by its books as of the 30th day of 
June preceding. * * * 



War Board Challenged 

The National War Labor Board on 
Dec. 30 began an inquiry, into hours 
and conditions of labor on the Third 
Avenue Railway, New York. 

On behalf of the employees, applica- 
tion was made to the board for a rec- 
ommendation that employees alleged 
to have been discharged during the 
present year for belonging to a union 
should be reinstated and paid for the 
interval during which they were with- 
out employment. The board was also 



asked to rule that the company, which 
has employed women in recent months, 
should take back into its employ all 
men employees who wish to go back into 
the service. Higher wages and shorter 
hours were also asked for. 

The company was not represented 
by counsel at the hearing, but a memo- 
randum was submitted on its behalf, 
denying the authority of the War La- 
bor Board, as follows: 

Neither the federal government nor any 
federal agency has power or authority to 
regulate, interfere with, or in any way 
control the operation of a street surface 
railway located wholly within a state. The 
decisions of your board relative to labor 
employed by such a street surface railway 
must necessarily affect the operating ex- 
penses of such railway, and yet the power 
to increase or regulate the rates of fare of 
such railway is vested only in the state. 

Any federal legislation, act, or procla- 
mation purporting to give to your board 
power to pass upon, or control in any way, 
matters relative to labor employed by a 
street surface railway, or otherwise to regu- 
late the expenditure and operation of a 
street surface railway, is confiscatory and 
unconstitutional, in that neither the federal 
government nor any federal agency has 
the power to afford to such street railway 
corporation any necessary increase in rates 
or revenues to enable it to carry out any 
decision of the War Labor Board requiring, 
or which may result in, additional or in- 
creased expenditures by such street surface 
railway. 



Improving Short Line 

Eighteen-Mile Massachusetts Road Be- 
ing Completely Equipped for 
Trolley Operation 

Plans for further development of the 
Grafton & Upton Railroad are under 
way. The company operates a stand- 
ard-gage railroad about 18 miles long, 
running from Milford, Mass., through 
Hopedale, Upton, West Upton and New 
England Village to North Grafton, 
where it connects with the main line 
of the Boston & Albany Railroad about 
6 miles east of Worcester. 

The passenger service on this road 
has been operated by the Milford & 
Uxbridge Street Railway for about six- 
teen years, the street railway cars us- 
ing the railroad track between centers 
of towns, with detours into the streets 
and village centers at each place above 
named. 

The railroad right-of-way is now be- 
ing completely equipped with overhead 
trolley construction (in addition to the 
sections hitherto used by the Milford 
& Uxbridge cars) and the company has 
purchased two 30-ton General Electric 
locomotives for handling freight over 
the line at night. One additional elec- 
tric locomotive may be puixhased later 
if the traffic conditions warrant. Two 
steam locomotives are owned by the 
road. 

The electric freight service has not 
yet been started, but the indications 
are that this will be done during the 
present winter, or in the early spring 
at the latest. H. A. Billings, the Dra- 
per Company, Hopedale, Mass., is in 
charge of the operation of the Grafton 
& Upton line. At North Grafton there 
is a crossing of the Worcester Con- 
solidated Street Railway. Power is 
purchased from the Milford & Ux- 
bridge Street Railway. 



January 4, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



G7 



New York Commissioners Resign 

Charles Bulkley Hubbell, chairman, 
and Samuel H. Ordway, resigned on 
Dec. 31 as members of the Public Serv- 
ice Commission for the First District 
of New York. Mr. Hubbell addressed 
his resignation to Governor Whitman, 
while Commissioner Ordway wrote to 
Governor-elect Alfred E. Smith. The 
term of office for which Chairman Hub- 
bell was appointed would have expired 
on Feb. 1, 1919, and that of Commis- 
sioner Ordway on Jan. 20. 

In his letter of resignation Mr. Hub- 
bell recalled Mr. Smith's declarations 
regarding the reorganization of the 
Public Service Commission, and said 
that he wished to resign so as to give 
the Governor-elect a free hand imme- 
diately after he takes office. 

Commissioner Ordway explained in 
his letter to Mr. Smith that he had not 
sought the office of Public Service 
Commissioner and had accepted it 
with reluctance. His appointment was 
made during a recess of the Senate and 
has never been confirmed. 



News Notes 



War Labor Board to Visit Cincinnati. 
— On Jan. 6 examiners of the War 
Labor Board will visit Cincinnati to in- 
quire into the scale of wages paid to 
employees of the Cincinnati Traction 
Company, other than platform men. 
The schedule provides for a minimum 
wage of 42J cents an hour. 

Wage Increase in Youngstown. — The 
Mahoning & Shenango Railway & 
Light Company granted the men a sub- 
stantial increase in wages. A new 
agreement has also been signed. The 
men will be advanced from 34 cents 
to 48 cents an hour. More than 500 
men are affected. 

New Member Iowa Conciliation 
Board. — C. F. Harrington, Sioux City, 
Iowa, banker, has been named to the 
vacant place on the Iowa Conciliation 
Board. His selection was agreed upon 
by the Iowa League of Municipalities 
and the public utilities organization. 
Mr. Harrington takes the place of J. 
K. Ingwerson, who has moved from 
the State. 

Ottumwa Strike Settled. — The strike 
of employees of the Ottumwa Railway 
& Light Company, Ottumwa, Iowa, was 
only of forty-eight hours' duration and 
was ended by the members of the City 
Council agreeing to grant the 6-cent 
fare which was asked by the company 
in order to increase the wages of the 
employees. The fare increase is for 
the period until peace is declared. 

I. C. C. Rate Authority to Stand.— 
Authority of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission will stand regardless of 



federal control of the railroads. In a 
far-reaching decision, the commission 
has made clear its authority to act, 
and also determine the status of all 
cases now before it as well as the valid- 
ity of decisions rendered before the 
government took control of the roads. 

Hearing on Women Again Changed. 
— The hearing involving the employ- 
ment of women on the lines of the De- 
troit (Mich.) United Railway set for 
Chicago on Jan. 4 instead of at Wash- 
ington has again been changed by the 
War Labor Board and it is understood 
that the Chicago date has been can- 
celled and that the hearing will prob- 
ably be in Washington at a date yet to 
be determined. 

Receiver Satisfies Pittsburgh Men. — 
Charles A. Fagan, receiver for the 
Pittsburgh (Pa.) Railways, on Dec. 18 
following a conference with union of- 
ficials, ordered the reinstatement of a 
carman discharged for refusing to take 
out an unheated car, and announced 
that within five days heaters would be 
installed in the vestibules of all the 
cars, as provided for in the agreement 
between the receivers and the em- 
ployees. 

Toronto Fine Sustained. — The judg- 
ment of the Ontario Railway & Munic- 
ipal Board, imposing a fine of $24,000 
on the Toronto (Ont.) Railway, as a 
penalty, at the rate of $1,000 a day, for 
delay in putting 100 new cars into 
service, has been confirmed by the 
Provincial Appellate Court. The com- 
pany disputed the authority of the On- 
tario Railway & Municipal Board to 
impose such a fine. The board was 
sustained. 

Association of Oklahoma Operators. 
— The Oklahoma Utilities Corporation 
is the official designation of the union 
of all public utilities in Oklahoma, in- 
cluding city electric railways, interur- 
ban companies, etc. The purpose is to 
bring into closer touch and co-opera- 
tion the managers of all such com- 
panies and to make for uniform service 
and regulations throughout the State. 
Headquarters will be maintained in Ok- 
lahoma City. 

Labor Department Organizes New 
Divisions. — Secretary W. B. Wilson of 
the Labor Department announces the 
establishment of three new divisions 
as follows: Division of industrial hy- 
giene and medicine, to develop stan- 
dards of sanitation and medical prac- 
tice in industries; division of labor ad- 
ministration, to advise employers as to 
employment systems and labor man- 
agement policies; and division of safety 
engineering, to develop standards and 
practices for accident prevention. 

Wants to Void Occupation Tax. — 
The Omaha & Council Bluffs Street 
Railway, Omaha, Neb., has asked the 
District Court to declare void the oc- 
cupation tax, under which it pays the 
city of Omaha between $75,000 and 
$100,000 a year. The petition was filed 
in connection with a motion to vacate 
an injunction obtained by the city 
against the company in which Mayor 



Smith sought to have the courts order 
the company to restore service while 
the recent strike was in effect. 

More Politics. — As a result of the 
blow aimed at the Public Service Com- 
mission for the First District of New 
York by the Board of Estimate on 
Dec. 30 almost the entire inspectional 
force on subway construction had to be 
cut off. Other employees vital to the 
pushing of the new subways had to be 
released. It is probable that the Legis- 
lature will be asked to appoint a spe- 
cial committee to investigate the way 
in which the work of the commission 
has been hampered. 

Up to the Incoming Council. — The 
City Council of London, Ont., at its 
final meeting of 1918, rejected a reso- 
lution to cancel the franchise, of the 
London Street Railway and eject it 
from the streets. It was alleged that 
the company had refused to comply 
with the city's time and speed require- 
ments, and that it had defied the Coun- 
cil's order for the collection of a fine 
of $10 a day for delay. The outgoing 
Council, however, indorsed the spirit 
of the resolution and recommended 
that action be taken at the first meet- 
ing of the Council of 1919. 

Council Opposes New Depot Ordi- 
nance. — A resolution was adopted on 
Dec. 23 by the City Council of Cleve- 
land, Ohio, opposing the proposed union 
depot ordinance, initiated by the of- 
ficers of the Cleveland Union Terminals 
Company, to be voted upon at an elec- 
tion on Jan. 6. The resolution is in- 
tended as a recommendation to voters 
to defeat the ordinance, in the belief 
that the company will then propose 
another grant that will be more satis- 
factory to the Council and the engi- 
neers and organizations which have 
criticised the proposal. 

Co-operative Store Idea Abandoned. 

— Groceries and canned goods of the 
New York (N. Y.) Railways valued at 
$150,000, are being offered at auction. 
The sale marks the last step in the 
dissolution of the chain of co-operative 
stores which the Interborough and the 
New York Railways Company estab- 
lished to lower the cost of living for 
their employees. The stores were given 
up by the companies for lack of patron- 
age on the part of the employees, for 
whose exclusive use they were opened 
several years ago. The salaries of gro- 
cery clerks and butchers and the up- 
keep of the stores were paid by the 
companies so that the goods could be 
sold strictly at cost without figuring in 
overhead expenses. 



Program of Meeting 

Illinois Electric Railway Association 
The annual meeting of the Illinois 
Electric Railway Association will be 
held in Chicago on Jan. 17. It is ex- 
pected that P. H. Gadsden, chairman 
of the committee on readjustment of 
the American Electric Railway Asso- 
ciation, will address the association. 



68 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 1 



Financial and Corporate 



B. R. T. in Receiver's Hands 

Lindley M. Garrison Called Upon by 
Court to Administer Affairs of 
Sorely Beset Railway 

Judge Julius M. Mayer of the United 
States District Court at New York, 
after the close of business on Dec. 31, 
made an order appointing Ex-Secretary 
of War Lindley M. Garrison temporary 
receiver of the Brooklyn Rapid Tran- 
sit Railroad Company, the New York 
Municipal Railroad Corporation, and 
the New York Consolidated Railroad 
Corporation, these two being subsidia- 
ries of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Com- 
pany. The order was made upon the 
application of the Westinghouse Elec- 
tric & Manufacturing Company, a 
creditor, for material furnished. The 
companies did not oppose the action, 
for they felt that they would be sub- 
served by a temporary receivership. 
Many Millions Needed 

The immediate requirements were 
for meeting on Jan. 1 obligations for 
about $2,000,000, and this could have 
been obtained, but to complete the con- 
struction and equipment work now un- 
der contract and to provide for addi- 
tional expenditures for similar pur- 
poses during the coming year will re- 
quire the raising of many millions 
more, and the general situation af- 
fecting street railroads, with their sta- 
tionary fares and rising costs, had in- 
jured their credit and made impossible 
up to the present time provision for 
the investment of fresh capital. 

Col, Timothy S. Williams, president 
of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Com- 
pany, made a statement in which he 
said in part: 

"Every possible effort to provide for 
these construction and equipment needs, 
including informal applications to the. 
War Finance Corporation, had been 
taken by the directors, but without 
substantial results, and it seems wise 
to face^ the issue now with the hope 
that general knowledge and apprecia- 
tion of the necessities would suggest a 
way for their solution. 

Company Handicapped by City 

"The company has been greatly han- 
dicapped by the delay of the city in 
completing its subways. These should 
have been mostly in operation two 
years ago. 

"The essential parts of them are still 
under construction. In the meantime a 
large part of our $60,000,000 invest- 
ment is unproductive, and existing and 
completed parts of the system cannot 
be effectively or profitably operated. 

"In addition to this handicap the 
high cost of labor and materials and 
the other hardships, caused by the war, 



have largely reduced the net earnings. 
The effort on the part of the company 
to restore rates of fare authorized by 
their franchises or to get the right to 
charge fares sufficient to meet the cost 
of service, has thus far failed. 

"It is greatly to the advantage of 
the property that the court has ap- 
pointed as receiver a man of execu- 
tive and of administrative ability, ex- 
Secretary of War Garrison." 

Mr. Garrison, the receiver, was in 
Washington on Jan. 1 but he denied his 
visit was for the purpose of seeking 
further government aid. 

W. F. C. Advanced $17,320,500 

On June 20 last the directors of the 
War Finance Corporation decided, upon 
certain conditions, to make a direct 
advance of not exceeding $17,320,500 
to the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Com- 
pany for the purpose of enabling the 
company in part to meet the $57,735,- 
000 face amount of its six-year 5 per 
cent secured gold notes, maturing on 
July 1, 1918. For this advance the 
War Finance Corporation was to re- 
ceive new three-year 7 per cent se- 
cured gold notes of the Brooklyn Rapid 
Transit Company at par. The War 
Finance Corporation at that time was 
willing, on the consummation of the 
plan then presented for the extension 
of the maturing notes of the Brook- 
lyn Rapid Transit Company, to make 
advances in proper cases to banks, 
bankers, and trust companies, as pro- 
vided in Section 7 of the War Finance 
Corporation act, upon the new three- 
year 7 per cent secured gold notes of 
the company. 

Wants City Representation 

Corporation Counsel William P. Burr 
after reading certain comments on the 
matter said the situation was too com- 
plicated for observations that were 
only intended to be smart. It was 
Mr. Burr's judgment that it would be 
to the advantage of all concerned that 
the city have representation in the 
management of the affairs of the com- 
pany by the appointment of a co-re- 
ceiver to be named by the city and 
appointed by the court. 

The security holders were quick to 
organize. A committee headed by Al- 
bert H. Wiggin is calling for deposit 
of stock. The Central Union Trust 
Company, Kuhn, Loeb & Company and 
Kidder, Peabody & Company are ask- 
ing for the deposit of the three-year 
7 per cent secured gold notes and the 
six-year 5 per cent secured gold notes 
of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Com- 
pany and the first mortgage 5 per cent 
sinking fund gold bonds, series A, due 
on Jan. 1, 1966, of the New York Mu- 
nicipal Railway Corporation. 



New Angles at Columbus 

Stockholders' Protective Committee 
Confers with Management About 
Settlement of Problems 

The stockholders' protective commit- 
tee of the Columbus Railway, Power & 
Light Company, Columbus, Ohio, con- 
ferred with Norman McD. Crawford, 
vice-president, on Dec. 27 relative to 
certain demands which have been made 
by the members. Chairman Emil Keis- 
wetter afterward stated that confer- 
ences so far held had not resulted in 
much progress. It is said that the com- 
mittee will insist that the control and 
responsibility of operation be local- 
ized. The committee asks to be rep- 
resented at the annual meeting on Jan. 
28 by three out of the five members of 
the proxy committee. 

Clarence M. Clark, vice-president of 
the company, conferred with the com- 
mittee on Dec. 23 and 24. At that 
time both Mr. Clark and the committee 
felt that progress had been made to- 
ward an understanding. Mr. Clark 
expressed the belief, however, that 
the organization of a stockholders' pro- 
tective committee was ill-advised. 

Conclusions of Report Criticised 

Both Mr. Clark and Mr. Crawford 
criticised the conclusions and estimates 
that E. W. Bemis has drawn from the 
figures presented in his report. No 
one, they said, could make an estimate 
ol what the results would have been 
during September and October, 1918, 
had the old rate of fare been used. The 
figures given in the report, they say, 
bear out the company's claim as to los- 
ing money. Mr. Crawford said that, on 
June 30, before the change in fare had 
been made, the railway department had 
$241,584 with which to meet interest 
charges and depreciation on its pro- 
portion of the company's investment, 
after paying all operating expenses and 
taxes. The interest charges alone 
would have been about $210,000, he 
said, leaving $31,000 to meet deprecia- 
tion charges of about $333,000. The 
railway department, therefore, fell 
short more than $300,000 in six months. 

On Dec. 24, an owner of ten shares 
of stock filed a petition in Common 
Pleas Court in which the appointment 
of a receiver was asked. The petition al- 
leged that the repudiation of the old 
rate of fare of eight tickets for a quar- 
ter had damaged the company's securi- 
ties. 

Suit Not Serious 

H, W. Clapp, general manager of the 
company, said on Dec. 30 that this 
suit was brought by an attorney, rep- 
resenting a number of small stock- 
holders, in order to fix their status in 
the matter. It did not represent an 
action by minority stockholders, and 
there was nothing serious about it. 
The court, he said, is not likely to take 
any action on it soon, if at all. 

On the same day C. M. Clark, repre- 
senting the Clark Management Com- 
pany, and the stockholders' protective 
committee held another conference. 



January 4, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



69 



Fare Increases Show Results 

Forty -Three Per Cent of Companies Reporting for September 
Have Raised Their Rates 



The tables just made public by the 
information bureau of the American 
Electric Railway Association show the 
revenues and expenses of electric rail- 
ways operating over 5000 miles in the 
United States, for the nine months end- 
ing Sept. 30, 1918, as compared with 
the nine months ending Sept. 30, 1917, 
and for the month of September, 1918, 
as compared to September, 1917. 

The latter table is particularly in- 
teresting as reflecting in some measure 
the effect of fare increases granted 
throughout the country. Of the roads, 
whose statistics are included in this 
table, nearly 43 per cent have increased 
their fares since September, 1917. The 
result is shown in the lowest percent- 
age decrease in net earnings recorded 



since August, 1917. Fifty-one per cent 
of the roads reporting in the Eastern 
District have received increases, and 
33 per cent, in both the Southern and 
Western Districts. 

The result is reflected in the figures, 
the Eastern district showing an actual 
percentage gain in net earnings, as 
against a loss in both of the other dis- 
tricts. That the situation is by no 
means taken care of by the increases 
already granted, however, is indicated 
from the operating ratio for the month 
which is 68.08 per cent for 1918, as 
against 64 per cent for 1917. 

The operating ratio as shown in the 
table covering nine months operation, 
is also discouraging, being 67.20 for 
1918 as against 63.32 for 1917, an in- 



crease of nearly 4 per cent. The op- 
erating ratio for the first nine months 
of 1916 was 60.96 per cent, so that in 
two years there has been an actual in- 
crease of nearly 7 per cent. 

A drop in net earnings of 4.26 per 
cent for the nine months period is 
shown, with the Western companies 
showing the largest loss, 8.36 per cent; 
the Eastern companies 3.10 per cent 
and the Southern companies 2.59 per 
cent. The Western showing is further 
aggravated by the fact that a strike 
lasting during the first six months of 
1917 took place on one of the largest 
Western properties, and kept earnings 
down and expenses up during that pe- 
riod. 

That there is nearly twice the per- 
centage increase in operating expenses 
as compared to operating revenues is 
the outstanding fact of the table for 
the nine-month period. This holds true 
in all districts and both with com- 



COMPARISON OF REVENUES AND EXPENSES OF ELECTRIC RAILWAYS SEPTEMBER, 1918 AND 1917 



Account 


United States 


Eastern District 


Southern District 


Western District 


Amount, 
September 
1918 


Per Mile of Line 


Amount, 
September 
1918 


Per Mile of Line 


Amount, 
September 
1918 


Per Mile of Line 


Amount, 
September 
1918 


Per Mile of Line 


1918 


1917 


% In- 
crease 
Over 

1917 


1918 


1917 


%In- 
creasi 
Over 
1917 


1918 


1917 


%In- 
■ Tease 
Over 
1917 


1918 


1917 


%In- 
crease 
Over 
1917 


Operating revenues 

Operating expenses 

Operating ratio, per cent 

Av. No. miles of line 


$1 1,786,768 
8,024,487 
3,762,281 


$2,234 
1,521 
713 


$2,003 
1,282 
721 


11 53 
18 64 

nu 


$7,944,60ll $2,298 
5,382,908 1,557 
2,561,6981 741 


$2,038 
1,318 
720 


12.76 
18 13 

2.92 


$1,238,860 
819,929 
418,931 


$1,760 
1,169 
597 


$1,623 
934 
689 


8.81 
25. 16 

US. 35 


$2,603,307 
1,821,650 
781,657 


$2,332 
1,632 
700 


$2,117 
1,376 
741 


10. 16 

18. 60 

t5.53 


1918,68.08; 1917,64.00 


1918,67.75; 1917,64.67 1918,66 19; 1917,57 55 


1918, 69 98; 1917, 65 00 


1918, 5,275; 1917, 5,192 


1918,3,458; 1917,3,446 1918,701; 1917,648 


1918, 1,116; 1917, 1,098 



COMPANIES REPORTING TAXES 



t earnings 

Taxes 

Operating income. 



Operating ratio, per cent. . 
Av. No. miles of line 



$7,726,357 
5,467,565 
2,258,792 
431,345 
1,827,447 



$2,204 $1,964 12 22| $4,673,232 

1,560 1,318 18.371 3,360,161 

644[ 646 t0.3i| 1,313,071 

123 124 to. Si 244,493 

52)1 522 tO. J 



1918, 70 78; 1917, 67. 



3,505; 191 7, 3,473 



,068,575 



$2,102 $1,868 
1,512 1,299 
590 5 69 



1 2. 53! 
1 6 . 40 

3.69 
t2.6-5: 
5.26 



170.10') 
38,286 
131,823 



61,828 
1,01 1 
817 



r, 6 3 

12 99 

\9 . 95 



$2,571,33/ $2, 
1,795,720 I, 
775,612 
148,563 
627,649| 



42,: $2,196 10 29 
692[ 1,424 18 82 
730 772: tS.U 

140 140 

590| 632; 16 66 



1918, 71.93; 1917, 69 54 



1917, 64 85 



1918, 2,223; 1917, 2.212 



1918, 221; 1917, 217 



1918, 1,061; 1917, 1,044 



tlndicates decrease. 



COMPARISON OF REVENUES AND EXPENSES OF ELECTRIC RAILWAYS FOR NINE MONTHS, JANUARY-SEPTEMBER, 1918 AND 1917 



Account 


United States 


Eastern District 


Southern District 


Western District 


Amount, 
January- 
Sep- 
tember, 
1918 


Per Mile of Line 


Amount, 
January- 

Sep- 
tember, 

1918 


Per Mile of Line 


Amount, 
January- 
Sep- 
tember, 
1918 


Per Mile of Line 


Amount, 
January- 
Sep- 
tember, 
1918 


Per Mile of Line 


1918 


1917 


% In- 
crease 
Over 
1917 


1918 


1917 


% In- 
crease 
Over 
1917 


1918 


1917 


% In- 
crease 
Over 
1917 


1918 


1917 


% In- 
crease 
Over 
1917 


Operating revenues . . 
Operating expenses... 
Net earnings 

Operating ratio, per 
Av. No. miles of line. 


$97,697,830 
65,657,286 
32,040,544 


$18,844 
12,664 
6,180 


$17,600 
1 1,145 
6,455 


7.07 
13.63 

t-M6 


$65,816,918 
43,893,296 
21,923,622 


$19,547 
13,036 
6,511 


$18,291 
11,572 
6,719 


6.87 
12.65 

is.io 


$10,018,751 
6,226,296 
3,792,455 


$14,286 
8,878 
5,408 


$13,153 
7,601 

5,552 


8 61 
16.80 

t2.59 


$21,862,161 
15,537,694 
6,324,467 


$19,586 
13,920 
5,666 


$18,113 
1 1,930 
6,183 


8. 13 
16 68 

i8.se 


1918, 67.20; 1917, 63.32 


1918, 66.69; 1917, 63.27 


1918, 62. 14; 1917, 57.79 


1918, 71 07; 1917, 65.86 


1918, 5,184; 1917, 5,101 


1918. 3,367; 1917,3,355 


1918, 701; 1917, 648 


1918, 1,116; 1917, 1,098 



COMPANIES REPORTING TAXES 



Operating revenues. . 
Operating expenses... 

Net earnings 

Taxes 

Operating income.. . . 

Operating ratio, per 
Av. No. miles of line. . 


$63,374,872 
45,556,188 
17,818,684 
4,447,243 
13,371,441 


$18,560 
13,342 
5,218 
1,302 
3,916 


$17,264 
11,613 
5,651 

4^470 


7.51 
14.89 
t7. 66 
10.25 

U2.39 


$38,025,382 
27,962,833 
10,062,549 
2,626,056 
7,436,493 


$17,831 
13,112 
4,719 
1,231 
3,488 


$16,761 
11,598 
5,163 
1,148 
4,015 


6.38 $3,745,507 
13.05 2,286,466 
t«.60 1,459,041 
7.23 308,880 
U3.1S\ 1,150,161 


$16,986 $14,742 
10,3691 8,169 
6,617 6,573 
1.401! 1,318 
5,216 5,255 


15.22 
26.93 
0.67 
6 30 

tO. 74 


$21,603,983 
15,306,889 
6,297,094 
1,512,307 
4,784,787 


$20,352 
14,420 
5,932 
1,425 
4,507 


$18,810 
12,357 
6,453 
1,220 
5,233 


8.20 
16.69 
t8.07 
16 80 

US . 87 


1918, 71.89; 1917, 67.27 


1918, 73.53; 1917, 69.20 


1918, 61 04; 1917, 55 41 


1918, 70.85; 1917, 65.69 


1918, 3,415; 1917, 3,383 


1918, 2,133; 1917, 2,122 


1918, 220; 1917, 217 


1918, 1,062; 1917, 1,044 



t Indicates decrease. 



TO 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 1 



panies reporting taxes and those which 
do not. It is modified somewhat in 
the September tables, where fare in- 
creases have evidently helped out the 
revenues of the companies. 

The returns from the city and inter- 
urban electric railway companies, as 
shown in detail in the tables on page 69. 



have been classified acocrding to the 
following geographical grouping: East- 
ern District — East of the Mississippi 
River and north of the Ohio River. 
Southern District— South of the Ohio 
River and east of the Mississi River. 
Western District — West of the Missis- 
sippi River. 



$116,785,500 in Maturities 

Nearly Half Grand Total of $261,887,600 Utility Maturities in 1919 
Fall to Electric Railways 



Public utility securities maturing 
during 1919 aggregate $261,887,600, 
compared with $210,500,000 in 1918, ac- 
cording to the Wall Street Journal. 
Owing to conditions arising from the 
war public utility companies found it 
difficult during the last three years 
to sell long-term bonds at normal rates 
of interest, so that the short-term 
method was employed in many cases to 
tide over the tight money market. Since 
the armistice was signed, however, mar- 
ket conditions have improved consider- 
ably. Therefore, in the coming year, 
according to the Journal, there should 
be a gradual shift from the practice of 
short-term financing to the long-term 
bond method. Below is given in detail, 
as compiled by Dow, Jones & Company, 
the various electric railway issues of 
more than $200,000 maturing in 1919, 
in order of their due dates. 



January 

East St. Louis & Sub. Co. conv 6 

Interboro Cons, bank loan 5 

Chattanooga Elec. Ry. 1st 5 

Pensacola Elec. 3-yr. notes 6 

Knoxville Ry. & Lt. 2-yr. notes 6 

Seashore Elec. Ry. 1st ext 6 

General Gas & Elec. notes 6 

Winnipeg Elec. 2-yr. notes 6 

Twin State Gas & El. 1-yr. nts 6 



July 

Chicago Elev. Rys. notes ext 5 

American Cities Co coll tr 5-6 

Piedmont & No. Ry. 5-yr. notes 5 

Union Traction of Indiana gen 5 

Northern Ohio Traction cons 5 

Sioux City Traction 1st 5 

Cin., Lawrenceburg i A . St. Ry 5 

Arkans. Valley Ry., L. & P. nts 6 

Chi., No. Shored- Mil. notes 6 



Total $37,288,1 



{13,601,000 
7,500,000 
6,286,000 
4,61 1,000 
2,995,000 
750,000 
[ 750,000 
450,000 
345,000 



Heading Trans. A Lt. 2-yr. nts 6 

West End Street Ry. deb 5 

So. Shore & Boston St. Ry. 1st 5 

Riverside & Arlington Ry. 1st 4 

Iowa Ry. & Light 2-yr. notes 6 

Total 



$2,450,000 
1,581,000 
335,000 
200,000 
700,000 

$5,266,000 



Toronto* York lia.lial Ry. 1st 5 $1,640,000 

Milford, Attlelx.ro & W. St. Ry 5 300,000 



Total . 



February 

American Rys. Co. 3-yr. notes 5 

Eighth Ave. R.R. ctfs. of debt 6 

Connecticut Co. provis'l deb 5 

Zanesville Electric Ry. 1st 4 

Washington Water Pow. notes 6 

Total 

March 

Public Serv. of N. .1. 3-yr. notes 5 

Union Ry. Gas & El. 3-yr. notes 5 

Fort Wayne & N. Ind. tr. notes 6 

Jacksonville Trac'n 2-yr. notes 6 

Am. Public Service cv. notes 6 



April 

Montreal Tram & P. 2-yr. notes 6 

Union Ry. Gas & E. 3-yr. notes 5 

Denver Tramway 5-yr. cv 6 

Denver City Tramway 1st 5 

Birmingham Ry. Lt. & P. notes 6 



$2,094,000 
700,000 
625,000 
500,000 
400,000 
200,000 
200,000 
750,000 
300,000 

$5,769,000 



,672,000 
750,000 
250,000 
250,000 



$7,500,000 
3,000,000 
1,164,000 
750,000 
500,000 



Brazilian Tr., Lt. & Pr. 3-yr. nts. 
Memphis St. Ry. 2-yr. notes 



Boston Suburban Elec. notes 4 

Kans. City Rys. 2-yr. nts. s. A 6 

Bay State Street Ry. notes 6 



357,000 



Total. . . 
Bonds and 
Bonds and 
Bonds and 
Bonds and 
Bonds and 
Bonds and 
Bonds and 
Bonds and 
Bonds and 
Bonds and 
Bonds and 
Bonds and 



notes maturing 
notes maturing 
notes maturing 
notes maturing 
notes maturing 
notes maturing 
notes maturing 
notes maturing 
notes maturing 
notes maturing 
notes maturing 
notes maturing 



in January.... 
in February, 
in March. . . . 

in April 

in May 

in June 

in July 

in August. . . . 
in September 
in October. . . 
in November 
in December. 



$2,457,000 
$5,769,000 
5,522,000 
12,914,000 
14,162,000 
3,134,000 
18,744,500 
37,288,000 
5,266,000 
839,000 
1,940,000 
8,750,000 
2,457,000 



Total electric i.ailuav maturities $1 16,785,500 

Grand total all public utility issues $261,887,600 

The following electric railway bonds, due in 1919, 

$1 2,91 4,000 have been called for payment, prior to their due date: 
Issue: Due '19 Called Amount 

Pug Sd Trac, Lt. & 

Pwr 6s Feb. 1 Aug. I, ' 1 8 $10,067,000 

Monon. Val. Trac. 

notes 6s Feb. I Oct. 1,'18 2,829,000 

W. Penn. Pw. 2-yr. 

nts. 6s Aug. 1 Jan. 7, ' 1 9 2,000,000 



$5,350,000 
3,000,000 
2,500,000 
2,000,000 
1,312,000 



Total $14,162,1 



May 

West Va. Trac. & El. 2-yr. notes 6 

United Traction Co. deb 4J 

Watervliet Turnpike & R.R. 1st 6 

Marion City Ry. 1st ext 6 

Madison Rys. 3-yr. notes 6 



456,000 
350,000 
328,000 
200,000 



Total called bonds $14,896,000 

The following electric railway bonds, due in 1919, 
xtended to a later maturity: 

Due '19 Extended to Amount 
Min. St. Ry. 1st 5s. Jan. 1 5 Jan. 1 5, '22 $5,000,000 



Total. 



Michigan Ry. 5-yr. notes 6 

N. Orleans Ry. & Lt. 1-yr. notes 7 

Grand Rapids Ry. 1st 5 

Elgin, Aurora & So. Tr. 1st ext ...... 5 

Ind., Newcastle & East Tr. 1st 6 

New Orleans Ry. & Lt. 1-yr 7 

Miscellaneous 



$6,500,000 
4,000,000 
3,500,000 
2,000,000 
1,200,000 
1,000,000 
544,500 



Total $18,744,500 



Plan to Reclaim Road 

The committee of residents and 
property owners from Ocean City, N. 
J., and near-by places appointed to take 
steps toward purchasing the Ocean 
City Electric Railroad by popular sub- 
scriptions has decided to start at once 
to acquire the road. 

Frank H. Stewart, J. Frederick Mar- 
tin and Harry Headley, Ocean City, 



have been appointed a committee to 
consult with J. Pithian Tatem, solicitor 
for the railway, and the Henry D. 
Moore Corporation, the largest stock- 
holders. The committee, headed by 
William E. Massey, president of the 
Ocean City Title & Trust Company, 
plans to convert the roadbed into a 
figure eight shape, permitting the cars 
to traverse some of the main business 
streets of Ocean City, with continuous 
service thereon, and with limited, but 
sufficient service for South Ocean City. 

Some time ago the bondholders' com- 
mittee of the company notified the City 
Commissioners that it was planned to 
"junk" the road, because of its inabil- 
ity to meet running expenses. An of- 
fer was made to sell the road to the 
city for $84,000. Mayor Champion then 
called a meeting of the citizens to con- 
sider the matter. 



Wants Its Rental 

Cornelius S. Sweetland, secretary- 
treasurer of the United Traction & 
Electric Company, Providence, R. I., on 
Dec. 26 notified the officers of the 
Rhode Island Company, that unless 
payment of rental of leased lines, due 
on Dec. 24, was made on or before Jan. 
26 the United Traction & Electric Com- 
pany would take over and operate the 
Rhode Island Company's properties un- 
der provisions embodied in the lease. 
Similar action was taken last Septem- 
ber when payment was due. The rental 
due on Dec. 24 amounts to $149,500. 

The notice was served on the federal 
trustees, who hold the stock of the 
Rhode Island Company. The trustees 
two days before had decided to defer 
the payment of the rental indefinitely, 
because of the decision of the War La- 
bor Board, which instructed the Rhode 
Island Company to pay $72,066 to its 
employees, on or before Dec. 24. This 
sum represents one-third of the total 
of back wages due the employees under 
a previous award of the War Labor 
Board. 

Twice during the past year the wages 
of employees have been increased, once 
voluntarily on the part of the com- 
pany in May and again in October fol- 
lowing an award of the War Labor 
Board. Fares have also been increased 
twice, but the burden of higher oper- 
ating costs has more than offset the 
advance in fares. 

The Rhode Island Company is con- 
trolled by the New York, New Haven 
& Hartford Railroad through owner- 
ship of the entire capital stock. By 
the dissolution agreement made with 
the government in 1914, the New York, 
New Haven & Hartford Railroad trans- 
ferred to five trustees, 96,855 shares, 
constituting the entire capital stock of 
the Rhode Island Company. The 
trustees were chosen for a term of five 
years. The electric railway system 
comprises 353 miles of electric railway 
and 8.41 miles of steam railroad, of 
which 39.92 miles are owned and 321.63 
miles are leased, serving the cities of 
Providence, Pawtucket, Central Falls 
and all the rest of Rhode Island. 



January 4, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



71 



Capital Issues Suspends 

Committee May Resume Its Functions 
If Necessary — Legislation to Check 
Worthless Securities 

The Capital Issues Committee, a 
specially created arm of the Treasury 
Department for the control of the issue 
of new securities during the war, an- 
nounced that it would suspend its ac- 
tivities on Dec. 31. Chairman Hamlin 
of the committee warns the public of 
and directs the attention of Congress 
to the menace to holders of govern- 
ment bonds through the uncontrolled 
issue of fraudulent and worthless se- 
curities. Secretary Glass, in an accom- 
panying statement, says that he will 
ask for legislation to check the traffic 
in worthless securities. 

2000 Applications Examined 

From May 17, the date of its organi- 
zation, to Oct. 21 the committee exam- 
ined more than 2000 applications. The 
proposed security issues totaled more 
than $3,000,000,000. About 20 per 
cent of these applications were dis- 
approved. These were mostly of a char- 
acter involving new extensions, which 
would not be contributory to the win- 
ning of the war. 

The committee will not be dissolved 
but will remain inactive, unless it is 
found that the sale of new securities 
competes unduly with government 
financing or for other reasons it may 
become desirable for the committee to 
i - esurne its work, pending its dissolu- 
tion by the President or by operation 
of law. 

It is the intention of the Capital Is- 
sues Committee to make a supplemen- 
tal report to Congress recommending 
a law to prevent impositions upon the 
investing public. 

Secretary Glass made this comment 
or. the action taken: 

"The decision of the Capital Issues 
Committee to suspend its activities 
should not be interpreted by the busi- 
ness public as a warrant for any ex- 
penditure of capital for needless or un- 
wise purposes, whether public or private 
in their nature. Should it become ap- 
parent that voluntary restraints are 
not being exercised so as to prevent 
the misuse of capital, I shall request 
the committee to resume its control. 

Investor Should Be Protected 

"My chief misgiving in accepting the 
action of the committee arises out of 
the need the committee has frequently 
expressed, and the importance of which 
has become increasingly obvious, of 
protecting the public investor against 
the flood of worthless or doubtful se- 
curities which threaten the market 
when the restrictions are removed, and 
present conditions emphasize the im- 
portance of obtaining emergency legis- 
lation as speedily as possible, so as to 
be able to cope effectively with this 
evil. The government not only should 
protect itself as to future bond issues, 
but, as well, owes a duty to the millions 
of Liberty bond buyers to restrain 



reckless and fraudulent promoters, par- 
ticularly at this time. 

"I intend to ask Congress immedi- 
ately for legislation that will check the 
traffic in worthless securities while im- 
posing no undue restrictions upon the 
financing of legitimate business, and 
shall urge that it be made effective be- 
fore the close of the present session. 
Meantime, it may become necessary be- 
fore such legislation is passed to reas- 
semble the committee for the purpose 
of resuming its functions." 

Work of Committee Reviewed 

In the period between May 17 and 
Dec. 7 the Capital Issues Committee 
had 2855 applications submitted to it 
for a total of $3,172,912,000. Of this 
amount $441,733,000 was for construc- 
tion and equipment, $148,156,000 for 
working capital, $694,402,000 for re- 
funding and $1,290,055,000 for purposes 
of exchange. The total passed was 
$2,574,346,000 and the total disap- 
proved $598,566,000. 

There were 308 applications from 
public utilities. The total applied for 
from this source was $755,656,000. Of 
this amount $167,215,000 was for con- 
struction and equipment, $6,429,000 for 
working capital, $255,648,000 classified 
by refunding and $302,427,000 for pur- 
poses of exchange, etc. The total of 
public utility issues passed was $731,- 
719,000 while the total disapproved was 
$21,937,000. 



Brockton & Plymouth Road to 
Continue 

Under Chap. 288, Acts of 1918, Mas- 
sachusetts Legislature, the towns of 
Hanson, Pembroke and Plymouth have 
voted to extend financial aid to the 
Brockton & Plymouth Street Railway 
rather than to have the property sus- 
pend operation through inadequate rev- 
enue. Stone & Webster, managers of 
the road, have announced that the serv- 
ice will be continued. 

Under the new agreement the pres- 
ent board of directors will resign with 
the exception of one representative of 
the company who will remain on the 
board. The other directors will be 
chosen from the various towns served. 
It is planned to increase the present 
6-cent fare unit to 10 cents. If the 
revenue is then inadequate, the defici- 
ency is to be made up from local tax 
levies. It is expected that the town of 
Kingston, adjoining Plymouth, will 
shortly enter into an agreement with 
the company along the lines above in- 
dicated. 

A six months' agreement has been 
accepted by the town of Plymouth, but 
the other towns have signed an agree- 
ment covering one year's operation. 

The Brockton & Plymouth Street 
Railway operates 24 miles of standard 
gage electric railway connecting Ply- 
mouth, Kingston, Pembroke, Hanson, 
Whitman and Brockton. It has twenty- 
eight motor cars and eight other cars 
and sells energy for lighting and power 
purposes. 



Evansville Reorganization 

New Company Incorporated and Plans 
Being Worked Out for Reorgan- 
ization After Foreclosure 

The Evansville & Ohio Valley Rail- 
road, Evansville, Ind., has filed articles 
of incorporation with the Secretary of 
State of Indiana, presumably as the 
successor of the Evansville (Ind.) Rail- 
ways, operating the Evansville & East- 
ern Electric Railway, the Evansville, 
Henderson & Owensboro Railway and 
the Evansville & Mount Vernon Rail- 
way. The new company is capitalized 
at $1,500,000. The directors are Mar- 
cus S. Sonntag, William H. McCurdy, 
C. Howard Battin, Albert F. Karges, 
William A. Koch, William A. Carson', 
and Chris M. Kanzler, Evansville, Ind., 
Wesley Wilson, Newburgh, Ind.; Dan- 
by E. Cadick, Grandview, Ind., and 
Charles E. Tennis, Pittsburgh, Iowa. 
Protective Agreement Drawn 

A protective agreement for the hold- 
ers of the first mortgage 5 per cent 
gold bonds of the Evansville & East- 
ern Electric Railway, Evansville & 
Mount Vernon Electric Railway and 
the Evansville Terminal Railway was 
drawn some time ago. On the pro- 
tective committee are Messrs. Walker, 
Karges, McCurdy, Sonntag, Jewett[ 
McKee, Gwin, Rhodes and Batlin. In 
a circular to the depositing bondhold- 
ers dated Sept. 19 they gave notice of 
the adoption of a plan of reorganiza- 
tion, to be put into effect in the event 
of the purchase of the properties by 
them. 

Under this plan the successor com- 
pany will have $1,000,000 of common 
stock exchangeable for common stock 
of the Evansville Railways, $500,000 of 
6 per cent non-cumulative preferred 
stock exchangeable for preferred stock 
of the Evansville Railways, $200,000 of 
first mortgage 6 per cent thirty-year 
bonds issuable for rehabilitation, $1,- 
200,000 of first and refunding 5 per 
cent thirty-year bonds, $750,000 of 
thirty-year income bonds limited to a 
5 per cent return, and $300,000 of ten- 
year collateral trust 6 per cent notes. 
New Mortgage Proposed 

The new bonds will be secured by a 
mortgage covering all of the properties 
of the Evansville & Eastern Electric 
Railway, the Evansville & Mount Ver- 
non Electric Railway and the Evans- 
ville Terminal Railway, together with 
the Evansville, Henderson & Owens- 
boro Railway, subject, however, in the 
case of this property to $203,600 of 
preferred stock and to a mortgage se- 
curing bonds which are to be issued 
as collateral for the ten-year notes. 
The present outstanding bonds and 
notes of the various companies will be 
exchanged on the basis of 50 per cent 
in first and refunding 5's and 50 per 
cent in general mortgage incomes for 
the existing issues. 

The Evansville (Ind.) Railways went 
into the hands of W. A. Carson, vice- 
president, as receiver early in Novem- 
ber. 



72 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 1 



Financial 
News Notes 

Ironwood & Bessemer Bonds Of- 
fered. — Halsey, Stuart & Company, 
New York, N. Y., and Chicago, 111., are 
offering $200,000 of first mortgage 5 
per cent bonds of the Ironwood & Bes- 
semer Railway & Light Company, 
Ironwood, Mich. The bonds are dated 
Feb. 11, 1911, and are due on Feb. 1, 
1936. They are being offered at 87 
and interest, to yield 64 per cent. 

Cleveland Interest Fund Again at 
Minimum. — The November receipts of 
the Cleveland (Ohio) Railway enabled 
it to credit $91,804 to the interest fund, 
which again brought it above the min- 
imum of $300,000. There was a deficit 
of $80,270 in the fund, created before 
the maximum rate of fare specified in 
the Tayler ordinance was increased. 
The total receipts for the month were 
$1,140,593. 

Springfield Issues Approved. — The 
Springfield (111.) Consolidated Railway 
has been authorized to issue capital 
stock to the amount of $79,500 by the 
Illinois Public Utilities Commission. 
The company was also authorized in 
the same order to issue $107,000 of 5 
per cent gold bonds maturing in thirty- 
five years and secured by a mortgage 
to the Fidelity & Columbia Trust Com- 
pany and L. N. Bender, trustee, Louis- 
ville, Ky., under date of June 1, 1913. 

Files Mortgage for Record. — The 
Fort Smith Light & Traction Company, 
Fort Smith, Ark., has filed for record a 
mortgage to secure $1,000,000 of 5 per 
cent bonds dated Sept. 3, 1918, and due 
in 1921. The Continental Trust & Sav- 
ings Company, Chicago, 111., is made 
trustee. The new mortgage is subject 
to a mortgage of $6,000,000, made in 
1911. 



City Would Intervene in Receiver- 
ship. — Corporation Counsel Byers of 
Des Moines, Iowa, acting for the city, 
has filed a petition of intervention in 
the Federal Court at Des Moines, al- 
leging that the North American Con- 
struction Company, complainant in the 
action which threw the Des Moines 
Ciy Railway into the hands of the re- 
ceiver, is controlled by the same inter- 
ests that own the railway. He asks 
that the court dismiss the receivership 
on the ground that the action was 
brought not to settle a controversy, but 
solely to force the railway into bank- 
ruptcy. 

Seven Per Cents Replace Sixes. — 
The East St. Louis & Suburban Com- 
pany, East St. Louis, 111., has advised 
holders of its five-year 6 per cent bonds 
due on Jan. 1, 1919, that it proposes to 
create a new issue of 7 per cent two- 
year convertible bonds, maturing on 
Jan. 1, 1921 to take care of the matur- 
ing bonds. Interest on the old con- 
vertible 6's was paid as usual on Jan. 
1. The new bonds will be offered at 
99 per cent in exchange for present 
issue, with 1 per cent discount, payable 
in cash. Bondholders are asked to de- 
posit their holdings with the Pennsyl- 
vania Company for Insurance on Lives 
& Granting Annuities, Philadelphia. 

Plans for Saving Small Ohio Line. — 
A. T. Van Diense, general manager of 
the Columbus, Delaware & Marion 
Electric Company, Columbus, Ohio, has 
made a proposition to the residents of 
Richwood and Magnetic Springs 
to finance the Columbus, Magnetic 
Springs & Northern Railway, which 
has not been in operation for 
some time. This road connects Dela- 
ware and Richwood. It is due to be 
sold some time in January. People of 
the towns through which the road 
passes and along the line are endeavor- 
ing to raise funds to meet the offer 
made by Mr. Van Diense, who also 
proposes to furnish electric light and 
power service to Richwood. 

Employees' Wages 56 Per Cent, of 
Gross. — In «speaking of the volume oi 



business of the Dallas (Tex.) Railway, 
Richard Meriwether, general manager, 
said the company now is maintaining 
an organization of more than 800 em- 
ployees, consisting of 500 motormen 
and conductors, 100 mechanical and 
electrical men and 180 track workers. 
In the executive and accounting de- 
partments, about sixty persons are em- 
ployed. Mr. Meriwether said: "At 
present we are paying in salaries to 
employees $90,000 a month. The gross 
income of the company normally is 
about $160,000 a month, and $90,000 of 
this is returned in the way of wages 
and salaries to employees. During the 
middle of the day in normal times the 
company operates an average of 104 
cars in regular service and during the 
rush hours it operates 190 cars." 

New Cities Service Debentures. — The 

directors of the Cities Service Com- 
pany, New York, N. Y., on Dec. 30 an- 
nounced that the company would offer 
at par and interest $10,000,000 new 
series C 7 per cent debentures to stock- 
holders of record of Dec. 31, 1918, the 
subscriptions from stockholders closing 
on Jan. 25. The offering of new deben- 
tures has been underwritten by a syn- 
dicate of bankers. In case any of 
the $10,000,000 should remain unsub- 
scribed for by the stockholders the un- 
subscribed portion is to be offered to 
the public by the banking syndicate. 
The new series C debentures were cre- 
ated in the following manner: The 
stockholders authorized an issue of 
$30,000,000 of 7 per cent debentures, 
series B. Of these $12,500,000 were 
classed as series B, and then the issue 
was closed. In place of the $17,500,000 
authorized as series B, the directors on 
Dec. 30 authorized an issue of $17,500,- 
000 series C debentures, of which $10,- 
000,000 are now being offered. The 
series C debentures are convertible on 
and after Jan. 1, 1921, into nine shares 
of Cities Service preferred stock and 
one share of common, together with 
the accumulated cash and stock divi- 
dends on one share of common stock 
to the date of conversion.. 



Electric Railway Monthly Earnings 



AUIiOHA, ELGIN & CHICAGO RAILROAD, WHEATON, ILL. 



Period 
lm„ Oct., '18 
lm„ Oct., '17 
10m., Oct., '18 
10m., Oct., '17 



Operating Operating 

Revenue Expenses 

$173,235 *$169,133 

181,128 *135,239 

1,775,304 *l, 530,066 

1,819,988 *l, 301, 182 



Fixed 
Charges 
$37,909 

35,619 
361,838 
357,279 



BATON ROUGE (LA.) ELECTRIC COMPANY 



lm., Oct., '18 
lm„ Oct., '17 
12m., Oct., '18 
12m., Oct., '17 



$21,564 
19,338 
256,810 
228,746 



$3,939 
3,616 
45,705 
42,591 



Net 
Income 
t$33,807 
10,270 
tl 16,600 
161,527 



$4,227 
5,603 
75,067 
71,818 



BROCKTON & PLYMOUTH STREET RAILWAY, PLYMOUTH, MASS. 



lm., Oct., '18 
lm„ Oct., '17 
12m., Oct., '18 
12m., Oct., '17 



$6,247 
9,509 
106,281 
124,190 



*$9,295 
*10,226 
*1 18,601 
M 23,838 



t$3,048 
t717 
t12,320 
352 



$1,434 t$4,482 

1,286 t2,003 

16,571 t28,891 

14,386 M4.034 



CLEVELAND, PAINESVILLE & EASTERN RAILROAD, 
WILLOUGHBY, OHIO 

lm., Oct., '18 ' $43,362 *$32,277 $11,085 $16,193 t$5,108 

lm , Oct., '17 44,939 *32,250 12,689 11,692 917 

10m., Oct., '18 460,188 *308,503 151,685 120,468 31,217 

10m., Oct., '17 454,347 *281,900 172,447 116,839 55,609 



EASTERN TEXAS ELECTRIC COMPANY, BEAUMONT, TEX. 



, Aug., '18 
, Aug., '17 
, Aug., '18 
, Aug., '17 



Operating Operating 

Revenue Expenses 

$94,589 *$59,658 

79,889 *45,938 

1,054,375 *586,760 

916,137 *498,222 



Operating 
Income 
$34,931 
33,951 
467,615 
417,915 



Fixed 
Charges 
$14,315 

12,419 
153,682 
125,164 



EL PASO (TEX.) ELECTRIC COMPANY 



Sept., 
Sept., ' 
Sept., ' 
Sept., ' 



18 $104,289 

17 105,017 

18 1,261,203 
17 1,278,051 



*$73,645 $30,644 $6,744 

*67,806 37,211 6,592 

*845,1I9 416,084 80,002 

*767,460 510,591 63,385 



Net 
Income 
$20,616 
123,755 
£331,079 
T30I.672 



$23,900 
30,619 
336,082 
447,206 



LAKE SHORE ELECTRIC RAILWAY, CLEVELAND, OHIO 



Oct., '18 
Oct., '17 
Oct., 'IS 
Oct., '17 



$176,118 *$ 141,018 $35,100 

142,840 *107,995 34,845 

1,809,869 *1, 303,542 506,327 

1,475,625 *999,418 476,207 

NEW YORK (N. Y.) RAILWAYS 



$35,822 1$.722 

35,321 t476 

361,1 12 145,215 

346,848 129,359 



$934,683 
1,103,614 
3,715,819 
4,388,906 



*$821,178 
*8 19,086 
►3,215,793 
•=3,189,394 



$1 13,505 
284,528 
500,026 

1,199,512 



$277,151 ft$120,815 

281,995 t53,022 

1,112,438 tt438,739 

1,127,607 1272,795 



Includes taxes, t Deficit. J Includes non-operating i 



January 4, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



73 



Traffic and Transportation 



Zone Plan Postponement 

President McCarter Believes Problem 
Solved — Commission Grants Ex- 
tension of Two Months 

Thomas N. McCarter, president of 
the Public Service Railway, Newark, 
N. J., before the Public Utilities Com- 
mission on Dec. 30 requested and re- 
ceived an extension of two months of 
the period for the preparation of the 
zone fare report. In the order of the 
board of last July granting the com- 
pany the right to charge 1 cent for 
transfers there was a stipulation that 
it investigate the possibilities of a 
zone system and submit the report of 
its discoveries on or before Jan. 1. 
The extension which has now been al- 
lowed fixes the date for delivering the 
report as March 1. 

New Plan Fair to All 

Mr. McCarter declared the company 
believed its report would provide a 
zoning plan "fair to the public and 
fair to the company." One of the big 
problems, he said, had been the matter 
of the collection of fares as the cars 
pass through the zones that will exist 
on many of the lines, but he believed 
this had been solved. 

In opening his statement Mr. Mc- 
Carter said that immediately after the 
board had incorporated its zone inquiry 
stipulation in the July order the com- 
pany had given the question serious 
consideration. As the first step a com- 
mittee had been named, with himself 
as the head, to make the investigation. 
The other members of the committee 
were Richard E. Danforth, vice-presi- 
dent and general manager of the rail- 
way company; Harry C. Donecker, the 
assistant general manager; L. D. How- 
ard Gilmour, general solicitor, and Mat- 
thew R. Boylan, general auditor. 

The committee, he said, had held 
frequent consultations with Dr. Thomas 
Conway of the Wharton School of 
Finance, University of Pennsylvania, 
and that a sub-committee had later 
been formed by it. This committee 
visited every city where zones had been 
tried. Mr. McCarter said: 

Work of Sub-committe Described 
"This sub-committee has given un- 
remitting attention to the matter. It 
has employed approximately 100 young 
men to ride the cars on given days 
and make tests of the riders for pur- 
poses of comparison as to lengths of 
rides and other facts and we think the 
tests made have been most comprehen- 
sive. This work took some time and 
involved the expenditure of a very con- 
siderable sum. There were two chief 
questions involved: First, it is possi- 
ble to devise a plan of zoning that will 
be fair and acceptable to the public and 



fair to the company, and second, if de- 
vised, was it practicable to collect 
fares? This question of the collection 
of fare was early recognized as a very 
serious nk.i. . 

"It would not be practicable to put 
the zone plan into immediate effect. 
There are numerous mechanical 
changes that would be necessary and 
these would require some time. When 
our report is complete we might file 
it as a rate schedule to bring the mat- 
ter to a hearing with the possibility 
of making it effective July 1. I think 
we could be ready by that time." 

In granting the time extension Presi- 
dent Slocum of the commission said: 

"The board knows the company has 
been working on this matter and that 
a serious effort is being made to meet 
its stipulation. It also knows that if 
its engineers are given access to the 
company's minutes no time will be lost 
by granting additional time, and it is 
therefore granted." 



Columbus Fare Brief Filed 

Attorneys for the Columbus Rail- 
way, Power & Light Company, Colum- 
bus, Ohio, filed a brief in the United 
States Supreme Court on Dec. 27 in 
support of the company's claim that the 
city cannot compel it to carry passen- 
gers at the rate of fare specified in 
its franchise. This is the case brought 
by the company in the United States 
District Court recently to prevent the 
enforcement of the terms of the fran- 
chise relative to the rate of fare and 
in which Judge D. C. Westenhaver- an- 
nounced that the court is without juris- 
diction to interfere with a contract of 
that kind. 

Arguments presented in the brief 
follow: 

The claim of the city is based on the 
proposition that the two franchise grants 
represent contracts and that these contracts 
impose obligations upon the Columbus com- 
pany to continue operating its street rail- 
way lines under these franchise grants and 
to charge the rates of fare therein de- 
scribed. The petition of the plaintiff and 
appellants may be summarized as follows : 

1. The franchise ordinance granted per- 
mission to operate street cars on the streets 
of the city upon the terms and conditions 
therein prescribed, and the company was 
bound to comply with these terms and 
conditions so long as it continued to exer- 
cise the franchises, but these grants were 
permission only and have been surrendered 
and abandoned by the company. Its rea- 
sons for such surrender and abandonment 
were that the rates of fare prescribed in 
the grants were no longer compensatory 
but on the contrary had become confisca- 
tory. 

2. The situation that has been brought 
about by the war resulting in a most unex- 
pected increase in operating expenses of all 
kinds and particularly the compulsory an- 
nual wage increase of $560,000, due to th° 
award of the National War Labor Board, 
cannot be held to have been within the 
contemplation of the parties when the 
franchises were granted and accepted and 
under these circumstances the company is 
entitled to a release of the obligations, if 
any, that these grants may have imposed 
upon it to continue to operate under them. 



Transfer Report Released 

Results of Conferences With Washing- 
ton Companies and of Independent 
Study Now Made Public 

Sixteen transfer points, eight of 
which the companies already have 
agreed to accept, are recommended by 
John A. Beeler, expert for the Public 
Service Commission of the District of 
Columbia, for establishment between 
the lines of the Capital Traction Com- 
pany, the Washington Railway & Elec- 
tric Company and the Washington- 
Virginia Railway. The fact that this 
report had been made to the commis- 
sion was noted in the Electric Rail- 
way Journal for Dec. 28, page 1157. 
The report itself, however, was not re- 
leased by the commission until Dec. 26. 
It will be considered on Jan. 7. 

The Beeler suggestions which are 
not concurred in by the companies con- 
template the exchange of transfers at 
the busiest railway intersections. 

Congestion will be increased at 
these intersections and Mr. Beeler 
points out the companies may not be 
able to carry all the passengers who 
will want to make use of the transfer 
privilege. They can, however, even 
during this period, carry some of them, 
and during a greater part of the day 
carry all of them. 

Objection of the companies to trans- 
ferring passengers from suburban to 
city lines develops in the report as be- 
ing the biggest stumbling block in the 
way of universal transfers. It is the 
crux of the entire situation, Mr. Beeler 
declares. The companies agree, he 
states, that, once this is solved to the 
satisfaction of all parties, the princi- 
pal difficulty will have been removed. 

The reasons given by the companies 
for their objection to transferring sub- 
urban passengers to city lines follow: 

1. The suburban passenger is now re- 
ceiving more than full value for the 
fare he gives the company, and, there- 
fore, no extension should be made for 
the benefit of a class already being 
served at a loss. 

2. The long suburban lines have been 
built and operated with the idea that 
they should act as feeders only to the 
lines of the company that is sustain- 
ing and developing them. To open these 
lines as feeders to another company 
which bore no part of the expense of 
development appears to the companies 
unjust as well as a source of financial 
loss. 

Figures are presented by Mr. Beeler 
in support of his conclusion that in- 
ter-company transfers will not affect 
materially the financial interests of 
the companies. He points out that at 
five of the transfer points recommended 
paid inter-company transfers now are 
in effect. He proposes that the trans- 
fer arrangements outlined in his re- 
port shall receive a trial during a 
period sufficient to determine what the 
exact financial results will be. If it de- 
velops that an injustice is being done 
by the issuance of free inter-company 
transfers, an arrangement should be 
made to compensate the companies. 



74 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 1 



Renew Fare Pleas 

New York Companies Point Out Where- 
in Conditions Under Five-Cent 
Fare Spell Disaster 

Theodore P. Shonts, president of the 
Interborough Rapid Transit Company, 
New York, N. Y., in a letter to the 
Public Service Commission and the 
Board of Estimate, made public on Jan. 
1, urged 8-cent fares on that company's 
subway and elevated lines and wrote 
in detail "of the serious situation con- 
fronting the dual subway enterprise." 
He said that the city could gain noth- 
ing by starving the Interborough into 
bankruptcy. 

Company and City Partners 
In his letter Mr. Shonts describes the 
situation of the Interborough with the 
pooling arrangement between the com- 
pany and the city in effect. At the 
outset he gives the history of the dual 
system, and tells of the invitation by 
the city for the company to share in 
the enterprise. The plan, he says, pro- 
vided that the Interborough should con- 
tribute $58,000,000, estimated at that 
time as one-half the cost. The agree- 
ment called upon the company to sup- 
ply an additional $22,000,000 for equip- 
ment. The Interborough, he says, 
raised $160,000,000 by the sale of 5 per 
cent first and refunding bonds for both 
subway and elevated improvements. 
Then the letter says: 

In view of the interest of the city and 
its taxpayers in the matter, it seems in- 
cumbent upon the company again to ad- 
vise you, as the taxpayers' representatives, 
of the serious situation confronting the 
dual subway enterprise. The Interborough 
had accumulated a cash surplus of $10 - 
000,000 out of which to take care of operat- 
ing losses during the lean years heretofore 
mentioned. Had it not been for the war 
such a sum would have been ample, with a 
5-cent fare. But it is no longer adequate, 
and it is rapidly being exhausted. 

For the year ended June 30, 1918, there 
was a deficit of subway earnings of $620,- 
438 and of elevated earnings of $2,306,81 8 
compared with the amounts the company 
was entitled to receive under its contracts. 
These deficits are payable out of future 
revenues, with interest compounded semi- 
annually, before the city is entitled to any 
share in either subway or elevated earn- 
ings. 

For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1919, 
the outlook is much worse. Based on the 
actual figures for the four months ended 
Oct. 31, 1918. the trend indicates that on 
June 30, 1919, the deficit under the sub- 
way contract will be $3,887,000. and under 
the elevated contracts, $ 1 .9.% 2,000. or a total 
accrued for the year of $8,839,000 ahead 
of the city's right to a return for the year 
ending June 30. 1919. To this must be 
added the accruals of last year, so that 
the aggregate subway accruals as of June 
30. 1919, without interest, will be $4,507,- 
438, and the elevated accruals, also with- 
out interest, $7,258,818, or a total of $11.- 
766.256. 

If the fare be increased to 8 cents, re- 
course to taxation will not only be pre- 
vented but the city will receive from the 
Interborough lines over $2,000,000 in cash 
into its treasury. 

The Interborough Company is entitled to 
borrow cash against the accruals and thus 
continue in possession of the propertv 
under the leases. But if for any reason 
it should not be able to raise the monev 
because the city kept it down to a 5-cent 
fare, and a receivership should follow, the 
situation would not be changed so far as 
the city is concerned — indeed, it might b» 
worse, because receivership certificates 
might be necessary, which would be a 
paramount lien, thus setting the city's in- 
vestment further to the rear. 

The city can gain nothing by starving 
the Interborough into bankruptcy. On the 
contrary, it can indirectly do itself great 
financial damage through the impairment 



of approximately $500,000,000 of securities 
in the combined Interborough system. - 

It is with great reluctance that the word 
panic is used in this communication, but 
the time has come for plain speaking, and 
it would be a failure of duty to one part- 
ner in an enterprise not to point out that 
the bankruptcy of the other partner might 
be so disastrous as to result in a financial 
cataclysm. 

The city may by continued refusal to 
increase fares precipitate bankruptcy and 
still have to face the problem of increasing 
fares to escape ruinous taxation. If the 
city were in possession of the railroads a 
continuation of a 5-cent fare would be at 
the expense of the taxpayers and contrary 
to the spirit of the rapid transit act. 

B. R. T. Must Have More 

Timothy S. Williams, president of 
the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company, 
said on Jan. 1 that without doubt re- 
newed efforts would be made to se- 
cure authority to charge a 7-cent fare. 
He referred to the fact that many 
cities had permitted the electric rail- 
ways to increase their fares to 6 and 
7 cents. He discussed the "antago- 
nistic attitude" of the Public Service 
Commission and the Board of Esti- 
mate, and of the delay in completing 
the rapid transit lines. 



Indianapolis Denied Six Cents 

As the result of an opinion of E. I. 
Lewis, chairman of the Public Service 
Commission of Indiana, and concurred 
in by the other members of the commis- 
sion, the Indianapolis Traction & Ter- 
minal Company has been denied an in- 
crease in fare to 6 cents. The com- 
pany is, however, permitted to continue 
to charge a 5-cent fare until 100 days 
after the signing of the treaty of peace, 
but it was instructed to withdraw the 
1-cent charge for transfers on Dec. 31. 
The commission says that in spite of 
the apparent increase in facilities the 
service rendered by the company re-, 
mains inadequate. On the important 
point of a return on the investment the 
commission says in part: 

Petitioner does not plead for an order 
based on return on reasonable and pru- 
dent investment. The plea is for an or- 
der establishing rates that will maintain 
the solvency of petitioner by the payment 
of operating expenses and "maturing obli- 
gations." 

In its original decision the commission 
passed finally and negatively on petitioner's 
contentions that fixed charges of securi- 
ties, issued and outstanding, constituted 
legal and binding obligations which the 
State must recognize. With equal decisive- 
ness, the commission declined to recognize, 
even in acting under the emergency section, 
the inclusion of annual sinking fund 
charges as an obligation of patrons. 

The commission reiterates its declara- 
tion that it will not become confused as to 
the mandate of the legislature which, ac- 
cording to the interpretation under which 
it proceeds, is to take the value of the 
property, used and useful for the service 
of the public as a basis for rates. 

It is inconceivable that the Legislature, 
in the enactment of section 122, contem- 
plated that the State should (1) guarantee, 
in times of emergency, values which never 
existed; (2) protect excess securities; (3) 
make good losses caused by negligence in 
collection of revenues, or (4) reward a lack 
of thrift in times of prosperity. 

The emergency section does not seem 
even to extend to the most meritorious 
petitioner the assurance of a return on in- 
vestment that might be declared to be the 
proper rate of return in a normal period. 
To use the emergency section to protect 
obligations for which the commission is 
unable to find some reasonable basis in 
values would amount to making the State 
the protector of unwarranted obligations 
at the very time when there is a strong 
tendency for legislation to restrict issuance 
of unwarranted securities of all kinds. 



Fare Advance Voted 

Residents of Cedar Rapids Go on 
Record in Favor of Fare 
Advance 

In an election held on Dec. 17, the 
Cedar Rapids & Marion City Railway 
was authorized to increase its fares to 
6 cents. The increase was carried by 
a majority of seventy-eight. It went 
into effect at once. Previous to the 
election a commission made up of rep- 
resentatives of the Chamber of Com- 
merce, union labor and leading citizens 
recommended to the City Council of 
Cedar Rapids that the increase be 
granted. 

Two Companies Affected 

The fares on the lines of the Iowa 
Railway & Light Company, which also 
operates in Cedar Rapids, were not 
covered by city franchise, but the Ce- 
dar Rapids & Iowa City Railway, which 
is included in the system of the Iowa 
Railway & Light Company, assumed a 
(j-cent fare at the time that rate was 
granted to the Cedar Rapids & Marion 
City Railway. 

Last February the local branch of 
the railway union submitted a new 
wage demand to the Cedar Rapids & 
Marion City Railway. The matter was 
debated for several weeks. Finally the 
men were informed that the increase 
in wage would be allowed effective at 
once provided the City Council would 
grant an increase in fares. The Coun- 
cil found itself powerless to do any- 
thing under the terms of the franchise, 
but after it was suggested that the 
matter be left to a vote of the people 
the Council gave its consent. 

The local Chamber of Commerce and 
the Federation of Labor indorsed the 
6-cent fare and during the ten days 
previous to the election made an open 
and vigorous campaign in its favor. 
Public speakers were sent into the 
wards where the working people live 
and the matter was placed squarely 
before them. The voters were informed 
that if the measure was defeated it 
would almost certainly mean unsatis- 
factory service and might even result 
in the abandonment of some lines. The 
railway took no part in advocating the 
increase. There was no advertising 
campaign through the newspapers, no 
appeal to the public. The newspapers 
merely printed the news of the cam- 
paign as it progressed. 

Opposition from Unexpected 
Quarters 

Some opposition developed to the 
proposed increase in fares, but the vote 
in the wards inhabited by those de- 
pendent almost entirely on the railway 
for transportation was "yes" while the 
"no" vote was cast in the wealthier 
wards. 

The Cedar Rapids & Marion City 
Railway is controlled by the United 
Light & Railways Company. It oper- 
ates in all 27.5 miles of line, a consider- 
able part of which is in Cedar Rapids. 



January 4, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



75 



Cincinnati Fare Increases 
Automatically 

Under an automatic provision of the 
revised railway franchise in Cincinnati, 
Ohio, the rate of fare on the lines of 
the Cincinnati Traction Company for 
adults was advanced to 5h cents on Jan. 
1, 1919. At the same time children's 
fares were made one-half of the adult 
fare or an advance of J cent. Official 
announcement to this effect was made 
by W. C. Culkins, street railroad di- 
rector, following receipt of a letter 
from Walter A. Draper, vice-president 
of the Cincinnati Traction Company, 
notifying him that the earnings during 
October and November had been in- 
sufficient to meet operating expenses. 
Beginning Jan. 1 six adult tickets for 
33 cents and four children's tickets for 
11 cents were placed on sale. Cash 
fares for adults are now 6 cents and for 
children 3 cents. The new franchise 
provides that fares shall be increased \ 
cent if for the period of two calendar 
months the income of the city lines is 
not sufficient to cover the cost of serv- 
ice. 



Transportation 
News Notes 

Brooklyn Skip Stops to Go. — The 
Public Service Commission for the 
First District of New York has ordered 
the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company 
to discontinue skip stops. 

Committee Reports on Louisville 
Fare. — A committee of the Board of 
Trade of Louisville, Ky., which has 
been investigating earnings and ex- 
penses of the Louisville Railway Com- 
pany before recommending an increase 
in fares, has reported back to the board, 
but no definite action has been taken 
as yet. 

Westerville Line May Increase Fares. 

— Indications point to an increase in 
the rates of fare on the Columbus- 
Westerville line of the Columbus Rail- 
way, Power & Light Company, Colum- 
bus, Ohio, according to Commissioner 
John Scott. The working capital is 
now only slightly above $15,000, which 
marks the turning point. The road 
fell short in November and he believes 
this will be repeated for December. 

Fare Case Carried to Court. — The 
Dubuque (Iowa) Electric Company 
plans to take the half -fare ticket case 
before the United States Circuit Court 
of Appeals at St. Paul. City Attorney 
Czizek has been asked by the company 
to agree to the filing of a supersedeas 
bond which would protect the patrons 
of the company against loss but would 
result in the discontinuance of the sale 
of half-fare tickets until an opinion is 
handed down by the appeals court. 

Colorado Springs Wants More. — The 
petition of the Colorado Springs & In- 



terurban Railway, Colorado Springs, 
Col., for an increased fare, which was 
announced some time ago, has been 
filed with the Public Utilities Commis- 
sion of Colorado. While no definite 
figure was asked, attorneys for the 
company feel that a 7-cent fare would 
be justified, because of the proposed in- 
crease in wages to employees to meet 
the scale in other cities and the rapid- 
ly mounting costs of materials and 
other factors in operation. 

Michigan Two-Cent Fare Law Valid. 
— Federal Judge Sessions, in a de- 
cision handed down in the case brought 
by the Grand Rapids, Grand Haven & 
Muskegon Railway, Grand Rapids, 
Mich., against the State to test Michi- 
gan's 2-cent fare law and restrain the 
State from enforcing it, held that the 
law is valid. He dismissed the com- 
pany's petition, which was based on 
the grounds that the law was confisca- 
tory on account of war-time conditions. 
This suit was referred to previously in 
the Electric Railway Journal for 
July 27, page 173, and Oct. 12, page 
676. 

Weymouth Refuses Subsidy. — Resi- 
dents of East Weymouth, Mass., at a 
special town meeting recently, retorted 
to a notification from the Bay State 
Street Railway that certain lines in 
the town would be discontinued, with a 
recommendation that in the event of 
discontinuance of service by the road, 
the local authorities be urged to re- 
voke the grants of location under which 
the company is operating in the town 
and take steps to remove all poles, 
rails and equipment from the streets. 
A motion was adopted pronouncing in- 
advisable a proposal for the town to 
contribute $13,500 to the company to 
enable it to continue certain lines. 

City Contends Cases Differ. — The de- 
cision of the Supreme Court of Mis- 
souri in the so-called St. Louis 6-cent 
fare case, referred to in the Electric 
Railway Journal for Dec. 28, page 
1155, is said not to affect Kansas City, 
except as indicating the possible de- 
cision of the court in the Kansas City 
case. City officials of Kansas City, Mo., 
indicate that the position of Kansas 
City is different from that of St. Louis; 
and that even if a decision is rendered 
that is favorable to the local railway 
the city will appeal. In the St. Louis 
case the Supreme Court overruled the 
lower court and held that the commis- 
sion was within its rights in author- 
izing a 6-cent fare. 

Auburn Waives Fare Clause. — The 
Common Council of Auburn, N. Y., by 
unanimous vote, has adopted a resolu- 
tion whereby the city of Auburn has 
waived the electric railway franchise 
contract clause prohibiting a charge of 
more than 5 cents on city lines, to 
Owasco Lake and Soule Cemetery, thus 
making it possible for the Auburn & 
Syracuse Railway to go before the Pub- 
lic Service Commission with its appli- 
cation for an advance in fares. The 
resolution adopted by the Council 
waives the prohibitory clause for the 
period of the war, or until peace is 



finally declared, and for such a length 
of time thereafter as the Council shall 

deem wise. 

Grand Rapids Increase in Effect. — 

The Grand Rapids (Mich.) Railway be- 
gan charging a 6-cent fare on Dec. 5 
in accordance with permission re- 
cently granted by the City Commission 
and noted in the Electric Railway 
Journal for Nov. 16, page 904. The 
City Commission, however, made the 
fare ordinance subject to the will of 
the people at the November election 
on a referendum petition. No petitions 
were filed against the increased fare 
and it, therefore, went into effect with- 
out having come to a vote. Unusual 
interest attached to the Grand 
Rapids appeal because of the way in 
which the local papers met the fare 
issue. This phase of the matter was 
referred to in this paper for Sept. 28, t 
page 594. 

Wants Additional Omaha Facts. — 
The State Railway Commission of Ne- 
braska has denied the application of 
the Omaha & Council Bluffs Street 
Railway for an emergency increase in 
fares from 5 cents to 7 cents. The 
commission has, however, continued the 
application for further hearing and 
directed that the books of the company 
be examined and a valuation of the 
company's holdings be made in order to 
arrive at a final decision. The commis- 
sion says it does not deny that the com- 
pany should be granted an increase to 
meet the increased operating expenses, 
but that the company's valuation fig- 
ures submitted with the application 
were not sufficient to form an opinion 
as to how much the advance in rates 
should be. 

Rochester Still Needs More. — James 
F. Hamilton, president of the New 
York State Railways, has made a state- 
ment in part as follows about fares in 
Rochester: "We are still trying to get 
a 6-cent fare in Rochester. The reduc- 
tion of service during January, even if 
it became permanent, would save the 
company only $650 a day. When the 
first fall of snow comes the company 
must put on 100 men to clear the tracks 
and this will use up $400 a day of the 
saving made by the reduction of serv- 
ice. The balance will be expended for 
equipment. This amount is not a drop 
in the bucket. We are losing money in 
the Rochester district every day we 
operate. We have lost $1,000,000 in 
the last eighteen months. We are not 
asking for a permanent 6-cent fare, 
but for an increase that will enable us 
to give good service and pay the in- 
terest on our bonds during the unusual 
conditions prevailing of high prices for 
material and labor. A 6-cent fare would 
not return a cent in dividends to the 
stockholders, but would give the people 
good service and pay the interest on 
the bonds." The reduction in service 
to which Mr. Hamilton refers was de- 
cided upon after conference with the 
Public Service Commission for the Sec- 
ond District. It was referred to in the 
Electric Railway Journal for Dec. 
21, page 1118. 



76 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 1 




P. R. T. Changes 

Charles V. Weston, George Weston and 
Horace L. Howell Appointed to the 
Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company 

Charles V. Weston has been appoint- 
ed operating manager of the elevated 
and subway lines of the Philadelphia 
(Pa.) Rapid Transit Company. Mr. 
Weston was formerly president of the 
South Side Elevated Railroad, which is 
now a part of the Chicago Elevated 
Railroads. He has taken an active 
part in the development of Chicago's 
rapid transit system, having super- 
vised the construction of the West Chi- 
cago Street Railroad tunnel in 1891- 
94 and having been chief engineer of 
the construction of the Northwestern 
Elevated and Union Loop, as well as 
of many extensions of the Lake Street 
Elevated and South Side Elevated. 
Since his resignation from the presi- 
dency of the South Side Elevated, fol- 
lowing the consolidation of the Chicago 
elevated lines, Mr. Weston has been 
engaged largely in valuation and other 
expert work for electric railways. 

George Weston Also Goes to 
Philadelphia 

George Weston, engineer for the 
Board of Supervising Engineers, Chi- 
cago Traction, has resigned his posi- 
tion, effective Jan. 1, and will also be- 
come associated with the same com- 
pany. Mr. Weston has been engaged 
in electric railway work for the 
past thirty-one years. He received his 
training in civil engineering by private 
instruction and entered engineering 
work in 1880 on the Missouri, Kansas 
& Texas Railway at the age of nine- 
teen years. Since that time he has 
done engineering work on various 
steam lines, has established a reputa- 
tion as an appraisal engineer of electric 
railway properties and has been en- 
gaged in the construction and engineer- 
ing operation of electric railways in 
the city of Chicago for many years. 

George Weston on Chicago Board 
Since Its Creation 

Upon the creation of the Board of 
Supervising Engineers at Chicago, in 
1907, Mr. Weston was made assistant 
chief engineer. In 1908 he became a 
member of the Board of Supervising 
Engineers to represent the city of Chi- 
cago and later became engineer for the 
board, which position he has held to 
date. Mr. Weston is a member of the 
American Society of Civil Engineers, 
American Institute of Electrical Engi- 
neers, Western Society of Engineers, 
Chicago Engineers' Club, Engineers' 
Club of New York City, and the 



American Electric Railway Associa- 
tion. 

Horace L. Howell, who has for the 
past five years been connected with 
the Board of Supervising Engineers, 
Chicago Traction, in the capacity of 
assistant engineer, has resigned and 
has also accepted a position with the 
Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company. 



Mr. Jackson New Boston Trustee 

James F. Jackson of Boston, former 
chairman of the Massachusetts Rail- 
road Commission, has been appointed 
a trustee of the Boston Elevated Rail- 
way to fill the vacancy caused by the 
resignation of W. M. Butler, former 
chairman of the board. The nomina- 
tion was confirmed by the executive 
council on Dec. 31 under suspension of 
the rules. 

Mr. Jackson is a native of Taunton, 
Mass. He was educated at Harvard 
College and Boston University, grad- 
uating from the law school of the lat- 
ter in 1875. He was city solicitor of 
Fall River from 1880 to 1889 with the 
exception of one year, and was elected 
Mayor of that city on the Republican 
ticket in 1888 and again in 1889. From 
1899 to 1908 he was chairman of the 
Massachusetts Railroad Commission, 
pi edecessor of the Massachusetts Pub- 
lic Service Commission, and his term 
was signalized by distinguished and 
constructive service in electric railway 
regulation, coupled with unusual ability 
in clearly stating the essentials of com- 
plex issues before the board. 

Since retiring from the commission, 
Mr. Jackson has been engaged in pri- 
vate law practice at Boston, having 
represented the Bay State Street Rail- 
way as general counsel in various rate 
proceedings and other matters. To a 
representative of the Electric Railway 
Journal Wednesday Mr. Jackson ex- 
pressed his appreciation of the present 
difficulties of the electric railway 
financial problem, pointing out the im- 
portance of transportation and the in- 
terest with which his new duties will 
be undertaken. 



E. W. Tynan has been appointed 
claim agent of the New York, West- 
chester & Boston Railway, New York, 
N. Y., to succeed W. A. Cokeley. 

R. E. Town has been appointed audi- 
tor of the Chambersburg, Greencastle 
& Waynesboro Street Railway, Waynes- 
boro, Pa., to succeed C. W. Clover. 

C. C. Yawkey, formerly vice-presi- 
dent of the Wisconsin Valley Electric 
Company, Wausau, Wis., has been 
elected president of the company to 
succeed Neal Brown. 

G. C. Blankner and G. G. Brownell 
have been appointed assistant secre- 



taries of the Cities Service Company, 
New York, N. Y., to succeed Carle B. 
Gilbert. 

Judson Zimmer, master mechanic of 
the Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville 
Railroad, Gloversville, N. Y., has also 
been appointed to succeed F. A. Bagg, 
resigned. 

E. F. Meyers, treasurer of the Phila- 
delphia & Garrettford Street Railway, 
Upper Darby, Pa., has also been ap- 
pointed secretary of the company to 
succeed V. A. Hengst. 

G. A. Roffe has been appointed gen- 
eral manager and purchasing agent of 
the Susquehanna Traction Company, 
Lock Haven, Pa., to succeed T. C. 
Keller. 

L. A. Reinhardt has been appointed 
assistant secretary and assistant treas- 
urer of the Eastern Pennsylvania Rail- 
ways, Pottsville, Pa., to succeed W. C. 
Austin. 

F. P. Bagley, formerly treasurer of 
the Center & Clearfield Railway, Phil- 
ipsburg, Pa., has been appointed assist- 
ant secretary of the company to suc- 
ceed F. W. Gregory. 

Stephen C. Pohe has been appointed 
vice-president and general manager 
of the Center & Clearfield Railway, 
Philipsburg, Pa., to succeed Warren 
Partridge. 

Joseph B. Eastman of Massachusetts 
has been named a member of the In- 
terstate Commerce Commission, vice 
George W. Anderson, whose term of 
office has expired. 

B. D. Haskins has been appointed 
claim agent of the Chattanooga Rail- 
way & Light Company and the Look- 
out Mountain Railway, Chattanooga, 
Tenn., to succeed M. J. Horan. 

B. F. Wilson has been elected vice- 
president of the Wisconsin Valley 
Electric Company, Wausau, Wis., to 
succeed C. C. Yawkey, who has been 
elected president of the company. 

J. R. Hagy has been appointed sec- 
retary and treasurer of the City Elec- 
tric Company, Albuquerque, N. M., tc 
succeed Lloyd Sturges, who has been 
elected vice-president of the company. 

George A. Peirce has been appointed 
secretary of the Puget Sound Traction, 
Light & Power Company and subsidiary 
companies, with headquarters at Bos- 
ton, Mass., to succeed T. C. Crawford. 

Benjamin C. Bower has been ap- 
pointed master mechanic of the Tren- 
ton & Mercer County Traction Cor> 
poration, Trenton, N. J., to succeed H 
M. Rhoda. 

C. E. Fritts, superintendent of power 
and electrical distribution of the Kan- 
sas City (Mo.) Railways, has resigned. 
Mr. Fritts had been connected with th« 
company for twenty-one years. 

B. F. Mortimer, formerly with the 
Public Service Company of Oklahoma, 
has accepted a position as superintend- 
ent of distribution with the Okmulgee 
Ice & Light Company, Okmulgee, Okla. 

R. E. Morrison has been appointed 
engineer maintenance of way of the 



January 4, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



77 



Chattanooga Railway & Light Com- 
pany and the Lookout Mountain Rail- 
way, Chattanooga, Tenn., to succeed 
E. R. Dike. 

Lloyd Sturges, formerly secretary 
and treasurer of the City Electric Com- 
pany, Albuquerque, N. M., has been 
elected vice-president of the company. 

P. C. Eichhorn has been appointed 
auditor and purchasing agent of the 
Seattle & Rainier Valley Railway, Seat- 
tle, Wash., to succeed Frank W. Good- 
hue. 

J. I. Newell has been apointed elec- 
trical superintendent of the British Co- 
lumbia Electric Railway Company, 
Ltd., Vancouver, B. C, to succeed W. 
M. Fraser. 

M. Murphy has been appointed secre- 
tary of the Seattle & Rainier Valley 
Railway, Seattle, Wash., to succeed 
Walter M. Brown, who still retains his 
position as general manager of the 
company. 

W. Fred Jacobs has been appointed 
secretary of the Danville & Sunbury 
Transit Company, Danville, Pa., to suc- 
ceed Charles P. Hancock, who still re- 
tains his position as treasurer of the 
company. 

Henry Ellard has been appointed 
chief engineer to the Trenton & Mer- 
cer County Traction Corporation, Tren- 
ton, N. J., to succeed A. E. Gulliver, 
who resigned to engage in specia* work 
for the British government pertaining 
to marine operations. 

Charles Zoller has been named super- 
intendent of the Indianapolis & Cin- 
cinnati Traction Company, Indianap- 
olis, Ind., to succeed Lewis Henry, de- 
ceased. Mr. Zoller has been acting as 
claim agent of the company for some 
time. He will have his headquarters 
at Rushville, Ind. 

J. H. Vanderveer has recently been 
appointed master mechanic of the 
Maryland Electric Railways at Annap- 
olis, Md. He was for five years in the 
engineering department of Stone & 
Webster, specializing on the develop- 
ment of the one-man car. He is a 
graduate of Stevens Institute of Tech- 
nology. 

H. R. Palmer, chief of the lighting 
and power department of the Virginia 
Railway & Power Company, supplying 
railway service and electric light and 
power to Richmond and other cities of 
Virginia, will become general manager 
of the Harrisburg Light & Power Com- 
pany, Harrisburg, Pa., to succeed C. M. 
Kaltwasser, vice-president and general 
manager of the company. 

H. A. Nicholl, general manager of 
the Union Traction Company of In- 
diana, Anderson, Ind., has returned to 
Indiana from Hampton Roads, Va., 
where for several months he was gov- 
ernment manager of transportation of 
the Hampton Roads district. The posi- 
tion in Virginia was a new one for the 
period of the war and Mr. Nicholl was 
granted leave of absence by the Union 
Traction Company in order to assume 
the place. 



Matthew C. Brush, who has been 
vice-president of the American Inter- 
national Corporation, New York City, 
has been elected president of the Amer- 
ican International Shipbuilding Cor- 
poration. The corporation is engaged 
in shipbuilding,, having the largest 
shipyard in the world, that at Hog 
Island, Philadelphia, Pa. On Oct. 28, 
1918, Mr. Brush was elected chairman 
of the board of directors of the Boston 
Elevated Railway. 

Daniel A. Scanlon has been appointed 
acting superintendent of transportation 
of the Northern Ohio Traction & Light 
Company with headquarters at Akron, 
Ohio, succeeding Frank I. Hardy, re- 
signed. For the last fourteen years 
Mr. Scanlon has been superintendent 
of the Southern Division of the North- 
ern Ohio Traction & Light Company, 
with headquarters at Canton, Ohio. 
Prior to that time he was connected 
with the Raleigh (N. C.) Traction 
Company and the Columbus, Buckeye 
Lake & Newark Railway, Springfield, 
Ohio. 

Edgar Harrison, appointed division 
passenger and freight agent of the 
Union Traction Company of Indiana 
at Anderson, has been with the Union 
Traction Company since Feb. 5, 1903, 
commencing as a motorman on the city 
lines at Anderson. He was on several 
divisions of the Union Traction as 
trainman, and knows the system well. 
He is studious and very observing and 
in order to qualify for advancements 
has recently completed successfully 
special studies in traffic work during 
his leisure. 

General H. T. Douglas, who has been 
connected with the work of construc- 
tion of the Interborough Rapid Transit 
Company, New York, N. Y., as princi- 
pal assistant engineer of the Rapid 
Transit Subway Construction Company 
since December, 1899, has retired from 
service. He took an important part in 
the construction of the subways from 
the beginning until their completion, 
and gave to the work not only his en- 
gineering skill and untiring energy, 
but the benefit of a very broad and 
varied experience in railroad and engi- 
neering work. 

B. N. Grosvenor, recently appointed 
superintendent of power plants of the 
Union Traction Company of Indiana, 
succeeding E. E. Jones, has had con- 
siderable experience in the mechanical 
and steam engineering line. He started 
as a machinist, and from that calling 
was made assistant to the professor of 
steam engineering, at the Rose Poly- 
technic Institute, at Terre Haute. He 
left there to take charge of the power 
plant of the Louisville (Ky.) Railway, 
where he was located for seven years. 
After leaving the Louisville Railway, 
Mr. Grosvenor was in charge of the 
River Station of the Louisville Water 
Company for ten years. 

Percy S. Turner, manager of the 
tramway department of the British 
Westirighouse Electric Company, Lon- 
don, is in this country investigating 



the latest designs of electric car 
equipment used with high voltage in- 
stallations. A more extended electri- 
fication of steam lines in England is 
considered desirable by most of the 
present railway officials. If the gov- 
ernment takes over the lines accord- 
ing to the program already outlined, 
extended electrification may be post- 
poned as the work will then, of course, 
depend on the attitude taken by the 
government. The various manufac- 
turers are preparing to build any new 
equipment necessary in their own 
plants. 



Obituary 



George H. Harvey, general superin- 
tendent of construction for the Colum- 
bus Railway, Power & Light Company, 
Columbus, Ohio, died at his home in 
Columbus on Dec. 20 from influenza 
and pneumonia. 

Maj. Charles B. Clegg, president of 
the Oakwood Street Railway, Dayton, 
Ohio, died on Dec. 16 after a long ill- 
ness. Mr. Clegg became interested in 
Dayton railway properties when horse 
cars were used. He and John H. Win- 
ters, a banker, secured the controlling 
interest in the Dayton & Western Trac- 
tion Company and assisted in complet- 
ing the road. In conjunction with his 
son, Harrie P. Clegg, now an officer of 
the Dayton & Troy Electric Railway, 
the Oakwood Railroad and the Oak- 
wood Street Railway, Dayton, he built 
the Dayton & Troy Traction line. Mr. 
Clegg was seventy-six years of age. 

Angus Sinclair, Eng. D., publisher of 

Railway & Locomotive Engineering and 
for many years treasurer of the Amer- 
ican Railway Master Mechanics' As- 
sociation, died at his home in Milburn, 
N. J., on Jan. 1. He was seventy- 
seven years old. Mr. Sinclair was born 
in Scotland, where he received his early 
education. After coming to the United 
States he studied engineering at the 
University of Iowa. He received his 
degree of doctor of engineering from 
Purdue University. Mr. Sinclair at 
one time was editor of the American 
Machinist and later of the National 
Car Builder. In 1886 he established, 
with the late John A. Hill, the Na- 
tional Engineer, whose name was later 
changed to Raihvay & Locomotive En- 
gineering, the paper with which he has 
been actively associated during recent 
years. In addition to his connection 
with the American Railway Master 
Mechanics' Association, of which he 
has been treasurer since 1901, Mr. 
Sinclair has been identified with many 
technical associations, among them the 
American Society of Mechanical En- 
gineers, the Master Car Builders' As- 
sociation, the Air Brake Club and the 
Travelling Engineers' Association. He 
was one of the founders of the last 
mentioned organization. 



Manufactures and the Markets 

DISCUSSIONS OF MARKET AND TRADE CONDITIONS FOR THE MANUFACTURER. 

SALESMAN AND PURCHASING AGENT .^JiL 
ROLLING STOCK PURCHASES BUSINESS ANNOUNCEMENTS 



Volume of Purchasing Low During 1918 

Review of Production, Distribution and Sales of Electric Railway 
Equipment During Past Twelve Months 



A year mixed with good and bad 
business has just closed. On the whole 
the electric railways purchased less 
during 1918 than during any one of 
the last ten years. Here and there a 
business booked an extraordinary large 
volume of sales. In such cases the ar- 
ticle in question was as a rule some- 
thing comparatively new on the market 
and for which a demand had arisen on 
account of the abnormal conditions 
created by the war. 

Pneumatic door-control equipment 
and one-man car devices, for instance, 
sold well. Devices to increase economy 
had the largest call. Each of the dif- 
ferent types of devices for giving read- 
ings whereby it is possible to reduce 
the energy consumption per car-mile 
were in good demand. 
More Cars Purchased Than in 1917 

Besides, the war brought large sales 
in specific localities. Wherever there 
were shipyards or large industrial cen- 
ters employed in war work the trans- 
portation facilities as a rule were 
found insufficient and additional rolling 
stock was required. As a result a num- 
ber of large orders for rolling stock 
were placed during the year. These 
brought the total purchases of cars of 
all kinds for 1918 beyond that for 1917 
by a hundred or so. The total num- 
ber of new cars built in 1918 was 2419 
against 2455 in 1917. However, only 
eighty-nine cars were built in railway 
company shops in 1918 while 281 were 
so built in 1917. 

It is interesting to see the stride 
taken by the one-man car in 1918. Of 
this type 644 were ordered against but 
280 in 1917. That this type is begin- 
ning to play a large part in the rolling- 
stock market is seen by comparing the 
1918 orders for both one-man and two- 
man city cars. Of the latter the 1918 
orders reached 1074, but 450 more than 
the one-man total. One car builder in 
August stated that fully 90 per cent of 
the year's inquiries for city cars were 
for the one-man type. 

Nor is that all. The rolling-stock 
orders were not as large as they might 
have been had deliveries been better. 
Reports have been received from more 
than one road that owing to the length 
of time that they would have to wait 
it was decided best to postpone pur- 
chasing. Shipments, however, were 
not as bad as was generally believed. 



Late in February prominent car build- 
ers notified the Electric Railway 
Journal that shipments could be had 
in from five to six months. On top 
of this, however, the railways had to 
wait some time depending on trans- 
portation. If the orders were war 
transportation orders delivery could be 
secured more promptly. 

Fussiness of car design was not tol- 
erated last year by the builders. Stand- 
ard design was the rule. If special 
construction was desired the purchaser 
found that promised delivery became 
quite too long. 

The conditions of long delivery and 
immediate requirements resulted in a 
number of roads going into the used- 
car market. Little help was here 
found. Some managers are known to 
have traveled hundreds and hundreds 
of miles in an effort to locate and se- 
cure a few used cars. Probably at no 
other time has the market been so bare 
of second-hand rolling stock. As the 
year closed conditions were much easi- 
er and cars could be secured without 
any trouble. 

Track construction and maintenance 
offered a very poor field for sales in 
1918. Some 410 miles, or less than 1 
per cent, was added to the total track 
mileage. About 150 miles of track was 
rebuilt out of a total of almost 50,000 
miles. Almost all of this work was in 
small sections. 

Government Takes Rail Output 

To a large extent, of course, it must 
be remembered that war requirements 
prevented purchasing for track con- 
struction and maintenance. Some roads 
were favored in securing new track be- 
cause of making extensions to ship- 
yards or other war plants. Speaking 
generally there were no rails available 
for electric railways last year until 
after the armistice was signed, when 
a few tons were shipped on back 
orders. 

Government orders called for a 
greater production of rails than the 
mills could handle. There were some 
rails that had been rolled for Russian 
roads that were offered for domestic 
consumption. As a makeshift it is un- 
derstood that some of these were used 
by electric roads. 

Freight handling for the electric 
reads opened on the Pacific Coast and 
elsewhere and to take care of this 



there was some purchasing of freight 
cars and trailers although most of such 
rolling stock was probably built in 
company shops. 

The severity of the winter early last 
year made for a nice volume of buying 
in some lines. Trolley wire sold very 
well for maintenance because of the 
snow storms. Snow and ice removal 
equipment was in a brisk demand, es- 
pecially scrapers, sleet cutters and 
thawing apparatus. Also there was a 
large demand in January for immediate 
delivery of snowplows. These, how- 
ever, are not kept in stock and take 
some time to build so that this market 
went unsatisfied. It is interesting to 
note in this connection that very few 
orders were placed during the spring 
and summer months for snowplows 
and sweepers. 

Maintenance Prompts Buying 

Winter conditions also brought a 
heavy demand for coils. Sales of these 
continued in good volume throughout 
the year. Railways formerly used to 
do most of their coil winding in their 
own shops but the scarcity of labor in 
the past year prevented much of this 
work. This resulted in large sales by 
the manufacturers. 

Maintenance needs prompted most 
of the buying by traction companies. 
Welding outfits were in good demand. 
The necessity for conserving old ma- 
terial added increased duties to weld- 
ing equipment for shop use and for 
repairing tracks, and lines. 

The carbon brush market was ac- 
tive throughout the year. Car wheel 
sales were limited to maintenance 
needs. Car roofing, on the other hand, 
was very quiet. 

In many lines owing to a demand 
from other than electric railways there 
was a shortage during the year. These 
included such items as track and track 
hardware, construction and track tools 
and tool handles, window glass and 
shop equipment. 

In many of these lines production 
was curtailed because of the necessity 
for conservation of raw materials, 
transportation, fuel and labor. All tool 
production was reduced considerably in 
the number of types and sizes. Metal 
badges for platform men, condenser 
equipment many lines of electrical 
equipment, all were curtailed. These 
restrictions were removed shortly after 
the armistice was signed. 

On July 26 the War Trade Board 
placed restrictions on the importation 
of rattan. Manufacturers of car seat- 
ing, track sweepers and brooms, how- 



January 4, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



79 



ever, were sufficiently well fixed so 
that the industry never suffered from 
a shortage of supply. This restriction, 
also has been lifted. 

Railway motor demand was not very 
active. One manufacturing concern 
early made up a fair stock but other- 
wise motors were built as ordered. 

In the summer months there was a 
renewed interest in fare boxes. A con- 
siderable demand arose also for slack 
adjusters, owing to labor shortage and 
conservation measures. These were 
shipped in carload quantities. 

Deliveries varied considerably. On 
much small equipment there were good 
stocks available and immediate ship- 
ments could be made. On large equip- 
ment, however, such as poles, deliv- 
eries were greatly delayed owing to 
transportation troubles. 

Prices Were Higher in 1918 

Prices continued to mount during the 
year in spite of the small demand from 
traction companies. There is hardly 
an item that did not advance in price 
at least once — rolling stock, track, 
hardware, paints, glass, etc. — all ex- 
cept wire — hit new high levels. Wire 
on the average was lower than in 1917 
because copper was much lower. 

Cotton was by no means an insig- 
nificant factor in the year's higher 
prices. Trolley, bell and register cord, 
insulated wire, waste cotton, coils and 
insulation reflected the advancing cost 
of cotton. 

As the year closed some prices came 
down. The most conspicuous ones 
were rails and wire. 

What to do with scrap became a real 
question for many roads last year. 
Scrap iron and steel and other old 
metals brought high prices up to the 
time the armistice was signed, when 
the bottom fairly dropped out of this 
market. Whether to sell for ",he high 
prices or to hold for repair and further 
use came up continually. The govern- 
ment fixed maximum prices for scrap 
iron and steel. For old rails $35 per 
ton was allowed and $47.50 for old rail- 
way axles. Owing to conditions of the 
market railways were not always able 
to dispose of their holdings at such 
high prices. Nevertheless, much more 
was realized for scrap in 1918 than 
ever before. 

Electric railway credits received 
more than the usual scrutiny in the 
year just past. On the whole, however, 
collections were in good shape consid- 
ering the conditions. Not so many 
roads took advantage of the cash dis- 
count as formerly, and also settlements 
took longer generally than they used 
to. Still they were made. 

Up to Nov. 11 electrical manufac- 
turers were generally working to the 
extent that they could get labor to op- 
erate the machinery. Since that time 
there have been many cancellations of 
war and other contracts, and incoming 
business is now small. The total out- 
put of electrical goods for the year was 
probably no larger than in 1917, which 
was in the neighborhood of $750,000,- 



000. Throughout the year labor first 
and raw materials second have been 
the controlling factors. In addition to 
a very acute shortage of each, labor 
has been very undependable. Dilution 
was tried and found in most instances 
to work very well. Women as a rule 
were found to be more dependable in 
the work in which they were employed 
than men. 

Wage scales for industrial labor 
advanced by leaps and bounds. The 
government labor board did much to 
prevent loss of time through strikes, 
but it pretty generally recommended 
higher wages and the shortening of 
working time to eight hours. This lat- 
ter did not actually shorten the hours 
of work but materially increased wages 
by making it possible to get in more 
overtime work. Labor priorities were 
outlined, and in one instance in the in- 
dustry labor was in serious danger of 
being drafted. 

Raw materials, particularly iron, 
steel, copper, tin and brass, were insuf- 
ficient to supply the demand. Substi- 
tutes were urged, particularly for 
brass. Prices of these products were 
fixed by the government with pro- 
visions for maximum output, but even 
so there was not enough, to go around. 
The natural result was that along in 
the summer the War Industries Board 
began to limit the supply of raw ma- 
terials through priority certificates in 
accordance with the essential charac- 
ter of the production. Nothing was 
termed non-essential, but many lines 
of production were considered less es- 
sential to the winning of the war than 
others. 

Power Equipment Market 

Large power equipment was hard to 
get throughout the year. Turbines of 
over 500 hp. were taken under complete 
government control as to distribution. 
After the fighting stopped deliveries on 
large turbines were quoted at four 
months and longer, depending on the 
condition of the individual factories. 
At the close of the year there was 
still a large volume of unfilled business 
in steam turbines. 

The transformer demand was not so 
large last year as in the preceding 
year. In April it was reported to be 
down to about 70 per cent of that for 
1917. 

Around the first of June power equip- 
ment, including motors, generators, 
turbines, transformers, etc., advanced 
around 10 per cent. 

A number of manufacturers began to 
study the export field during the year. 
There were quantities of inquiries from 
South America, but the ban on ship- 
ping made it hard to do business. How- 
ever, as soon as the war ceased the 
manufacturers began to show unusual 
activity. 

Metal prices, generally speaking, 
were much lower at the close of the 
year than at the opening. Copper, 
which owing to the continuance of the 
government price of 26 cents until 
Jan. 1, is apparently higher, was ac- 



tually being offered for resale during 
the last two weeks of the year at 21 
cents. Producers late in December 
agreed on a price of 23 cents for ex- 
port. 

All Priorities Are Officially 
Canceled 

Formal Announcement Made of the 
Passing of Priorities Rules and 
Pledges on Jan. 1 

Circular No. 60 of the Priorities Di- 
vision of the War Industries Board, 
addressed to all concerned, says: "Ef- 
fective Jan. 1, 1919, all the rules, regu- 
lations and directions of every nature 
whatsoever issued by the Priorities Di- 
vision of the War Industries Board are 
hereby canceled, and all pledges here- 
tofore made on the suggestion or re- 
quest of the said Priorities Division 
are hereby revoked." 

This is signed by Edwin B. Parker, 
Priorities Commissioner, and approved 
by Bernard M. Baruch, Chairman War 
Industies Board. It is dated Dec. 20. 



Dick, Kerr & Company's 
Annual Report 

The annual meeting of Dick, Kerr & 
Company, Ltd., was held in London on 
Nov. 14, and important plans of the 
future were outlined by the chairman. 
He referred to the acquisition as an- 
nounced last year of the bulk of "B" 
preference stocks of Willans & Rob- 
inson, Ltd., and said that the work of 
consolidating the organization of the 
company with those of Willans & Rob- 
inson and the United Electric Car Com- 
pany has been completed. An alliance 
has also been made with Siemens 
Brothers & Company, Ltd., by which 
much economy can be effected through 
the amalgamation of selling organiza- 
tions and co-ordination of designs and 
products. There is no competition in 
manufacture as Siemens Brothers & 
Company made cables, dynamo ma- 
chinery, telephones, etc., while Dick, 
Kerr & Company have specialized in 
apparatus for railways and tramways, 
steam turbines and the larger classes 
of electrical machinery. It has also 
been decided to establish companies in 
France and in Japan to exploit manu- 
facturing rights in connection with ap- 
paratus for railways and tramways. In 
the belief of the chairman there would 
be a large after-war demand for all 
classes of electrical machinery, espe- 
cially large-sized steam turbines, and 
he assured the shareholders that the 
company's facilities for taking care of 
this demand would be ample. 



Coal Price and Zone Regulations 
Continue 

Maximum prices on coal and zone 
regulations will not be removed before 
Feb. 1, 1919, United States Fuel Ad- 
ministrator Harry A. Garfield an- 
nounced recently. 



so 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, Mo. 1 



Track and Roadway 



Muscle Shoals Traction Company, Flor- 
ence, Ala. — A second survey has been com- 
pleted of part of the proposed Muscle Shoals 
Traction Company's line between Huntsville 
and Florence, via Athens. The government 
has made arrangements with the Muscle 
Shoals Traction Company to use its ter- 
minal in Florence and is desirous of having 
the company build branch lines to Dams 
Nos. 2 and 3. Thurston Allen, Florence, 
secretary. [Sept. 21, '18.] 

Municipal Railway of San Francisco, San 
Francisco, Cal. — The Board of Supervisors 
has adopted an ordinance authorizing the 
Board of Public Works to prepare plans 
and specifications and to enter into con- 
tract for the reconstruction of tracks on a 
portion of Taraval Street and fdr the con- 
struction of a line on a portion of Brighton 
Street. 

United Railroads of San Francisco, San 
Francisco, Cal.— Mayor Rolph and J. N. 
Lilienthal, president of the United Railroads 
of San Francisco, recently signed the agree- 
ment between the city and the United Rail- 
roads providing for the joint use of street 
railway tracks west of Twin Peaks. By the 
agreement the city will get the right to 
operate over the United Railroads' tracks 
on Taraval Street in the Parkside district 
from Twentieth to Thirty-third Avenues and 
the use of the Ocean Avenue line to Herold 
Avenue in the Ingleside section. The neces- 
sary ordinance has been passed providing 
for the payment by the city to the United 
Railroads of $100,000 for this latter privi- 
lege, while the city, under the arrangement, 
must reconstruct the United Railroads' 
tracks from Twentieth to Thirty-third ave- 
nues in the Parkside section. 

United Railways & Electric Company, 
Baltimore, Md. — Contract and plans have 
been filed in Baltimore County by the 
United Railways & Electric Company for 
its proposed double-track extension to the 
yards of the Bethlehem Shipbuilding Cor- 
poration at Sparrows Point. The estimated 
cost of construction is $145,472. 

Boston, Mass. — Special investigators of 
the Commission on Waterways and Public 
Lands have started a study of the traffic 
over the recently inaugurated trolley 
freight line connecting the Fish Pier in 
South Boston with the Boston Elevated 
system, in order to determine the possibil- 
ities of an extension of the service. The 
commission proposes, if the plan is found 
to be practical, to have the Fish Pier line 
extended over the State-owned lands so 
that it will serve the Commonwealth Pier, 
the dry dock, and the embarkation terminal, 
which the War Department is building. 

New York Municipal Railway, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. — The Public Service Commission for 
the First District of New York has ap- 
proved an opinion by Commissioner F. J. H. 
Kracke, and has directed the preparation 
of a final order fixing the status of the 
Culver Elevated Line in Brooklyn as a 
branch of the Fourth Avenue subway. The 
order will also provide that the Culver line 
shall be operated as a part of the Fourth 
Avenue subway when the Whitehall-Mon- 
tague Street tunnel line shall have been 
completed and placed in operation. This 
plan will require that when the new Culver 
elevated structure in Brooklyn is placed in 
operation a month or so hence it will be 
operated as the present Culver line is oper- 
ated, namely in connection with the Fifth 
Avenue elevated line in Brooklyn. There- 
after when the tunnel line is completed the 
Culver trains will be made up of steel cars 
and diverted near the Ninth Avenue station 
into the Fourth Avenue subway. 



Power Houses, Shops 
and Buildings 



British Columbia Electric Railway, Ltd., 
Vancouver, B. C. — Work will be begun next 
spring by the British Columbia Electric 
Railway on the construction of a receiving 
station for freight at Chilliwack. 

Washington & Old Dominion Railway, 
Washington, D. C. — A report from the 
Washington & Old Dominion Railway states 
that it has ordered three 1000-kw. trans- 
formers, six 100-kw. transformers and por- 
table substation outfit of 300-kva. trans- 
former and rotary, etc. ; also material for 
changing 14-mile division high-tension 
22,000 volts to 33,000 volts. 

Winona (Ind.) Interurban Railway. — 
The Winona Interurban Railway has com- 
pleted the installation of a complete coal 



handling apparatus in its power plant at 
Winona Lake, Ind. The coal is taken from 
the storage bins to hoppers and thence to 
the stokers. The equipment was furnished 
by the Weller Manufacturing Company, 
Chicago. The company will purchase one 
new wheel press and in addition one bor- 
ing mill. 

Pascagoula Street Railway & Power 
Company, Pascagroula, Miss. — It is reported 
that the Pascagoula Street Railway & 
Power Company will construct a new power 
plant. 

Kansas City (Mo.) Railways. — A tract of 
land 100 ft. x 300 ft. has been purchased 
by the Kansas City Railways just east of 
the company's present carhouse at Ninth 
and Washington Streets and will be used 
by the company for the storage of cars. 
The company will in the near future con- 
struct a double-deck carhouse on the 
ground which it now owns. The difference 
in the street elevation makes the location 
particularly desirable, there being one grade 
on the Washington Street side and another 
on Ninth Street. 

Ithaca (N. Y.) Traction Company. — The 
power plant of the Ithaca Traction Com- 
pany at Ithaca was recently dt-stroyed by 
fire, causing a loss of about $75,000. The 
plant has supplied electricity for operating 
the railway system and for local lighting 
service and will be rebuilt immediately. 

Columbus (Ohio) Depot Company. — The 
City Council of Columbus has passed an 
ordinance extending the period within 
which the Columbus Depot Company may 
begin the construction of the proposed in- 
terurban railway station at the corner of 
Town and Rich Streets. 

Northern Cambria Railway, Patton, Pa. 
— A contract has been placed by the North- 
ern Cambria Railway with the General 
Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y., for 
one 300-kw. motor generator set. and power 
will be purchased from the Pennsylvania 
Central Light, Heat & Power Company 
shortly after Jan. 1, 1919. 

Philadelphia (Pa.) Rapid Transit Com- 
pany. — Plans are being made by the Phila- 
delphia Rapid Transit Company for the 
construction of a one-story brick addition 
to its substation used in connection with 
service in Philadelphia, to cost about 
$12,000. 

Dallas (Tex.) Railway. — Plans have been 
made by Fred A. Jones Construction Com- 
pany, Dallas, for enlarging the Interurban 
Building at Dallas by the erection of an 
8-story addition to the 2-story portion and 
a 2-story addition to the 8-story portion 
of the building. 



Professional Notes 



V. I. Smart, formerly professor of rail- 
way engineering and transportation at 
McGill University, Montreal, and J. A. Bur- 
nett formerly electrical engineer with the 
Grand Trunk Railway system, are now as- 
sociated as consulting engineers at the 
New Quirks Building, Montreal. The lines 
handled will be civil, electrical and mechan- 
ical, engineering. 

Fuller Engineering Company, designing 
and constructing engineers, Allentown Na- 
tional Bank Building, Allentown, Pa., an- 
nounces that Frederick A. Scheffier, for- 
merly connected with the New York offices 
of the Babcock &Wilcox Company, has now 
become associated with them and will make 
his headquarters at their New York office, 
50 Church Street. The Fuller Engineering 
Company is making a specialty of apply- 
ing the pulverized-coal method of firing to 
boilers of all kinds for generating power, 
and Mr. Scheffier will be in a position to 
furnish complete information regarding the 
cost of installation, preparation and prob- 
able economies obtainable by the adoption 
of this method of firing coal. 

O. S. Lincoln, Inc., Portland, Me., was 
enlarged on Jan. 1 and is now known 
as Lincoln, Hanson & Abbott, Inc. The two 
new partners were formerly with the Moul- 
ton Engineering Corporation, which has 
given up its Portland office, and one of 
them, Major Abbott, has just returned from 
service with the engineers in France. The 
new firm will occupy the same offices but 
will enlarge the scope of its work so as to 
cover civil, mechanical, hydraulic and elec- 
trochemical engineering in addition to elec- 
trical engineering. The firm proposes to go 
into the business of consulting and design- 
ing engineering and management of proper- 
ties with renewed energy now that the great 
war is over. The Electrical Standardizing 
Laboratories will be retained and enlarged, 
leading to greater activities than have been 
possible in the past. 



Rolling Stock 



Mobile & Pensacola Railway & Naviga- 
tion Company, Mobile, Ala., reports that it 
expects to purchase some cars during 1919. 

Hydro-Eleceric Power Commission of On- 
tario, Canada, expects during 1919 to pur- 
chase six 50-ton all steel locomotives for 
the traction roads under its control. 

Gulfport & Mississippi Coast Traction 
Company, Gulfport, Miss., reports that it 
expects during 1919 to purchase four four- 
motor street car equipments. 

Norfolk & Western Railroad, Bluefleld, 
W. Va., expects to order six electric loco- 
motives during 1919. These locomotives 
will be duplicates of those now in use. 

Gadsen, Bellevue & lookout Mountain 
Railway, Gadsden, Ala., expects during 
1919 to purchase three single truck cars, 
one closed and two 10 bench open cars. 

Chicago, South Bend & Northern Indiana 
Railway and Southern Michigan Railway, 
both of South Bend Ind., and under the 
same management, expect to purchase 
twenty new city car motor equipments dur- 
ing 1919. 



Trade Notes 



Maschinenfabrik Oerlikou, whose works 
are at Oerlikon, near Zurich, Switzerland, 
recently filed a report at Zurich as to the 
nationality of its stockholders as far as 
it could be determined. Of the 16,000 
shares outstanding 15,144 are held by Swiss 
citizens and only 706 by citizens of other 
nationalities. Holders of 150 shares did 
not reply to the inquiry. In other words, 
more than 94 per cent of the stock is held 
by citizens of Switzerland. 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Company Cleve- 
land, Ohio, has opened a San Francisco 
office at 415-417 Rialto Building, in charge 
of Norman S. Rose. He will give attention 
to business originating from California, 
Nevada west of the 115th meridian, lower 
California and the counties of Josephine, 
Jackson and Klamath in Oregon. The com- 
pany has recently appointed Horace N. 
Trumbull as advertising manager. Mr. 
Trumbull was formerly advertising man- 
ager of the SKF Ball Bearing Company of 
Hartford, Conn. 

Wheeler Condenser & Engineering Com- 
pany, Carteret, N. J., announces that it 
has obtained from the Schutte & Koerting 
Company, of Philadelphia, through the 
Alien Property Custodian, the exclusive 
right to manufacture and sell steam jet air 
pumps under Patent No. 968,926 in con- 
nection with surface condensers, jet con- 
densers, barometric condensers, vacuum 
pans and evaporating . apparatus. This 
patent covers the valuable feature of two 
or more steam jets working in series with 
a condenser between the jets. 

National Railway Appliance Company, 
New York, N. Y., B. A. Hegeman, Jr., presi- 
dent, announces the election of Fred C. J. 
Dell to the office of secretary of the com- 
pany, effective Dec. 24, 1918. Mr. Dell has 
acted in the capacity of president's secre- 
tary of the company for the past two years, 
previous to which time he was connected 
with the American Electric Railway Manu- 
facturers' Association as assistant to the 
secretary-treasurer, a position which he 
held from March, 1911, to May, 1916. In 
the latter year he resigned to assume 
charge of the detail work of the exhibit 
committee for the 1916 convention of the 
American Electric Railway Association, and 
in October, 1916, he was elected to the 
office of secretary of the American Electric 
Railway Manufacturers' Association, which 
position he still holds. Mr. Dell received 
his early training in the office' of the vice- 
president and general manager of the In- 
terborough Rapid Transit Company, where 
he was employed in a clerical capacity for 
a period of seven years under Vice-Pres- 
ident Frank Hedley. 



New Advertising Literature 



Truscon Steel Company, Youngstown, 
Ohio, Pressed Steel Department: Folder of 
pressed steel shapes. 

Walter A. Zelnicker Supply Company, St. 
Louis, Mo.: Bulletin No. 250, or that for 
January, 1919. It contains eighty-four 
pages. 



Electric Railway 
Journal 

Consolidation of Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Review 



New York, Saturday, January 11, 1919 



Number 2 



kip Stops Demand \ 1 
Better Car Signs 

MANY American operators do not fully appreciate 
the revenue and public-satisfaction value of des- 
tination and route signs that can be read by the 
would-be passenger for the length of an ordinary city 
block, say one-fifteenth or one-twentieth of a mile. Now 
with the coming of the skip stop, the need for such 
signs is all the greater because with the longer distance 
between stops, the car is going at a good rate of speed 
while it is one block away from the next permissible 
stop instead of being at a standstill. If the man in 
the street cannot make out the sign, he will either sig- 
nal for an unnecessary stop or else start to walk. The 
latter action is more likely if he is only a mile or so 
from his destination. Since it cannot be denied that the 
skip stop has a tendency to discourage short riding, it 
would be a serious mistake to accelerate that tendency 
by continuing the use of car signs that are indistinct 
both night and day. It is so easy to use conspicuous 
initial or route number signs as an identification to the 
native rider at least, that further retention of wooden 
block and ground-glass monitor lettering is inexcusable. 



If You Can't Buy, 

Try Installments or Rental 

WHEN the maker of a money-saving or money- 
earning device has convinced the railway prospect 
that he is telling the truth and nothing but the truth, 
the latter will often throw up his hands, expel a heart- 
felt sigh and say: "I guess you're right old man, but 
where in Helvetia can I get the money for your stuff?" 
If the salesm&n at this point can go no further than a 
sincere expression of sympathy, both the sale and the 
savings are off. 

It may be a misfortune, but it is certainly necessary 
in many instances for the manufacturer to finance the 
customer by taking his payments in long-time install- 
ments or in rentals. Although this means a higher 
initial cost than outright cash purchase, there is an 
important advantage in that the manufacturer has the 
strongest possible incentive to make good because he 
will not get his money until the customer is satisfied. 
This policy, of course, works out most logically with 
devices that need personal instruction, enthusiasm and 
follow-up to be a success, such as fare-collection and 
car-checking instruments. If the latter are sold out- 
right, the customer is too prone to make no allowance 
for these very factors that bring him the highest re- 
turns. 

When asked for the secret of the perfect blending of 
the paints in the pictures which he produced, the great 



Reynolds replied that he mixed his paint with brains. 
So, too, the makers of efficiency devices also have had 
to mingle brains with metals and mechanisms. There- 
fore, they cannot sell their apparatus at a manufactur- 
ing profit over the cost of their copper and steel as 
does the maker of a stock article. They must charge a 
figure that includes both inventive ability and continu- 
ing service to the buyer. Surely, if such manufacturers 
have the faith that the money for long credits or rentals 
can be made directly out of savings, the electric railway 
manager should show equal faith in accepting such op- 
portunities in the helpful spirit in which they are 
made. 



Solve This Business 

Problem in a Business Way 

ONE of the tangible results of the recent reconstruc- 
tion conference at Atlantic City, held under the 
auspices of the United States Chamber of Commerce, 
was the passage of a resolution calling for the appoint- 
ment of a committee of the chamber "to investigate and 
study the question of local transportation as it relates 
to the control of rates and service, franchises, taxes, 
the attraction of capital into the business, and such 
other questions which the committee may find per- 
tinent." The scope of the investigation is national in 
character, and, for its decision to carry the greatest 
weight, we believe that the members of the proposed 
committee should be of national standing. 

The leaders of the Chamber of Commerce of the 
United States who have to do with the naming of com- 
mittees could serve the public interest well if, in ap- 
pointing this particular committee, they select men 
capable of broad-gage views and conclusions, with a 
good knowledge of public relations, as well as some 
contact with power and electric railway companies. 
The type of man who should come last in the list of 
those to be named on the committee is the public utility 
official who is that and no more. 

The war has taught us to think in terms of the 
public utility industry rather than in terms of special 
interests in the industry. A consciousness has been 
aroused among public utility men that they are part of 
a great national industry instead of being merely 
officials of local plants and local industries. Public 
utility men themselves are now beginning to under- 
stand this, and they should be the first to come forward 
and urge that there should be named on the committee, 
for instance, men such as the following: the president 
of a great life insurance company — any one of them — 
in view of the fact that the big insurance companies 
are owners of from $250,000,000 to $300,000,000 worth 



82 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 2 



of public utility securities ; the president or general 
manager of a great industrial plant using power and 
local transportation which suffered and which thereby 
caused industrial war production to suffer during the 
war because of the lack of power and local transporta- 
tion; leaders, such as one who sprang to the rescue in 
Boston, in the organization of street railway and power 
company security owners; and last but not least, some 
representative of the public utilities who has been 
closely in touch with the industry in a national way 
during recent years and knows its problems. 

A big, broad-gaged committee, which touches at all 
points the public, namely, the users and the owners, 
rather than the operators, of the public utilities is 
what is needed for this work. It could do much to ad- 
vance the prosperity of the country through the im- 
provement of its local transportation systems. 



New York Situation Looks 
Somewhat More Hopeful 

THE New York City situation appears a little more 
hopeful as a result of the events of the past week. 
The appointment of a receiver for the Brooklyn 
Rapid Transit Company and the frank statements from 
Mr. Shonts of the deplorable condition of the Inter- 
borough and New York Railways lines under a 5-cent 
fare have brought a realization to the public that some- 
thing must be done. A special feature of the case is 
that with both the B. R. T. and the Interborough, under 
the dual subway agreement, the companies are entitled 
to preferential treatment in the division of the income 
of the rapid transit system. But the new lines are not 
yet paying — indeed, are not yet completed — and the 
rise in operating expenses has robbed the 5-cent fare 
of its profit and the companies of their ability to finance 
themselves until things again become normal. The ac- 
ceptance by Mr. Garrison, formerly secretary of war, of 
the Brooklyn receivership has installed confidence that 
the interests of the company will be well cared for, and 
the treatment of the traction crisis in the press is gen- 
erally sympathetic. This is considered indicative that 
the city may be brought to consider some service-at- 
cost or other plan under which the subway extensions 
may be completed as proposed and the integrity of the 
traction properties may be preserved. 

The obvious immediate step to be taken is an advance 
in fare. It is a notable fact that although New York 
provides the most expensive electric railway construc- 
tion per mile of track of any city in the country and 
probably the longest ride for a single fare, it is among 
the very few cities left which have not permitted an 
increase in the fare from that which existed before the 
war. The admission of Comptroller Craig that under 
municipal ownership fares would have to be raised 
shows the justice of the demand that they be increased 
now. The whole theory of the modern public service 
corporation is that it is entitled to a reasonable return. 
New York City ought not to run the risk of such 
obloquy as will surely always attach to it if it deliber- 
ately witholds a living fare from properties which up 
to the outbreak of the war were prosperous and paying 
dividends. It is running such a risk by employing the 
tactics which have brought the local railways to their 
present pass. 



"Hooverize" Time by Cutting 
Out Unnecessary Delays 

IN A Middle Western city recently an electric railway 
company found it necessary to indicate the new stop- 
ping places under a skip-stop system by suspending the 
signs from the overhead wires. These signs were placed 
at locations exactly over the spot where persons were 
expected to board the cars. The resulting time saving 
from having the people wait at the proper distance from 
the street intersection was quite noticeable and had an 
appreciable effect on the scheduled movement of the cars. 
The change was especially worthy of comment because 
the same company previously had marked stopping places 
by signs on the nearest trolley poles, even though these 
supports happened to be 50 or more feet from the spot 
where persons were expected to board the cars. 

We do not refer to this experience with the idea of 
recommending that all companies should change the lo- 
cation of stop signs, regardless of expense, where they 
do not happen to conform to this plan. We believe, how- 
ever, that the incident is worthy of mention as showing 
how improved operation may result from a discovery 
brought about by the adoption of the skip-stop system. 

The "man on the street" has no idea of the value of 
minutes, still less of seconds, as connected with railway 
operation. He is peeved perhaps when a car passes him 
by and causes a wait of two minutes or so for another. 
In fact, those two minutes are likely to measure up as a 
much longer period in his mind. This is what Doolittle 
calls one of the psychological aspects of street railway 
service. But he rarely thinks that the railway company 
is interested in saving time. 

The thoughtful railway operator, however, has to give 
serious consideration to this factor in providing trans- 
portation, especially under crowded city conditions. That 
is why, for instance, he adopts a simple transfer system 
which eliminates, say, one punch mark even though 
a more elaborate form of transfer would safeguard the 
revenues more closely if the conductor had the time to 
punch every hole or look for every mark painstakingly. 
That is why there is a constant demand for quicker fare 
collection methods — especially now that more pennies 
are being handled. This accounts also for the continual 
effort toward the development of mechanical devices 
which will have a tendency to speed up the movement of 
the car. 

When we consider how much thought is given by some 
officials to details of this kind, we may well wonder why 
no improvement is made to correct other conditions 
which should have a very strong tendency to accelerate 
traffic movement. Take, for instance, the matter of 
clearing the right-of-way from vehicular obstructions — 
and, as a necessary corollary in crowded districts, pre- 
venting the parking of automobiles along the tracks. 
Wonderful results are said to have been secured in this 
last particular in Chicago where the downtown streets 
formerly were impassable outside of the car tracks. 
Now, during the rush hours, this nuisance is practically 
eliminated, with a resultant time saving for every car 
passing through the "loop district." 

These are only a few of the items to be considered in 
improving car service. Traffic studies made from time 
to time, such as the one reported for Dallas in our Dec. 
7 issue, call attention to many similar instances where 
transportation facilities may be bettered. It is well to 



January 11, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



83 



have such recommendations come from experts. The 
people are more likely to be impressed by such reports 
from disinterested sources. But, after all, no good can 
come of even the best traffic study unless it be followed 
by proper co-operation from the public and the local 
authorities. The trying times through which we are 
passing call for such co-operation. 



Why the Automatic Substation 
Is Coming Into Its Own 

EVERY technical development involves the balancing 
of rival financial and other considerations, true en- 
gineering being the selection of equipment and methods 
of operation which are in the long run most economical. 
This is well illustrated in the progress of electric railway 
power distribution. At first the electric power was gen- 
erated and distributed in direct-current form for this 
purpose, but the distance to which it could be trans- 
mitted at the low voltage of 500 or 600 was so small as 
greatly to hamper progress. For interurban lines and 
long city ' lines alternating-current transmission was a 
necessity. However direct current was practically the 
only kind available in the early days for use in the 
motors so that the connecting link, the rotary converter 
and therefore the rotary converter substation, had to be 
developed. This institution was accepted as a necessary 
evil, although from the operating standpoint it was a 
success practically from the start. It involved extra 
investment in equipment and expense for operating la- 
bor. Hence the number of substation units was limited 
by the cost. A balance had to be struck between savings 
produced and cost to produce them. 

The necessity for using rotary substations was a 
prime cause of the interest in the alternating-current 
motor for cars. The difficulties that had to be overcome 
in producing a satisfactory motor for this purpose were 
very great but they were overcome and a number of 
roads adopted these motors. Here again was the bal- 
ancing of costs, that of the rotary converter substation 
against the higher cost of rolling stock. In general the 
rotary "won out." But while all of this progress was 
going on labor and equipment costs were mounting. The 
economic limit set to the number of substations pos- 
sible on many lines was too low. At this point the auto- 
matic control came in to permit the number of stations 
to be increased without increase in labor cost. Here 
again the economic balance is being redetermined — with 
the labor factor largely eliminated. 

In last week's issue of this paper a list of practically 
all of the automatic substations installed or ordered to 
date was given. By means of this it is possible to trace 
the story from 1915 to date, the short period covered by 
the actual operation of railway substations of this type. 
A considerable number of equipments are still to be 
delivered, so that it will be possible to keep track of 
progress for some time to come with the aid of the 
table. The Des Moines City Railway and the Inter- 
Urban Railway of the same city are the largest users of 
this type of substation to date. Next comes the Chicago, 
North Shore & Milwaukee Railroad, the equipment of 
which form the basis of an article by Charles H. Jones 
in this week's issue of this paper. Mr. Jones shows in 
a very convincing way just how and why the automatic 
control fits in with the equipment of this very important 
heavy interurban line. 



Putting "Square Pegs" in Square Holes, 
i.e., Selecting Employees Scientifically 

EMPLOYERS of labor have not harassed their gray 
matter very much during the last couple of years 
about the best manner of selecting employees. The 
obtaining of help of any kind has been a prime cause 
for worry, and the finding of a man best fitted for a 
certain kind of work has not usually been within the 
realm of practical possibilities. The signing of the 
armistice has wrought some kaleidoscopic changes, how- 
ever. War industry workers are scurrying to the cover 
of more stable if less profitable employment, and peace 
renders our vast army of fighters a potential host of 
employment seekers. Because of the inherent stability 
and attractiveness of the work it seems likely that public 
utility service will attract many of those who are now 
or soon will be seeking employment. From the stand- 
points both of efficiency of work performed and of 
loyalty to employees the question, "How shall I select 
my employees?" is a vital one to railway executives to- 
day. 

In the two or three years preceding the era of labor 
scarcity from which we are just emerging, considerable 
progress had been made in the methods of hiring em- 
ployees by a number of companies. The old haphazard 
methods were being replaced by those which brought out 
to some extent the pertinent fact of whether the man 
was suited for the work in hand. Fitting the man to 
the job, or the job to the man as the case may be, getting 
the "square pegs" out of the round holes and into the 
ones in which they do fit, is scientific selection of labor 
and yields worth-while results to both employer and 
employee. The war has given an extraordinary impetus 
to the development of special tests and methods of de- 
termining a man's ability to achieve results along a 
given line. This is the work of trained practical psy- 
chologists, and since our entry into the war the govern- 
ment has had many such experts developing tests and 
methods of selecting men suited to the innumerable jobs 
that exist within the confines of a modern military 
organization. Over one-third of the enlisted personnel 
of the army has been given these tests. They have been 
used as the basis of selection of men for positions rang- 
ing from field officers to cooks and from air pilots to 
sappers. 

Obviously no one universal test can be employed. A 
given employment requires a test which will bring out 
the prospective employee's ability to achieve results in 
that particular employment. At first glance many of 
the tests used seem foolish, but one is prone to change 
his opinions about the matter after taking one of them 
himself even if it is only one of those devised for the 
most ignorant and illiterate of the various classes of 
recruits who so recently were pouring into our canton- 
ments. Of course such tests should be wisely employed 
and their results should not be regarded as all conclu- 
sive. They should not be seized upon as the grand 
panacea for all the ills that beset the employment office. 
The results of the War Department's experience have not 
yet found their way into print, but the growing use of 
the tests gives some indication of the regard in which 
they are held and points to their probable value to all 
employers of labor. At any rate they should be of as- 
sistance on electric railways in sifting out worthless 
applicants for positions. 



84 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol 53, No. 2 




Three New Substations in Operation and a Fourth Under Construction 
Save 177 Miles of 500,000-Circ.Mil Cable Worth $650,000 



Acting Electr 



By CHARLES H. JONES 

Engineer, Chicago, North Shore & Milwaukee 



Highwood, 111. 



THE Chicago, North Shore & Milwaukee Railroad 
is a high-speed interurban line running between 
Milwaukee, Wis., and Evanston, 111., a suburb 
of Chicago, where it connects with the North- 
western Elevated Railroad, one of the elevated lines 
entering the city. The interurban road is double track 
throughout practically its entire length, and among the 
places of interest located along the line are the largest 
naval training station in the United States, situated at 
Great Lakes, 111., and an army post at Fort Sheridan, 
111. An outline map of the road is given in Fig. 1. 

The rolling stock consists of 106 passenger cars, of 
which thirty are 45-ton steel interurban cars equipped 
with four 140-hp. motors each, and forty are 38-ton 
wood interurban cars equipped with four 75-hp. motors 
each. There are also ten express cars, four locomotives 
and 150 freight cars, together with the usual comple- 
ment of line cars, work cars, plows, sweepers, etc. 

An hourly high-speed limited service is given between 
Evanston and Milwaukee, a distance of 73 miles, and 
half-hourly service on Saturday afternoon, Sunday and 
holidays. The schedule speed throughout the run is 
37 m.p.h. For 21 miles on the southern end of the 
system the line runs through towns requiring many 
stops and slow-downs so that on the balance of the run 
it is necessary to maintain a speed of 60 m.p.h. for a 
large part of the distance. For this service steel trains 



of two, three and four cars are used. A half -hourly ex- 
press service is maintained between Evanston and 
Waukegan, a half-hourly local service between the same 
points and a two-hourly local service between Evanston 
and Milwaukee. On Saturday, Sunday and holidays, 
and on Wednesday, which has been visitors' day at the 
Naval Training Station when a public review has been 
held with an attendance as large as 30,000, service has 
been added between Evanston and the Naval Training 
Station so that an average interval of seven minutes 
for three-car trains has been maintained. In order to 
accomplish this it was necessary to rent considerable 
equipment. 

In addition to the above passenger service an exten- 
sive merchandise dispatch service is maintained on the 
entire line, and over a portion of the line a great deal 
of carload freight is handled. This consists mostly of 
coal, gravel and crushed stone. 

As an indication of the rate at which traffic has in- 
creased during the past few years, the car-miles run 
per annum are given as follows : 1915, 2,833,221 ; 1916, 
3,292,559; 1917, 4,742,293; 1918, 6,023,582. 

Power is purchased from the Public Service Com- 
pany of Northern Illinois at Waukegan or Evanston, as 
the supply company sees fit, and from the Milwaukee 
Electric Railway & Light Company at Milwaukee. The 
current is furnished at 25 cycles, 13,200 volts, and is 



January 11, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



85 



distributed over the trans- 
mission lines of the rail- 
way company to the vari- 
ous substations on the line, 
the transmission voltage 
between Evanston and 
North Chicago being 13,- 
200 and that between 
North Chicago and Mil- 
waukee, 33,000. Step -up 
transformers are provided 
at the North Chicago and 
the Milwaukee substations, 
there being 3000 kw. of 
transformer capacity a t 
Milwaukee and 1500 kw. at 
North Chicago. The power 
system as originally laid 
out consisted of substations 
at Milwaukee, Carrollville, 
Racine, McKeown Road, 
North Chicago, Highwood, 
Winnetka and Libertyville. 
From time to time, as the 
service was increased, 
feeder cable was added 
until the feeder system 
had reached the extent in- 
dicated in Fig. 2. With 
the addition of steel cars 
to the rolling stock in 191fi 
and 1917, the power system 
became inadequate. This 
condition was greatly ex- 
aggerated when the United 
States entered the war, at 
which time extensive plans 
were made to enlarge the 
Naval Training Station 
and the army post, both of 
these projects causing a 
great increase in travel along the line. A very close 
study of various methods available for enlarging the 
power system, among those considered being the addi- 
tion of feeder copper, the changing of the trolley volt- 
from 600 volts to 1200 and the addition of new 




FIG. 1— OUTLINE MAP OF 
C, N. S. & M. R. R. 



5s 1 





S 


S 


- 1* — 






1=1=1=1 


jj 




-*l — 


\ / 




fit 




Si — 






w 


1 ll 


- 












1 












































































— t=J — 
















— 1 1 — 


' r 





FIG. 2 — ABOVE, CHART OF CALCULATED VOLTAGE ALONG 
LINE WITH 1500-AMP. CONCENTRATED LOAD; BELOW, 
POSITIVE FEEDER CAPACITY DIAGRAM 

In upper figure, bottom border of shaded area shows voltage 
before new substations were added. Average voltage Linden 
Avenue to Carrollville, 421. Top border shows voltage with new 
substations added. Average voltage Linden Avenue to Carroll- 
ville, 510. Dotted line shows voltage with enough cable 
added to produce the lowest voltage obtained between substations 
in the various zones. Average voltage Linden Avenue to Carroll- 
ville, 498. 

In lower figure, solid line shows amount of copper in positive 
circuit at present. Dotted line shows amount of copper required 
in the positive circuit to give line voltage shown dotted in the 
voltage chart above. Additional copper amounts to 177 miles of 
500, 000-circ.mil cable. Negative circuit consists of four 65-lb. 
rails Linden Avenue to North Chicago Junction ; four 80-lb. rails 
North Chicago Junction to Carrollville, and four 80-lb. rails Car- 
rollville to Milwaukee except for 3 \ miles of single track. 

A graphic representation of the results which would 
have been obtained by adding feeder copper or by add- 
ing new substations is shown in Fig. 2. The calcula- 
tions were based on the assumption of a concentrated 
load of 1500 amp. traveling through the section. The 
resultant voltage which would be obtained at every mile 
point on the line was calculated and the drop to that 
point was plotted. It is evident from this drawing that 
an average of 421 volts existed throughout the system 
before the substations were added. With the substa- 
tions put in as shown the average voltage was raised to 
510. In order to determine what amount of copper 
would have to be added to the present system in order 
to produce the same low voltage point between substa- 
tions as would exist under the new substation plan, the 
drop to the center point was assumed and the calcula- 
tions were worked backward. The voltage drop at each 
mile point was then refigured and the resultant graph 
was drawn. This gave an average voltage throughout 




FIGS. 3 AND 4 — ELEVATION AN 



|< - - 77-6- 

D FLOOR PLAN OF SUBSTATION 



86 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 2 



the system of 498, and ap- 
proximately 177 miles of 500,- 
000-circ.mil cable would have 
been necessary. As this would 
cost approximately $650,000, 
while it was estimated that the 
additional substations could 
probably be installed for $150,- 
000, assuming that new equip- 
ment was used in each of these 
added stations, it is quite ap- 
parent that the power system 
could not be built up economi- 
cally by adding feeder copper. 
There were many complications 
to be considered in a proposed 
change in trolley voltage, due 
to the fact that in many places 
the line was operated through 
towns where it was not con- 
sidered safe to use the higher 
voltage on the trolley. There- 
fore the control equipment 
would have had to be provided 
to take care of two line volt- 
ages. Furthermore, there 
were a great many old - type 
600-volt motors in use which 
would have had to be discarded 
if the trolley voltage was 



THERMOSTAT 




^Mounting Bolts 
= Terminals 



30 3ZM*»«)«*H6 4650KS456 5e6C6!W-666870 7Z 7476TB80K8486aS»32949696»0 «K OH06IMII0IEMI16I18 

I; p =Terminal Boards> Q = Switchboard Studs r — \ = Mounting Brack&ts 
F= Fuses Res.= Resistors — for Panels 



No. To Switchboard 
7 



1 1 Resistance grid thermostat. 

12 Positive bus 

13 Circuit breaker interlock... 

1 4 Resistance grid thermostat 

1 5 No voltage release — C.B . . . 

1 6 Circuit breaker interlock . . . 

17 Fuse and No. 20 

1 8 Contacts.series relay No. 23. 
20 Fuse and No. 17 

23 Contact on relay No. 26 

24 D.C. wattmeter 

25 All coils on relay No. 26. .. . 

26 Contact on relay No. 26 

27 Coil on relay No. 26 

28 Coil on relay No. 26 

29 3-pole switch bus O No. 2. . 

30 3-pole switch bus X No. 1 . 

32 Three-pole switch No. 2 

33 Three-pole switch No. 3 

34 Rev. current relay No. 29 

35 Underload relay No. 37 ... . 

36 Three-pole switch No. 3. . . . 

37 Underload relay No. 37 

38 Underload relay No. 37. . . . 

40 Reverse current relay No. 29 

41 Machine positive 

43 Rev. current relay No. 29 

44 Underload relay No- 37 

45 Relay No. 24 

46 Reverse current relay No. 29 

47 Resistance for relay No. 24. 

48 Relay No. 24 

49 Relay No. 32 

50 Relay No. 32 

51 Contactor No. 6 

52 Relay No. 32 

53 Contactor No. 6 

54 Ex. field contactor No. 31 

55 Relay No. 25 

56 Contactor No. 20 

57 Shunt field bus 

58 Relay No. 25 

59 Contactor No. 6 

60 Resistance for relay No. 36. 



TERMINAL BO 
To Apparatus To Apparatus 

Over speed limit Ground 

Series held shunt coil. No. 1 2 controller 
Under speed limit de- 
vice No. 20 controller 

North bearing thermo- 
stat South bearing ther- 
mostat 

North bearing thermo- 
stat 

No. 11 1 

No. 26 

No. 69 

Over speed limit No. 12 

No. 85 

No. 50 

Ground 

One-third tap on con- 
tactor No. 10 

No. 67 

Ground 

Each low tension cur- 
rent transformer. .. . Three wires — ground 

No. 13 

No. 116 

No. 58 

Control transformer 

Control transformer 

No. 104 

No. 47 

Controller No. 7 

No. 89 

No. 106 

Auxiliary contact, oil 

switch 

No. 90 

No. 77 

No. 60 and No. 114(21 Rheostat No. 1 

Exciter negative Controller 21 (1 wire) 

No. 64 

Ground 

No. 54 

No. 33 

North low-tension cur- 
rent transformer 

Controller No. 2 

No. 17 

Controller Nos. 16, 17, 



18. 



Top contact No. ^in- 
terlock 

Controller No. 10 

No. 46 

South low tension cur- 
rent transformer . . . 

Controller No. 11 

Rotarv shunt field.. . . 

No. 28 

Controller motor 

No. 41 



\RD DETAILS 
No. To Switchboard 

61 Relay No. 36 

62 Shunt field bus 

63 Contactor No. 18 



64 Relay No. 36. 



To Apparatus 



67 Relay No. 27 

69 Relay No. 27 

70 Top contact 31 interlock.. 

71 

73 Top contact No. 5 interlock 

74 Relay No. 30 

75 B't'm contact 14 interlock 

76 B't'm contact 5 interlock . . 

77 B't'm contact 5 interlock. . 

78 Top contact No. 5 interlock 

79 Top contact No. 14 interlock 

80 Relay No. 30 

81 Exciter field bus 



To Apparatus 

Ground 

Rotary shunt field 

Lower contact No. 16 

interlock 

No. 44 and controller 

No. 8 

Rotary shunt field 

Exciter po?., controller 

No. 22 

No. 23 

No. 14 

Controller No. 4 

Controller No. 5 Interlock No. 10 

Controller No. 23... . No. 94 

Ground 

Ground 

Controller No. 15 

No. 40 

Controller No. 19 

Controller No. 3 

Bottom contact No. 16- 

interlock 

Rotary shunt field No. 



Contactor No. 5 

Coil of contactor No. 4. . . 

Exciter field bus 

Voltmeter No. 1 

Exciter field bus 

Resist, for voltmeter No. 

Voltmeter No. 1 

Coil of contactor No. 4. . . 



Exciter field bus 

Contactor No. 4 

Contactor No. 4, bus X . 



Relay No. 28 

Relay No. 28 

A. C. bus circuit breaker.. 



98 Relay No. 28 . 



1 00 A.C. bus circuit breaker. . , 

1 1 Reactive volt ampere ind. . 
1 04 A.C. bus circuit breaker. . 

1 06 Reactive volt ampere ind. 



1 4 Voltmeter receptacle 

15 D.C. voltmeter 

1 6 Reactive volt ampere ind. . 



Controller No. 1 • Oil sw. closing coil 1 

No. 16 

Rotary field No. 3 

Ground 

Rotarv field No. 2 

No. 35 

No. 38 

South bearing thermo- 
stat Oil switch No. 4 

Field rheostat No. 2 

Controller No. 13 

No. 73, controller 23. Controller motor, O. 

S. No. 3 

South high tension cur- 
rent transformer 

North high tension 

current transformer 

No. 1 trip coil oil 

switch E 

Oil switch trip coil, 
high tension current 
transformer Ground 

Oil switch opening coil Controller No. 24 

Od switch trip coil No. 

NoVii.' .' '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.I 

No. 36 No. I lead power 

transformer 

No. 12 

No. 3 lead power 

transformer 

No. 41 > 

Ground 

No. 27 

O.S. auxiliary contact Controller 14 under- 
speed device 13 



January 11, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



87 



changed. Therefore, the only plan that appeared feasible 
was to add new substations, and this was adopted. A 
careful study was next made of installations of auto- 
matically-operated substations, with the result that two 
equipments were ordered. The rotary converters for 
use in these two stations were obtained by installing a 
1000-kw. rotary in Winnetka substation, thereby releas- 
ing two 500-kw. machines. Two more equipments have 
since been installed and a fifth is on order. Some de- 
tails of the construction follow. 

The substation buildings are one story in height with- 
out basement, and have shallow machine pits, the floor 
being raised about 2 ft. above the surrounding ground 
level to prevent water accumulations in the pit. The 



foundations are of concrete and extend to a point about 
6 in. above the floor level, the walls from this level up 
being built of brick. Pressed brick is used on the out- 
side and common brick on the inside. The roof, which 
is of 3-in. reinforced concrete, is supported by heavy 
steel beams, one steel column being located approxi- 
mately in the center of the building. The floor is of 
concrete, 6 in. thick, laid on a cinder foundation. Light 
is admitted through wire-glass windows set in steel 
frames just below the ceiling level on three sides, and a 
pair of double doors are located on the track side of 
the building for use in bringing in the equipment. In 
one of these doors is set a small door for general use. 
Ventilation is provided by louvers on all sides just above 



1 * 

3 




1» 














f7 IF \ J . p 













APPARATUS IN A CHICAGO, NORTH SHORE & MILWAUKEE AUTOMATIC SUBSTATION 
No. 1 — Lightning arresters. No. 2 — Switchboard with resistors above. No. 3 — Transformers and resistance coils. 

No. 4 — Oil switch with operating mechanism, and current transformers. 



88 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 2 



the floor level and Burt ventilators in the roof. Two 
ventilators are used in the 500-kw. stations and three 
in the 1000-kw. stations. The high-tension line en- 
trance is made through the roof, with 45,000-volt en- 
trance bushings. Figs. 3 and 4 show an elevation and 
floor plan of the stations giving the general arrange- 
ment of the equipment, while the head piece of this 
article furnishes a good idea of the external appearance 
of a typical station. 

All high-tension work is made of s-in. copper tubing 
mounted on pipe racks suspended from the ceiling. Oil 



All control wiring is installed in iron conduit buried 
in the concrete floor, and the switchboard is mounted 
in one corner of the building about 6 ft. from the 
wall. Ample working space is thus provided behind 
the board. A trench is located in the floor at the rear 
of the switchboard and in this all control conduits 
terminate, short pieces of conduit extending through the 
floor into this trench from the terminal strip located 
at the bottom of the switchboard. The trench is pro- 
vided with a slate cover. 

The controller is mounted on an angle-iron table 




FIG. 6— SAMPLE SUBSTATION VOLTMETER 
RECORD CHART 



PIG. 7 — RECORD, ON SMOKED PAPER, FROM 
RECORDING AMMETER 



switch, control transformer, current transformers and 
potential transformers are elevated above the floor on 
pipe racks, the lowest point to which high-tension bus 
or exposed connections are brought being 9 ft. 6 in. 
above the floor, so that it is impossible for anyone to 
come in contact with them without deliberately planning 
to do so. The arrangement of all apparatus is such 
that it is not necessary to reach across any "high 
tension" to work upon disconnecting switches or fuses. 
A 33,000-volt outdoor-type lightning arrester is in- 
stalled within the building, wire guards being placed 
on the front of it to prevent anyone from accidentally 
coming in contact with the tanks. 

The oil-switch operating mechanism is mounted on a 
pipe rack about 2 ft. above the floor and a direct connec- 
tion is made between the operating mechanism and the 
shaft, instead of the usual connection on the side. This 
makes possible a better arrangement between the switch 
and the mechanism. 

Low-tension connections between the transformer 
and the alternating current side of the rotary are 
made with rubber-insulated, lead-covered copper cable 
mounted on a pipe framework set up in front of the 
transformers. The starting and running contactors 
are mounted in front of the middle transformer and 
directly over the external reactance. An air duct is 
provided from one of the intake ventilators to the 
rotary converter pit to furnish cool air to the rotary 
during hot weather. 



about 2i ft. above the floor, thereby providing easy 
access to it. Wires from the controller are carried in a 
3-in. iron conduit which extends from the wire trench 
to one leg of the table, then up the leg and along under- 
neath the controller with three 14-in. short nipples 
welded in the horizontal run so as to bring the wires 
out at their proper place. 

The current-limiting resistors are mounted on chan- 
nel iron racks supported at one end by the building wall 
and resting on the switchboard stanchions at the other 
end, with the shunting contactors suspended from the 
bottom of the resistance grid supports. These sup- 
porting irons are mounted at such a height as to give 
at least 6 ft. clearance from the bottom of the con- 
tactor to the floor level. All connections between re- 
sistance boxes, contactors and circuit-breaker studs on 
the board are made with bar copper. 

Switchboard Wiring Greatly Simplified 

The switchboards themselves were wired on the job. 
Additional panels were provided above the regular in- 
strument and equipment panels and on the back of these 
all instrument and apparatus resistors were mounted. 
At the bottom of the board is a slate strip on which 
terminals are provided, all control wiring being run 
direct from the apparatus through the conduit in the 
floor to these terminal strips, and all connections from 
the instruments and apparatus on the panels being run 
down to this same terminal strip. This arrangement, 



January 11, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



89 



and the mounting of the resistors at the top of the 
board, make it possible to install very straight and 
direct switchboard wiring, eliminating practically all 
wiring crosses on the back of the board. Fig. 5 (page 
85) shows the wiring layout on the back of the board, 
together with the terminal strip, and the table accom- 
panying the drawing shows where each of the wires 
leads from the terminal post. 

A system of ground cables was laid in the concrete 
floor. This was connected to a ground cone and the 
track rail, and all pieces of apparatus were connected 
to this system. All grounding connections were made by 
welding with an acetylene torch. All through the station 
a great deal of work was done with these welding and 
cutting torches, as in making up the control transformer 
and controller stands and many special pipe fittings. 

The buildings are of sufficient size to accommodate 
a machine of larger capacity, and if it should ever be- 
come necessary to provide a two-machine station, the 
extension for the second machine would be made at the 
side toward the controller so that the switchboards 
would join. 

Each of these stations is tapped off from the high- 
tension line. Therefore, in order to make each one 
as flexible as possible, pole disconnecting switches are 
provided on both sides of each station so that it is 
possible to work on the high-tension line on either side 
of the station and still keep the station running. On 
the last station built, two steel towers were used in 



First a recording voltmeter, with stops arranged to 
limit the range of motion of the pen, is used to indi- 
cate when the station is running and when it is shut 
down. This gives a record of the length of time the 
station is running, indicates false starts and also serves 
to indicate failures of any pieces of the apparatus. A 
sample chart is shown in Fig. 6. 

Second, a recording ammeter is used to give a record 
similar to that obtained with the voltmeter. It also 
shows the load which the station carries while it is on 
the line and gives more information about equipment 
failures than the voltmeter. A sample chart from this 
instrument is given in Fig. 7. 

Third, as a further check on operation, mechanical 
counters are being installed on the following appara- 
tus: Controller, main contactor, shunting contactor, 
thermostats and no-voltage relays. By means of these 
it is possible to determine the number of times these 
pieces of apparatus operate. By following the regis- 
tration of these counters from day to day, any failures 
of apparatus can be observed. A daily inspection of 
stations is made at which time the charts are changed, 
counters and meters are read, apparatus is inspected 
and cleaning done. This, however, is not sufficient and 
a record of what takes place when nobody is in the sta- 
tion is very desirable. 

The first of these stations was put into service as 
an "automatic" in December, 1917, and went through 
the following severe winter with very gratifying re- 






DETAILS OP THE SUBSTATION EQUIPMENT, SUPPLEMENTING THOSE SHOWN ON PAGE 87 
No. 5 — Control Transformer. No. 6 — High-tension Connections on Roof. No. 7 — Main Controller. 
No. 8 — View Behind Switchboard, Resistors above with Shunting Contactors Beneath Them 



place of the wooden poles, with very pleasing results, 
the operating rod for the switch being extended down 
inside the station walls. 

For the purpose of checking operation considerable 
experimental work has been done in order to obtain a 
record from which some information will be available 
daily as to determine what is occurring in the stations. 
A summary of some of the plans tried follows, 
and, while no one of them gives all the information 
desired, each has some merits. Further experiments 
are being conducted along these lines. 



suits. This station carries an extremely steady load and 
runs continuously about eighteen hours per day. The 
second station was put into service in the early part of 
April, 1918. It operates practically 50 per cent of the 
time during eighteen hours of the day. The third sta- 
tion was put into service in the early part of Novem- 
ber, 1918, and runs about 50 per cent of the time, but 
it does considerable more starting and stopping than 
either of the other two stations. The fourth station is 
now under construction and will be put into service dur- 
ing the early winter. This is a 1000-kw. station. It 



90 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 2 



will carry a heavy load for about twenty hours per day 
with very little starting up and shutting down. 

The construction work on these stations was carried 
out by Caesor Antonio, construction foreman, under the 
supervision of the writer. 

Rehabilitating the Disabled 
French Soldier 

The Author Tells How Steps Are Being Taken to 
Utilize Disabled Soldiers in the Electric 
Railway and Other Industries 

By Lucien A. H. Pahin 

Pontoise, France 

THE French law of April 17, 1916, provided under 
special conditions for the employment of soldiers 
and sailors invalided home, or retired on account of 
infirmities resulting from wounds received or diseases 
contracted at the front in the course of actual warfare. 
One article of this law provides that certain public 
departments, as well as industrial or commercial enter- 
prises which enjoy concessions, monopolies, or state, 
departmental or communal subsidies, must furnish lists 
of occupations and indicate the conditions under which 
employment may be secured by returned soldiers and 



following: (1) The category into which each occupa- 
tion falls in accordance with a classification under four 
heads established by a law of Aug. 26, 1905. (2) For 
the various parts of the body, those which when affected 
by wounds will not necessarily interfere with employ- 
ment in the occupation in question. (3) The conditions 
which the applicants must fulfill in order to be em- 
ployed in the several lines of work. (4) The ratio of 
the number of disabled soldiers and sailors to the total 
which the employer considers preferable. (5) The 
probable annual number of vacancies for disabled men. 
(6) The wages or salaries to be paid, and the rights 
of the employees with respect to pensions. 

It is understood that former employees who have 
been injured but are available for re-employment will 
be reinstated without delay by their former employers 
either in the lines of work previously occupied or in 
different work. 

To illustrate the kind of report which is prepared 
the accompanying list from the Arpajon railway is 
reproduced. Those of the other railways are similar in 
general, varying only in accordance with local condi- 
tions. 

Of course in regard to all parts of the body there are 
certain tasks which impose restrictions not indicated 



TABLE OF OCCUPATIONS FOK DISABLED SOLDIERS AND SAILORS 



< 'lussiiication 

Number Occupations 
2 Accountants, draftsmen. 



Copyists, clerks, warehouse- 
men, storekeepers, etc 



Inspectors 

Conductors 

Doorkeepers, night watchmen 

General workmen 



Locomotive drivers. 

Chauffeurs 

Motormen 



Parts of Body Which 
May Be Wounded 

Without Disqualifying 
the Worker 

Skull, face, eyes, ears, 
neck, chest, genital 
organs, back, pelvis, 
thigh, leg, foot. ..... 

Skull, face, eyes, ears, 
neck, chest, genital 
organs, back, pelvis, 
thigh, leg, foot 

Skull, chest, genital 
organs, arms, thigh, 
leg, foot 

Same except omit skull 

Skull, face, chest, 
genital organs, thigh, 
leg, foot 

Skull, face, chest, geni- 
tal organs, thigh, leg, 
foot 

Face, genital organs. . . 
Face, genital organs . . . 
Face, chest, genital 
organs, thigh, leg, 

Skull, face, eyes, neck, 
chest, abdomen, gen- 
ital organs 



Special Conditions of 
Employment, 
Examinations, Etc. 



Written and oral examinations. 



Written and oral examinations . 



Written and oral examinations . . . 
Must be able to read, write and 
calculate 



Probable 
Proportion of Number of 
Rehabilitated Men Annual 



Written and oral 6 



Must be able to read, write and 

calculate _ 

Same plus professional kiiowlwltrr 
Same plus professional knowledge 



Same plus professional knowledge 
Same plus professional knowledge 



50 per cent 

1 5 per cent 
1 5 per cent 



10 per cent 
1 5 per cent 
15 per cent 



1 5 per cent 
1 per cent 



Rare 
Rare 



5 fr. per day 

5.5fr. 
5 fr. 



2 5fr. 
Rare 5.5fr. 
Rare 5.5fr. 



sailors, and must give their order of preference in these 
lists. They must also include the proportion of such 
openings with respect to their total staffs which have 
not been "reserved" in accordance with previous mili- 
tary laws. 

In applying the provisions of the above law four 
electric railways in and about Paris have established 
lists of the occupations which will be available for the 
disabled soldiers and sailors, and the President of the 
Republic has approved the plan of the companies by a 
decree under date of May 13, 1918. The railways re- 
ferred to are the one connecting Paris and Arpajon, 
the north-south subway line in Paris, the Bois de 
Boulogne railway and the tramway line on the left bank 
of the Seine in Paris. 

Each list indicates in regard to each employee the 



in the table. For example, for the hands, arms and 
feet the infirmity can involve only a certain amount of 
functional disability. Again in most of the cases it 
is necessary that the employee be able to talk. 

The Paris lines have been cited as examples, but 
similar provision has already been made or will ulti- 
mately be made in the case of many other railway lines. 
The tables which they have prepared do not differ essen- 
tially from those prepared earlier. The law of April 17, 
1916, provided that in future no industrial or commer- 
cial enterprise may obtain a concession or monopoly, 
or state, departmental or communal subsidy, except on 
the condition of reserving for the military purposes 
mentioned a certain number of positions, and they will 
be expected particularly to consider the cases of fathers 
of large families. 



January 11, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



91 



Canadian Lines Near Breaking Point 

Despite Higher Costs of Operation, Municipal Authorities Demand Old Fares and More Service — 
Municipally Owned Lines Are Losing Money — Service-at-Cost Plan, as Adopted 
in Massachusetts, Is Being Sought by Ontario Investors 

By ERNEST P. FREDERICKS 

Publicity Director Association of Holders of Public Utility Securities, Toronto, Ont. 



ELECTRIC railway history is repeating itself in 
Canada, where the cost of operation is more than 
it is in the United States and where most of the 
lines are getting less than a 5-cent fare. The inevit- 
able has happened, and it is hardly surprising that 
practically every railway in the Dominion is in financial 
difficulties. This does not except those that are mu- 
nicipally owned. 

For some time prior to the war there were evidences 
that the tramways of Canada were destined to suffer 
from the same conditions that have since become coun- 
try-wide in their influence. Rising costs in every de- 
partment of operation, scarcity of labor and a pro- 
nounced political antagonism have rendered the position 
of the tramways in Canada well-nigh intolerable. What 
aggravates the situation is that there is very little ap- 
parent inclination on the part of municipal authorities 
to meet the issue half-way. 

In most cases the tramways have contracts in the 
respective cities running anywhere from twenty-five to 
thirty years. In a number of instances these contracts 
provide that when the agreement expires the city can 
take over the roads, as has already been done in a num- 
ber of the smaller communities. To appreciate fully the 
trend of conditions, one must realize that Canada is the 
hotbed of municipal ownership. Yet, on the record of 
past performances, one is justified in wondering why 
this feeling is so intense or why municipalization is re- 
garded as the panacea for all tramway ills. Certain it 
is that public ownership of tramways in Canada has 
anything but a clean slate. 

Municipal Operation Shows Deficits 

In Port Arthur and Fort William, the publicly-owned 
tramways are losing about $100,000 a year; this, too, 
despite the fact that fares are double what they were 
when the war started. The London & Port Stanley 
Railway, a municipal enterprise, through favorable ac- 
tion on one application has had an increase in fares 
allowed and is now asking for another. 

The Toronto Civic Railway, which has been operated 
by the city for the last four years, will show a deficit 
this year of about $200,000. For the four years it will 
show an aggregate loss of $687,000. 

In Saskatoon, St. Thomas and Edmonton the mu- 
nicipal tramways are working on the wrong side of the 
ledger and have been for some time. 

The Brantford Municipal Railway was compelled to 
readjust its rates this summer in order to overcome a 
$12,000 deficit. 

Calgary has been in a bad way and even after being 
bolstered up is barely breaking even on its municipal 
tramways. A year ago the Calgary Municipal Railway 



showed a deficit of more than $19,000; this year, up to 
the end of August, there was a surplus of a little more 
than $7000, but owing to a 4 per cent tax which was 
placed on the railway in June by the City Council this 
surplus will be eaten up. 

The Regina Municipal Railway for the nine months 
ended Sept. 30 showed a deficit of more than $40,000, 
and it is believed that this will be increased to $50,000 
by the first of the year. 

All things considered, public ownership has not 
proved the ideal arrangement that its advocates would 
have us believe. 

Obstructions Offered to Higher Fares 

In the few cases where increased fares have been 
allowed in Canada the companies have found it almost 
impossible to put the new schedules into effect because 
of injunctions and other court proceedings prompted 
from a variety of sources. The case of the British 
Columbia Electric Railway is a striking example of 
how some of the rate situations have been handled. In 
this case, the Vancouver City Council granted the com- 
pany the right to charge a 6-cent fare. As a result of 
this decision the company began paying increased wages 
and thereby averted a strike. Some weeks later, after 
the order had been signed by the city clerk, the Mayor 
refused to sign it. Thereupon the City Council de- 
cided that it had overstepped its powers in granting the 
increase. The question was finally put up to the people 
for a vote, and, as in the case of other referendums on 
the same question, the increase was turned down by the 
people. 

The company then issued a statement in which 
it said that there was no doubt that the City Council 
had authorized the increase and that the company 
would proceed forthwith to charge the 6-cent fare. The 
city applied for an injunction, but the court refused 
to issue one and the case has been thrown into the 
courts to be fought out at a later date. Such cases are 
not unique either in Canada or in the United States, but 
they stand out more clearly in the Dominion because 
rate increases are so seldom allowed. 

Despite the inevitable consequence of trying to pay 
yesterday's liabilities with next week's assets, the rail- 
ways are being held strictly to the fare schedules of 
twenty or more years ago. The result is that in a num- 
ber of cities as many as nine rides for a quarter are 
being sold, and 25 cents for six rides is almost every- 
where the maximum charge. The companies say they 
cannot continue under such rates, and the City Coun- 
cils, which in most cases are the clearing houses for 
tramway troubles, are almost unanimous in declaring 
that the companies must not only continue at the old 



92 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 2 



fares but must give additional service. It is evident, 
from this condition of affairs, that the breaking point 
is not far distant. 

Ontario Security Holders Organize Association 

As far as Ontario is concerned, the shareholders of 
the tramway companies have organized for the purpose 
of devising a plan of relief that will tide over the situa- 
tion. The Association of Holders of Public Utility Se- 
curities, organized along much the same lines as the 
Massachusetts association a year ago, is conducting a 
campaign of education to let the riding public know 
just what the real conditions are and to urge the adop- 
tion of the service-at-cost plan of operation for the 
Ontario roads that need relief. The plan proposed will 
be formed along the lines of the general service-at-cost 
plan adopted for Massachusetts with such changes as 
may be necessitated by the local conditions. 

Articles explaining the proposed form of relief are 
being sent to the leading papers of the Province, and 
literature giving more detailed explanation of the serv- 
ice-at-cost plan is being prepared for general distribu- 
tion. Much publicity has already been secured, and 
the plan has been very favorably received outside of 
Toronto, where the City Council candidly admits that it 
wants, and expects, service at less than cost. Perhaps 
later on, if the city takes over the railway in 1921, the 
people may be willing to contribute several hundred 
thousand dollars a year out of the city treasury to make 
up the deficit resulting from a less-than-cost service. 

In the meantime an effort is being made to put the 
electric railway business of Ontario on a business basis. 
Montreal has already done this through the service-at- 
cost plan; Winnipeg is about to launch such a plan, 
and Ottawa is looking into the merits of the zone sys- 
tem. The Ottawa Electric Railway franchise expires 
in 1923, and if the city does not acquire the property 
the franchise will automatically continue for a fur- 
ther period of five years. The company has been asked 
to make a number of extensions and improvements, but 
it is not felt that these large expenditures can be made 
in view of the uncertainty that confronts the company. 
As far as the zone system is concerned it is not gen- 
erally indorsed in Canada because experience has shown 
that where traffic is heavy the fare collection problem 
is one that makes the zone system impractical. 

Service-at-Cost Idea Gaining Favor 

In Toronto the situation is about as acute as it is 
anywhere in the Dominion. On Oct. 9 the Toronto Rail- 
way, which is the privately owned railway in the city, 
petitioned the City Board of Control for its co-opera- 
tion in obtaining a straight 5-cent fare. Without any 
investigation of the merits of the case the board de- 
cided unanimously to refuse to entertain the proposal. 
This refusal was subsequently supplemented by what 
many consider a continuous performance of persecution, 
and at the present time the city is trying to collect a 
fine of $24,000 and $1,000 a day imposed by the Board of 
Control because the company failed to increase the num- 
ber of its cars as ordered by the board. Just what the 
outcome will be no one can prophesy, but in view of the 
present unfriendly attitude of the city government the 
company can hardly look for much co-operation from 
that source. In justice to the company it should be 



said that the service in Toronto is as good as, if not 
better than, that in most cities of the same size any- 
where on the continent and much better than in a num- 
ber of cities where fares are much higher. 

In Hamilton the Radial Electric Railway secured per- 
mission to increase its rates last summer, but there was 
such unanimous opposition that the company decided 
to waive the proposed increase and announced instead 
that it would reduce the service. This also met with 
widespread opposition, and the company was ordered to 
maintain its regular schedule. Matters have been al- 
lowed to drift along from month to month without much 
sign of improvement, and the company has now an- 
nounced that one of three things must be accomplished : 
(1) an increase of fares sufficient to meet expenses of 
operation; (2) the cessation of operation entirely and 
realization on the company's physical property at the 
present high prices of material, or (3) the adoption of 
the service-at-cost plan of operation. [Since this article 
was written the Hamilton Radial Electric Railway com- 
pletely suspended service. — Eds.] 

The situation in London is also rather interesting. 
For a little over a year the London Street Railway has 
been trying to get the City Council to approve a serv- 
ice-at-cost plan of operation, but thus far efforts have 
been unavailing. Nor can the company get any other 
form of relief. The inconsistency of this position is 
attested by the fact that the London & Port Stanley 
Railway, which is a municipally controlled road, made 
a plea for relief on exactly the same grounds as the 
London Street Railway did and the municipal line was at 
once authorized to make a sufficient advance in fares 
to cover the increased costs of operation and to provide 
a sufficient surplus for taking care of its capital obliga- 
tions. It has never been clearly explained or under- 
stood why relief was granted in the case of the munici- 
pal line and denied the privately-owned company. 

The opinion generally throughout the Province of 
Ontario is that it is only a question of time when the 
tramways, municipal as well as privately owned, will 
be on a service-at-cost basis. Sir Adam Beck, one of the 
most stalwart advocates of municipalization, in pleading 
for increased fares for the London & Port Stanley Rail- 
way, is credited with saying that "all the road wanted 
was enough to cover the cost of service." This is char- 
acteristic of the position that is being taken by every- 
one in the Dominion who has investigated tramway 
conditions and who realizes that the lines cannot con- 
tinue to give adequate service if they are obliged to sell 
this service at less than its actual cost. When this self- 
evident fact becomes generally recognized, the tram- 
ways of Canada will be on the road to a solution of their 
problem, and the riding public will be more likely to 
secure the kind of service that manifestly cannot be 
given by companies constantly hovering on the verge of 
financial disaster. 

In his annual report for the year ended March 31, 
1918, C. J. Spencer, until recently manager of the Brad- 
ford Corporation Tramways, states that excellent re- 
sults have been secured with a railless trolley battery 
vehicle which has been used to carry stores required 
for car repairs, sand, etc. The cost of operating the 
vehicle is less than that of gasoline lorries engaged in 
similar work. 



January 11, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



93 



Equipment Accessories Desirable in Electric 

Arc Welding 

Proper Protection for the Operator Is Essential and 
Conveniences Added Insure Better Workmanship 



TO INSURE a high class of workmanship in arc 
welding and properly to protect the worker from 
injury, certain equipment accessories have come 
to be recognized as absolutely essential in carrying out 
electric welding. 

Face shields are of great value. The practice is to 
provide two types for protecting the eyes and skin from 
the light rays of the arc when welding. One is a shield 
so constructed that when it is held in front of the face 
by one hand, the arc. will be observed through a combi- 
nation of colored glasses located in the center. The 
shield is of such size as to cover the entire face in order 
that the skin will not be blistered by the rays from the 
arc. Fig. 1 shows a sketch of such a shield designed to 
be held in the hand. This type has been found to be 
satisfactory. Such a shield is cooler than the helmet 
type and as a rule is preferred for "down-hand" weld- 
ing, since ordinarily this class of welding does not re- 
quire a free hand to steady the body. A face shield 
should always be made of material which is a non-con- 
ductor. Where a metal shield is used, holes will acci- 
dentally be burned in it, after which it is often used to 
the detriment of the operator's eyes. Also slight shocks 
are often felt when welding with a metal face shield in 
close places, especially when the face and hands are 




FIG. 2 — HELMET TYPE OF 
FACE SHIELD 



in a standing position, a shield of the helmet type 
should be provided, in order that the operator may be 
able to use one hand to steady himself. Many different 
satisfactory designs of head helmets are on the market. 
Fig. 2 shows a face shield 
of the helmet type. A com- 
bination of glasses which 
has proved satisfactory is 
two red glasses, one green 
glass and one clear glass. 
The clear glass is used be- 
tween the colored glasses 
and the work to protect the 
former from being pitted by the flying particles of hot 
metal. It is replaced when it becomes so badly pitted 
as to interfere with the vision. All glasses should be 
of single strength thickness. 

In practice it is found that the density of the color- 
ing in the glasses does not run uniform, i. e., one red 
glass may be very dark while another may be compara- 
tively very light. The same holds true with green 
glasses. This variation can be used to advantage by 
operators as it permits them to select a set of glasses 
having coloring of such density as is best suited to their 
eyes. The requirements vary greatly among the differ- 




moist from perspiration. This tends to make an op- 
erator nervous and may result in a poor weld. 

For the more difficult operations, such as overhead 
welding, or welding which requires the operator to be 

*From 1918 report of committee of Association of Railway 
Electrical Engineers. While prepared for railway electrical en- 
gineers primarily, this report contains much information of 
value in the electric railway shop or on the track. 



94 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 2 



ent operators. Special glasses put out under various 
trade names are also satisfactory. 

Since there is a considerable amount of welding to 
be done in the shops and out in the open on parts that 
are too heavy to be transferred to a welding booth, sets 
of portable screens are provided which can be placed at 
one side or completely around the work on which the 
welding is being done, to provide protection for other 
men working in the near vicinity from the light of the 
arc. The portable screens are made of two panels hinged 
together, and usually two portable screens for each 
welder are provided. When it is desired completely to 
surround a part, two screens will be required. Fig. 3 
shows a sketch of such a screen now in use. 



Able : Where overhead crane ^emce 
js used , provide prolecfion for 
crane opera for 

^\^l_lap of 
I ! Cur fains 

*S}] Weld 



The ground wire should be permanently connected to 
the clamp, and the point on the work where the clamp 
is to be attached should be perfectly clean and bright 
so as to insure a good connection between the clamp 
and the work. 

For cleaning the dirt and oxides from surfaces on 
which welding is to take place there is nothing that will 
do the job quite as well as the sand blast. There are 
cases where the scale is so heavy and hard that the use 
of a roughing tool is required to loosen the scale, after 
which the sand blast is used to remove the small par- 
ticles untouched by the roughing tool. It is found that 
a small portable type of sand blast is best suited for this 
class of work, as it can be taken into restricted spaces, 




Curtains, 8 oz. Duck made in 
3 pieces IZ"lap af back cor 
ners and 24 r Lap af fronf. 
Pcrinf mfh No. 137 b/ack painf. 

FIG. 4. BOOTH FOR WELDING MISCELLANEOUS PARTS 



Table lo be made of sui fable Boffom 
reclaimed lumber Top of and Ends 
old boi ler plafe 



-CABLE REEL FOR PORTABLE WELDING OUTFITS 



There should always be one or more stationary weld- 
ing booths located at some convenient place in the shop, 
where all the small miscellaneous parts may be brought 
for welding. Fig. 4 shows a sketch of a booth designed 
for this purpose. The curtains are hung in such manner 
as to permit parts to be brought into the booth from 
any one of the four sides. A space between the table 
and the curtains is provided to prevent sparks from 
lodging on, and burning holes in, the latter. The booth 
may be made smaller than that shown if space is limited. 

The work on which welding is to be done forms one 
of the poles of the circuit, and it is necessary that the 
connection to the work be secure to aid the flow of the 
current. The practice in most cases has been to connect 
the ground wire to a plate, the plate then being laid on 
the work. This kind of a ground connection is very 
poor unless the plate is tack-welded to the work. 
A better method for connecting the ground wire is to 
use an extra heavy forged clamp having an opening of 
at least 4i in., and a threaded bolt that can be tightened 
down with a wrench. 



and its weight is not so great but what it can be handled 
with reasonable ease. Fig. 5 is a sketch of a small sand 
blast which has been in use for some time and has given 
good results. 

As the use of a sand blast is necessary on a large 
number of the operations, a shield to protect the eyes 
and skin from the sand is required when the blast is 
being used. The removal of the colored glasses from 
one of the face shields, the clear glass being left in 
place, permits the face shields to serve for this purpose. 

For removing dirt and oxides which are very light, 
two steel wire brushes are provided ; one is about 24 in. 
wide by approximately 6 in. long, the other is very 
narrow, approximately 1 in. wide, and 4 or 5 in. long. 
The narrow brush is used for cleaning in close places. 

A selection of carbon blocks and rods should be car- 
ried in stock for the purpose of making forms. The 
blocks are often used as a backing when closing a gap 
from one side where it is desired that the finished weld 
be flush and smooth on the opposite side from which 
the welding was done. The carbon rods are used to 



January 11, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



95 



insert in holes when it is necessary to do welding on 
parts which are drilled, without filling in the holes. 

When the welding machines are made portable, it is 
found to be good practice to mount a cable reel on the 
end of the truck on which the welding circuit cables 
are wound. The use of a cable reel will preserve the 
wire and will save considerable time in the handling of 
the cables. 

A sketch of a reel designed for this purpose is shown 
in Fig. 6. Collector rings are placed at each end to 
provide for the flow of the current between the ter- 
minals of the machine and the cable on the reel. A 
spring is placed at one end to keep the rings firmly in 
contact with each other. A reel like that shown has 
been in service for approximately two years without 
giving any trouble. 



System in the Armature Room 

An Armature Rack Conserves Space, Facilitates 
Handling and With Lathes Adjacent to Crane 
Much Labor Is Saved 

By George E. Pellissier 

Assistant Manager Holyoke (Mass.) Street Railway 

AN ACCOMPANYING illustration shows a type of 
armature rack which we have at our shop and 
which has proved of great convenience. The advantages 
of this particular method of storing armatures lie in 
the small amount of space taken and the facility with 
which each armature can be reached by chain block 
without interfering or damaging other armatures in 
the rack. To remove an armature it is rolled out to 
the end of the bracket on which it rests where the 
sling for lifting it is adjusted, and the armature can 
then be lifted out with the home-made traveling hoist 




CORNER OF SHOP USED FOR BANDING ARMATURES 
AND TURNING AND SLOTTING COMMUTATORS 

which serves the rack. After the armature is dropped 
it is picked up by the armature buggy and carried to 
the motor for installation. 

This rack will accommodate thirty-five armatures 
with one on each pair of brackets, and seventy armatures 
with two on each pair of brackets. The rack for 
storing air-compressor armatures shown at the right 
in the photograph will store twenty armatures. 

In the construction of this rack we used 3-in. x 8-in. 



wooden uprights to which the brackets were attached 
by |-in. bolts. The top pieces of the brackets were 
made of 2-in. x §-in. strap iron and the braces were 2 
in. x i in. The brackets extended out a distance of 
20 in. from the uprights and the top piece was in- 
stalled with l-in. pitch to prevent the armatures rolling 
towards the end. The ends of braces also projected 
above the top surface to act as a stop. The uprights 




ARMATURE STORAGE RACK OF THE HOLYOKE STREET 
RAILWAY 

were set out from the wall a sufficient amount to clear 
the steam pipes which may be seen in the illustration. 

By installing a machine for banding armatures and 
slotting the commutators adjacent to the lathe used for 
turning down commutators the same jib crane is used 
to serve both machines. 

One of the accompanying illustrations shows the 
arrangement, together with the banding and slotting 
machine used which was made by the American General 
Engineering Company, New York City. 



A. S. M. E. Takes Over the 
Engineering Index 

THE American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 29 
West Thirty-ninth Street, New York City, has ac- 
quired the engineering index formerly published by the 
Engineering Magazine and later by its successor, Indus- 
trial Management. The society will issue the index in 
three forms: As a part of the journal, as a separate 
monthly publication and as an annual volume. This fa- 
mous index originated with Prof. J. B. Johnson of Wash- 
ington University in 1883. For twelve years it was pre- 
pared under his direction and for the following twenty- 
•five years had the personal attention of John R. Dunlap, 
president of the Engineering Magazine Company. The 
index will be published with the following classifications : 
Mechanical engineering, thirty-one subheads; electrical 
engineering, eleven subheads; civil engineering, nine 
subheads; mining engineering, fourteen subheads; met- 
allurgy, seven subheads; aeronautics, nine subheads; 
marine engineering, four subheads; organization and 
management, thirteen subheads; industrial technology; 
railroad engineering, fifteen subheads; munition and 
military engineering; general science, three subheads. 




. 2c g 

AveraqePassenqers Corned perPassenqer Hurtml9l6"K58.964 

« » - - rai7-z;twe 

1918=2504754' 

86 




IE.000 
11,250 
10.500 
9.750 
.g 9.000 
§ 0.250 
| 7500 
!i 6.750 
fe 6.000 
c 5.250 
S 4,500 
°" 3,750 
3.000 
2,250 
1.500 
750 









r 


G6 






























A 
























































































































V- 


































V 


















N 


> 





























700- 



« 650- 
§ 600 - 
£ 550- 
£ 500 - 
1 450^ 

I 400 " 
<£ 350- 
300 - 
£50 = 
200 5 
I50 - 



7^ 



39 
37 
35 
m 33 

f 27 
c 

ui 25 
| 23 

19 
17 
15 
13 























( r 


G.6t\ 


















\ 






























t 
















- 






























\ 










V 


















\ 


















— A 




















V 


/ 




\ 

A- 


















\ 


















i 


is 



































AverageCarMilesRun perVehicle Struck in 1916=12,601 
- » - - - ' ' > 1917=19.225 
- - 1916=25X62 

6200 




i l fi 



AveraqeCarMilesperPedestrran Hurt byCar in 1916=28,535 AveroqePassgrs.CarriedperPass'ar rallinqfromCarin 1916=1386756 Average Pass'qrs Carried perPa5s'qrHurtwhileonCarinl<5l6'=L7?l,5W 

- - - - ~.Ki*>S.m " - - -1917=242.1.377 - • - •• - 1917=25393% 

• ' • • •• 1918=54,512 - • " - 1910=4.606,004 • ' • • -1918=2)17,191 

GRAPHICAL, RECORD OP SAFETY OF SKIP-STOP OPERATION IN DETROIT 



Fig:. 1 — Chart showing car-miles run per collision of cars. 

Figr. 2 — Chart showing car-miles run per derailment of cars. 

Fig. 3 — Chart showing passengers carried per passenger 
hurt in boarding and alighting. 

Fig. 4 — Chart showing passengers carried per passenger 
hurt otherwi.se than by boarding and alighting. 

Fig. 5 — Chart showing car-miles run per automobile struck. 



Fig-. 6 — Chart showing car-miles run per vehicle struck (In- 
cluding animals but excepting automobiles). 

Fig 7 — Chart showing car-miles run per pedestrian hurt. 

Fig. 8 — Chart showing passengers carried per passenger 
falling from car. . 

Fig. 9 — Chart showing passengers carried per passenger 
hurt while on car. 



January 11, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



97 



Skip Stops Spell Safety 

Records from Detroit Are Quoted to Show that the Skip Stop Means Greater Safety to the Passenger 
as Well as to the Vehicle and Pedestrian on the Street — The Data Are Shown Graphically 
and Cover Ten Months in 1916, 1917 and 1918 

By E J. BURDICK 

Assistant General Manager Detroit United Railway 



AS ALL of us know, every progressive measure ap- 
l\ pertaining to street railway operation meets 
J. \~ with opposition— sometimes with those of the 
craft, I am sorry to state; more often, because more 
naturally, the opposition comes from the public. 

Of these progressive measures probably none has 
been so bitterly attacked as skip-stop operation, and 
without sane reason, for such operation is conservation 
of great import and of the highest type. 

I feel certain now that all operating officials, and 
certainly the public where the system is effective, fully 
appreciate the conservation of time. The engineering 
staff of the National Fuel Administration has most 
thoroughly demonstrated that the system is a great 
conserver of fuel. Our own records prove conclusively 
that skip-stop operation in densely-populated communi- 
ties is a most important reducer of accidents. 

Surely, then, a measure conserving all these things I 
have mentioned is entitled to a vigorous propaganda 
until it becomes a fixed and settled institution through- 
out the country. 

From the very first study I gave to this method of 
operation I was convinced of its usefulness as a safety- 
first measure. The deeper I went into it the more this 
feature appealed to me, and the longer skip-stop opera- 
tion has been in effect upon the city service lines of the 
Detroit United Railway the greater the proof piled up. 

The figures given herein and the charts prepared 
therefrom are based upon the actual records of the com- 
pany as to car mileage, passengers carried and accident 
reports, major and minor, filed with our claims depart- 
ment. The population figures are the estimates from 
the issuers of our city directory, and the figures of 
automobile licenses issued are officially from the State 
authorities, as issued to the residents of Detroit. They 
cannot, of course, include automobiles from other com- 
munities that traverse our streets, but this has no basis 
in the comparison as the conditions thereto have been 
the same during the period under discussion- 

In 1916 Detroit did not have skip-stop operation; in 
1917 there was partial skip-stop operation, and through- 
out 1918 there has been full skip-stop operation. 

It should be borne in mind that throughout the years 
referred to there has been no difference in the other 
well-recognized measures of safety. In all three years 
there have been safety zones, near-side stops and safety- 
step cars (though these have been added to, there being 
an increase in 1917 over 1916). On the other hand, 
the class of platform men deteriorated with us as with 
others, due to war enlistments and profiteering labor 
shifts, and it is safe to say that had the force of plat- 
form men of 1918 been of the standard of ability pre- 
vailing in 1916 the advantage of the skip stop as a 
measure of safety would have been even more start- 



lingly illustrated. The figures I give are for the first 
ten-month period of the years mentioned. 

For the first ten months of 1916 within the one- 
fare zone we carried 1,458,964 passengers for every one 
injured. With skip-stop operation gradually developing 
in 1917 the factor of safety increased to one injury for 
every 2,437,628 passengers, and in 1918 under adverse 
labor conditions becoming much worse we carried safely 
2,506,754 passengers to one hurt. 

Similar evidence of safety by skip-stop operation is 
demonstrated by comparing the number of car-miles 
operated to every collision between street cars: 



AVERAGE NUMBER OF CAR-MILES OPERATED TO EVERY 
CAR COLLISION 

Non-skip-stop, 1916 8,625 car-miles 

Partial skip-stop, 1917 11,659 car-miles 

Complete skip-stop, 1918 12,945 car-miles 



And this is despite the labor conditions ! 

Opponents of skip-stop operation have often muddled 
themselves as between increased speed and decreased 
running time due to the elimination of stops and hence 
less wastage through acceleration, and have feared that 
faster operation would increase the element of danger. 
There has, of course, been no increase of maximum 
speed so that their fears are unfounded. 

A corollary to the collisions between the company cars 
may be taken as the collisions between the company cars 
and the growing number of automobiles- Here again is 
ample proof of the safety to be found in the skip stop. 

In 1916 we operated 3539 car-miles to every automo- 
bile struck; in 1917 this was increased to 3690 car- 
miles and in 1918 to 4388 car-miles. Certainly the ob- 
servation of none of us can possibly lead to the credit 
going to any increasing care being taken by the mass 
of automobile drivers. 

Again proof of the safety to be found in skip-stop 
operation through the elimination of the number of 
places where passengers may board and alight is most 
clearly shown in the number of accidents of platform 
nature — those in boarding or alighting. Here is the 
table of comparison: 



AVERAGE NUMBER OF PASSENGERS CARRIED PER PAS- 
SENGER INJURED IN BOARDING OR ALIGHTING 

Non-skip-stop, 1916 193,110 passengers 

Partial skip-stop, 1917 288,488 passengers 

Complete skip-stop, 1918 555,575 passengers 



The detailed tables follow, Table I showing the same 
data as Fig. 1, Table II as Fig. 2, etc. No especial ex- 
planation is required as to their compilation except 
possibly with Tables V and VII, shown graphically in 
Figs. 5 and 7. In determining the proper allowance in 
Table V, for the increasing number of automobiles in 
use, the number of licenses issued for 1918 was taken 



98 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 2 



as the unit 1.00. It was then found that the number 
in 1917 was 0.82 of the 1918 figure and that in 1916 it 
was 0.66 of the 1918 figure. These constants, multi- 
plied by the passenger car-miles for their respective 
year, were taken as giving the relation of the passenger 
car-miles each year one to the other. This result is 
divided by the number of "automobiles struck" to deter- 
mine the car-miles per automobile struck. The same 
general plan was followed in Table VII, which gives 
the car-miles run per pedestrian hurt. The population 
in 1918 was taken as the unit 1.00, and it was found 
that the unit constant for the population in 1916 was 
0.83, and for the population in 1917 was 0.92. These 
constants, multiplied by the passenger car-miles for 
their respective year, give the relation of the passenger 
car-miles each year one to the other. This result is 
divided by the number of "pedestrians hurt by car" to 
determine the car-miles run per pedestrian hurt by car. 
Surely, skip stop means "safety first." 



TABLE I— SHOWING CAR-MILES RUN PER CAR COLLISION 

Pass. CM. per Pass. CM. per _ Pass. CM. per 



Month 

January 

February . . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. 
October. . . . 

Total.. 



Car-Miles Collision Car-Miles 
II 3,696,929 
60 3,337,579 
16 3,939,313 



3,092,395 
2,962,281 
3,186,272 
3,112,040 
3,257,674 
3,186,853 
3,282,132 
3,351,320 
3,350,306 
3,631,965 



9,546 3,605,150 



1,624 
',385 
.,197 
1.600 



Collision Car-Miles Coll' 

7,015 3,395,650 12,348 

7,056 3,166,590 7,956 

11,937 3,560,089 10,854 

15,084 3,216,331 11,868 

16,569 3,456,461 14,342 

14,753 3,300,340 17,649 

16,206 3,310,871 21,224 

13,548 3,262,398 

11,589 3,065,026 

13,498 3,082,483 



15,104 
13,443 
13,117 



32,413,238 8,625 36,316,853 11,659 32,816,239 



-SHOWING CAR-MILES HUN PER CAR DERAILMENT 



Month 

January 

February. . . . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. . . 
October 

Total 







, 1917 . 


1918 


Pass. 


C.M. per 


Pass. 


C.M. per 


Pass. C.M. per 


Car- 


Derail- 


Car- 


Derail- 


Car- 


Derail- 


Miles 


ment 


Miles 


ment 


Miles 


ment 


3,092,395 


134,452 


3,696,929 


102,692 


3,395,650 


141,485 


2,962,281 


123,428 


3,337,579 


133,503 


3,166,590 


126,664 


3,186,272 


102,783 


3,939,313 


131,310 


3,560,089 


136,927 


3,1 12,040 


91,531 


3,605,150 


133,524 


3,216,331 


268,028 


3,257,674 


1 16,346 


3,761,212 


170,964 


3,456,461 


181,919 


3,186,853 


96,571 


3,658,864 


121,962 


3,300,340 


106,463 


3,282,132 


86,372 


3,743,624 


162,766 


3,310,871 


106,802 


3,351,320 


1 19,690 


3,739,385 


219,964 


3,262,398 


250,953 


3,350,306 


77,914 


3,523,197 


117,440 


3,065,026 


122,601 


3,631,965 


98,161 


3,509,600 


140,384 


3,082,483 


162,236 


32,413,238 


101,609 36,316,853 


137,044 32,816,239 


145,850 



TABLE III- 



— 1916 . 

Passengers Carried 



Passengers 

rer 
Pass. 

Month Total, Hurt Total 

January 31,732,257 215,866 37,097,629 

February 30,303,538 171,206 33,867,547 

March 33,690,601 191,424 38,278,999 

April 33,692,728 206,704 36,770,852 

May 35,476,121 200,430 37,920,658 

June 35,194,325 209,490 36,817,210 

July 34,922,954 228,255 36,697,586 

August 35,848,273 183,837 36,376,844 

September 36,217,310 180,186 34,808,529 

October 37,237,442 164,767 34,570,768 

Total 344,315,549 193,110 363,206,622 288,488 313,344,271 555,575 

TABLE IV— SHOWING PASSENGERS CARRIED PER PASSENGER 
HURT OTHERWISE THAN BY BOARDING AND ALIGHTING 

Passengers Carried 



( 'arncd 
Per 

Pass. 

Hurt 
247,318 
238,504 
283,548 
316,990 
316,005 
268,739 
247,957 
378,925 
334,697 
310,547 



Total 
30,373,1 16 
28,668,032 
32,904,264 
29,799,500 
32,734,744 
31,974,760 
32,525,219 
31,469,892 
32,138,851 
30,755,893 



Carried 
Per 

Pass. 

Hurt 
467,279 
398,167 
671,516 
532,1 34 
743,971 
499,606 
929,292 
552,103 
606,393 
445,737 



Month 
January. . . . 
February. . . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. 
October 



Pass. 
Hurt 
,269,290 



Total 
31,732,257 
30,303,538 2,020,236 
33,690,601 1,464,809 
33,692,728 
35,476,121 
35,194,325 
34,922,954 
35,848,273 1,433,931 
36,217,310 1,248,873 
37,237,442 2,068,747 



295,874 
364,466 
466,430 
396,918 



Per 
Pass. 

Total Hurt 
37,097,629 3,091,469 
33,867,547 1,992,208 
38,278,999 1,594,958 
36,770,852 2,042,825 
37,920,658 4,213,406 
36,817,210 1,840,860 
36,697,586 2,822,891 
36,376,844 2,425,123 
34,808,529 5,801,422 
34,570,768 2,304,718 



Passengers Carried 
Per 

Pass. 

Total Hurt 
30,373,116 843,697 
28,668,032 3,185,337 
32,904,264 3,290,426 
29,799,500 3,724,938 
32,734,744 3,637,194 
31,974,760 1,776,375 
32,525,219 3,252,522 

31.469.892 4,495,699 
32,138,851 3,213,885 

30.755.893 3,844,488 



Total.... 344,315,549 1,458,964 363,206,622 2,437,628 313,344,271 2,506,754 



TABLE V — SHOWING CAR-MILES RUN PER AUTOMOBILE STRUCK 





ft 191( 




CM. 


i 1917— 


C.M. 


, 1918- 


, 

C.M. 




Pass. 




per 


Pass. 




Pass 








Car- 




Auto 


Car- 


Auto. 


Car- 




Auto. 


Month 


Miles 




Struck 


Miles 


Struck 


Miles 




Struck 


Jan... 


3,092,395x0 


66 


4,791 


3,696,929x0 82 


3,288 


3,395,650x 


.0 


2,943 


Feb. . . 


2,962,281x0 


66 


4,116 


3,337,579x0 82 


3,282 


3,166,590x 


.0 


4,044 


Mar.. 


3,186,272x0 


66 


3,626 


3,939,313x0 82 


4,365 


3,560,089x 


.0 


4,951 


Apr. . . 


3,112,040x0 


66 


4,636 


3,605,150x0 82 


3,942 


3,216,331x 


.0 


4,569 


May.. 


3,257,674x0 


66 


3,734 


3,761,212x0 82 


3,860 


3,456, 46lx 


.0 


4,761 


June.. 


3,186,853x0 


66 


3,645 


3,658,864x0 82 


3,974 


3,300,340x 


.0 


4,735 


July.. 


3,282,132x0 


66 


3,569 


3,743,624x0 82 


3,961 


3,310,87lx 


.0 


4,883 


Aug.. 


3,351,320x0 66 


3,085 


3,739,385x0.82 


3,911 


3,262,398x 


.0 


4,512 


Sept.. 


3,350,306x0 


66 


2,820 


3,523,197x0 82 


3,602 


3,065,026x 


.0 


4,850 


Oct... 


3,631,965x0 


66 


2.804 


3,509,600x0 82 


3,162 


3,082,483x 


.0 


4,656 


Total. 


32,413,238x0. 


66 


3,539 36,316,853x0 82 


3,690 


32,816,239x1 


.0 


4,388 








19 


6 


1917 






1918 


Automobiles 




28,050 = 66 per Cent 




of 




42,500 


Autom 


)biles 








34,850 


= 82 per 
















Cent 


of 


42,500 



Month 

January 

February . . . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. . 
October 

Total 



. 191 


6 


. 1917 




. 191 




C.M. 




C.M. 




Pass. 


per 


Pass. 


per 


Pass. 


Car- 


Vehicle 


Car- 


Vehicle 


Car- 


Miles 


Struck 


Miles 


Struck 


Miles 


3,092,395 


12,622 


3,696,929 


16,214 


3,395,650 


2,962,281 


10,971 


3,337,579 


12,690 


3,166,590 


3,186,272 


10,949 


3,939,313 


17,906 


3,560,089 


3,112,040 


12,448 


3,605,150 


26,124 


3,216,331 


3,257,674 


13,351 


3,761,212 


27,059 


3,456,461 


3,186,853 


14,892 


3,658,864 


22,175 


3,300,340 


3,282,132 


14,459 


3,743,624 


20,236 


3,310,871 


3,351,320 


14,571 


3,739,385 


22,663 


3,262,398 


3,350,306 


12,227 


3,523,197 


22,158 


3,065,026 


3,631,965 


12,655 


3,509,600 


15,461 


3,082,483 


32,413,238 


12,801 


36,316,853 


19,225 


32,816,239 



C.M. 

Vehicle 
Struck 
15,227 
12,820 
26,970 
25,938 
38,405 
40,744 
39,415 
35,080 
28,645 
26,346 

25,282 



TABLE VII— SHOWING CAR-MILES PER PEDESTRIAN HURT BY CAR 



Month 
.1 an.. 

Feb.. 

Mar 
Apr.. 
May. 
June. 
July. 

A UK 
Sept. 

Oct.. 







C.M. 






C.M. 






C.M. 


Pass. 




per 


Pass. 




per 


Pass. 




per 


Car- 




Pedest. 


Car- 




Pedest. 


Car- 




Pedest. 


Miles 




Struck 


Miles 




Struck 


Miles 




Struck 


3,092,395x0 


83 


35,648 


3,696,929x0 


92 


32,704 


3,395,650x1 


.0 


42,446 


2,962,281x0 


83 


34,565 


3,337,579x0 


92 


43,107 
44,743 


3,166,590x1 





56,546 


3,186,272x0 


83 


33,476 


3,939,315x0 


92 


3,560,089x1 


.0 


57,421 


3,112,040x0 


83 


25,078 


3,605,150x0 


92 


35,664 


3,216,331x1 





49,482 


3,257,674x0 


83 


27,312 


3,761,212x0 


92 


33,925 


3,456,461x1 


.0 


50,830 


3,186,853x0 


83 


28,139 


3,658,864x0 


92 


36,195 


3,300,340x1 





42,861 


3,282,132x0 


83 


32,821 


3,743,624x0 


92 


36,598 


3,310,871x1 


.0 


73,574 


3,351,320x0 


83 


27,541 


3,739,385x0 


92 


41,954 


3,262,398x1 





59,316 


3,350,306x0 


83 


25,420 


3,523,197x0 


92 


40,017 


3,065.026x1 





55,728 


3,631,965x0 


83 


24,709 


3,509,600x0 


92 


41,395 


3,082,483x1 





79,038 


32,413,238x0.83 


28,835 36,316,853x0 92 


38,011 


32,816,239x1 





54,512 



1916 = 83 per 1917 = 92per 1918 = 100 pd 
Population Cent of 1918 Cent of 1918 Cent 

Detroit 820,778 914,896 986,699 

Highland Park 25,000 27,125 39,000 

Hamtramek 21,520 20,000 20,000 

St. Clair Heights. 10,000 iyj '3.000 13,000 



876,298 



975,021 



1,058,699 



Month 
January. . . 
February. . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 
October... . 



Falling 
881,452 
739,111 



. 1916 

Passengers Carried 
Per Pass 

Total 
31,732,257 
30,303,538 

33,690,601 1,161,745 
33,692,728 2,591,748 
35,476,121 1,689,339 
35,194,325 1,675,920 
34,922,954 1,518,389 
35,848,273 2,108,722 
36,217,310 1,392,973 
37,237,442 1,773,212 



Total 
37,097,629 
33,867,547 
38,278,999 
36,770,852 
37,920,658 
36,817,210 
36,697,586 
36,376,844 
34,808,529 
34,570,768 



1917 . 

Carried 
Per Pass. 
Falling 
3,372,512 
2,257,836 
1,664,304 
2,042,825 
2,708,618 
2,347,019 
3,669,759 
2,273,553 
1,933,807 
2,469,340 



Passengers 

Total 
30,373,1 16 
28,668,032 
32,904,264 
29,799,500 
32,734,744 
31,974,760 
32,525,219 
31,469,892 
32,138,851 
30,755,893 



Carried 
Per Pass. 

Falling 
2,531,093 
2,389,003 
4,113,033 
9,933,167 
0,911,581 
5,329,127 
6,505,044 
6,293,978 
4,017,358 
5,125,982 



344,315,549 1,386,756 363,206,622 2,421,377 313,344,271 4,608,004 



PER PASSENGER 



Month 
January. . . 
February.. 
March. . . . 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August. . . . 
September. 
October. . . 



1916 ■ 

rs Carried 
■ Pass. 
Total Hurt 
31,732,257 1,379,663 
30,303,538 721,513 
33,690,601 1,161,745 
33,692,728 1,604,416 
35,476,121 2,707,556 
35,194,325 2,346,288 
34,922,954 2,182,685 
35,848,273 2,389,885 
36,217,310 5,173,901 
37,237,442 1,959,865 



1917 . 

Passengers Carried 
Per Pass. 
Total Hurt 
37,097,629 1,483,905 
33,867,547 1,539,434 
38,278,999 2,944,538 
36,770,852 4,596,357 
37,920,658 3,160,055 
36,817,210 6,136,202 
36,697,586 2,158,682 
36,376,844 2,273,554 
34,808,529 3,164,412 
34,570,768 2,659,290 



Total 
30,373,116 
28,668,032 
32,904,264 
29,799,500 
32,734,744 
31,974,760 
32,525,219 
31,469,892 
32,138,851 
30,755,893 



i Carried 
Per Pass. 
Hurt 
949,160 
2,205,233 
1,828,015 
2,483,292 
2,518,057 
2,664,563 
2,710,435 
1,851,170 
3,213,885 
3,417,321 



Total... 344,315,549 1.721,578 363,206,622 2,539,906 313,344,271 2,117,119 



January 11, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



99 



Service at Cost for Youngstown 

M. & S. Line Secures New Twenty-Five Year Franchise With Initial Fare 
of Five Cents and Penny for Transfer 



THE city of Youngstown, Ohio, has released the 
Mahoning & Shenango Railway & Light Com- 
pany from its obligation to furnish transporta- 
tion at the rate of six tickets for a quarter, and it has 
granted the company a renewal of railway rights for 
twenty-five years on the service-at-cost plan. The new 
franchise is effective from Jan. 16. The old grant still 
had fifteen years to run. 

The action of the city ends a controversy between the 
company and it on the subject of service and a more 
recent dispute between the company and its employees 
regarding wages. The company contended that its reve- 
nue from six-for-a-quarter fares was inadequate under 
present service and high costs. The trainmen last Sep- 
tember threatened to suspend work unless their wages 
were increased. The city engaged Peter Witt, former 
street railroad commissioner of Cleveland, who investi- 
gated and reported that the company was unable to meet 
either the service or wage requirements on its present 
revenues. 

Basis for Rate of Return 

For purposes of the ordinance, the value of the propo- 
erty covered was agreed to be $4,000,000. On this the 
return to the company will be made monthly from the 
stabilizing fund at the rate of 7 per cent per annum. 
Return on additions to capital value is to be made at 
the rate per cent at which the company in good faith is 
able to secure the money for such additions. 

The capital value thus determined and the return 
thereon should not be confused with the existing capi- 
talization of the owning company. The corporate rights 
of the company are unabridged. The settlement is, in 
effect, a lease of the property at a fixed rental with op- 
tion to purchase, lessor and lessee being partners in 
the leasehold. Should the company organize a new cor- 
poration to take over the property covered by the ordi- 
nance and give opportunity to Youngstown citizens to 
purchase stock of such new company at its par value, 
the capital of the proposed new corporation being lim- 
ited to the then capital value of the segregated property, 
the city binds itself in the event of purchase to pay 10 
per cent additional to the capital value at the time of 
purchase, unless this be at the expiration of the grant. 
No plans at present are being made for the formation 
of such a corporation. 

The salient features of the new Youngstown fran- 
chise are: 

1. City Supervision: City fixes schedules, routes, charac- 
ter of cars, amount of service, but should company's return 
be threatened under rate of fare in force or under any 
higher rate by service requirements, arbitration may be 
had. City inspects and approves accounting, disagree- 
ments to be submitted to committee on standard classifica- 
tion of accounts of the American Electric Railway Account- 
ants' Association. City may check and supervise all 
additions and betterments, and the cost of same shall not 
be added to capital value except on its approval. Salary 
of Street Railroad Commissioner is not to exceed $600 a 
month, and those of assistants $900 per month. 



2. Arbitration: Any difference arising must be arbitrated 
save with respect to capital value, fixed return to company, 
methods of accounting, and city's right to prescribe service 
except when company's return is threatened. Arbitration 
board forms quickly. Party demanding arbitration may 
name board on fourth day after demand if other party does 
not join. Both parties naming representatives, the United 
States District Judge for the Youngstown district names 
third arbitrator if first two cannot agree on third within 
three days. Board must decide question within twenty days 
from date of appointment of third arbitrator or unani- 
mously agree to extension of time. Expenses of arbitration 
are fixed by board as part of award and paid as operating 
cost unless in excess of $1000 in any six months' period, 
when they shall be paid from the stabilizing fund. Ques- 
tions arbitrated may not be arbitrated again within three 
months from date of first finding. Failure to comply with 
award is penalized: if on city's part, the rate of return to 
the company increases; if on the company's part, the rate 
decreases — in neither instance more than 1 per cent. 

3. Allowances: For operating costs, 22 cents per car 
mile is allowed for motor-cars and 60 per cent of trailer-car 
mileage; and for maintenance, repair and renewal costs, 8 
cents per car mile for motor-cars and 60 per cent of trailer- 
car mileage. Should gross revenue at any time be insuffi- 
cient to pay these allowances, deficiency shall be taken 
from stabilizing fund. Any residue of the operating cost 
allowance unexpended at the end of each calendar year 
shall be transferred to the stabilizing fund. Either allow- 
ance may be increased or decreased by agreement or arbi- 
tration. 

4. Stabilizing Fund: This is constituted by setting aside 
$100,000 of the agreed capital, credited monthly with in- 
terest earned thereon, to which are added monthly the gross 
receipts of the property less the allowances noted above. 
From this fund is paid monthly the 7 per cent return to 
the company, as well as taxes as they become due. 

5. Rates of Fare: Nine rates of fare are provided, with 
more possible. A charge of 1 cent for transfer is made 
under each rate. The scale follows: 



A 3 cents cash, nine tickets for 25 cents 

B 5 cents cash, eight tickets for 25 cents 

C 5 cents cash, seven tickets for 25 cents 

D 5 cents cash, six tickets for 25 cents 

E 5 cents cash, no tickets 

F 6 cents cash, nine tickets for 50 cents 

G 7 cents cash, eight tickets for 50 cents 

H 8 cents cash, seven" tickets for 50 cents 

1 9 cents cash, six tickets for 50 cents 



At such time as Rate B becomes effective, Council shall 
establish a further lower rate bearing the same relation to 
Rate A as Rate A bears to Rate B, and should Rate H be- 
come effective Council shall establish a further higher rate 
bearing the same relation to Rate I as Rate I bears to Rate 
H, to the end that there shall always be two rates of fare 
higher or lower than the fare in effect. 

Rate E, 5 cents cash and 1 cent for a transfer, will be 
the initial rate. Whenever the amount in the stabilizing 
fund at the end of any calendar month exceeds $150,000 
the next lower rate becomes effective; whenever the amount 
in the stabilizing fund is reduced to $50,000, the next higher 
rate becomes effective. Should such change fail to reduce 
the balance in the stabilizing fund below $150,000 at the 
end of the next calendar month after change is made, then 
the next lower rate becomes effective, and so on until the 
balance in the stabilizing fund is reduced to $150,000. The 
rate of fare then in effect shall remain until the fund is 
reduced to $50,000. Similarly, the fare shall be increased 
monthly when the fund is less than $50,000 until it is more 
than $50,000. The rate then in effect shall remain until 
the fund exceeds $150,000. 

The fare may be changed by agreement but not by arbi- 
tration; changes must be automatic, dependent upon the 
balance' in the stabilizing fund. Whenever a change in 
rate is made, tickets under former rate are not acceptable 
as fares, and they are redeemable only within thirty days 



100 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 2 



from date of change at any office of company at cost. School 
or special tickets may be sold at rate to be fixed by city 
and company, but such tickets are invalid Sundays and 
holidays and between the hours of 4.30 p.m. and 7.30 a.m. 
on week-days. Any child under six years of age accom- 
panied by person paying fare shall be carried free; two 
such children shall pay for a single fare. Free transporta- 
tion is limited to motormen, conductors, linemen, shopmen 
and trackmen, going to or returning from work. 

6. General Provisions: The company must maintain all 
pavements within outer rails and 1 ft. outside each outer 
rail, but it shall not be required to pave or repave except 
where repaving is necessitated by reconstruction of track 
or building of extensions. In the former case, such repav- 
ing shall be charged to maintenance, repair and renewal 
account and in the latter to the cost of the extension. All 
expenses of change in tracks and paving necessitated by 
public improvements shall be paid by the city. Damage 
claims arising in connection with work or improvements 
shall be considered part of the cost of such work and paid 
for out of funds and added to capital value. 

The company shall charge to operating costs a rental 
for offices, supplies and equipment used under the new 
plan, the amount to be fixed by agreement between the com- 
pany and the city. Outstanding damage claims against 
property covered by the ordnance shall be charged to oper- 
ating cost. The company's portion of grade crossing elimi- 
nations shall be paid by the company and added to capital 
value. Either the company or the city may propose ex- 
tensions, but the city loses this right whenever the unexpired 
term of the franchise is less than fifteen years. Any re- 
placements in excess of the cost new of the property re- 
placed shall be capitalized to the extent of such excess 
cost, the balance being charged to maintenance account. 
Additions to capital value shall be at the par value of the 
securities sold or debt created for the extension or better- 
ments. 

Plans for Speeding Up Service 

During the consideration of the new grant, the com- 
pany joined the city in working out re-routing and stop- 
elimination plans to speed up service. All lines were 
terminated at the center of the city, known locally as 
the "Diamond," and operating supervision was estab- 
lished at that point. 

Because of the lateness of the season, however, and 
the impossibility of securing all of the needed spe- 
cial work for the change the complete layout for the 
"Diamond," which includes waiting rooms and load- 
ing platforms, was deferred. Temporary rooms have 
been constructed, however, and cars are now operating 
on routes and past the points scheduled in the new 
plan. 

Mayor A. W. Traver has named W. L. Sause, former 
Director of Public Service, as City Street Railroad Com- 
missioner. The pay-leave system of fare collection will 
be used on out-bound cars and the pay-enter system in- 
bound. The company is pledged to the immediate con- 
version of such of its cars as do not now permit the 
use of this system. 



Paper Substitutes for Driving Belts 
in Germany 

Foreign papers state that machine-driving belts made 
of paper substitute are being introduced in German 
workshops. The belts are woven or braided and may 
be either of the paper fabric or paper thread type. The 
paper fabric is first cut into bands and a core of 
strengthening material, either cotton or sheet metal, is 
interposed. The core is surrounded with paper strips 
and the whole sewn with strong thread. The tensile 
strength of the woven belt is stated to reach from 550 
to 700 lb. per inch width. 



New Type of Track Tie 

UP TO the present time wood or steel ties have 
been used quite generally in track construction. 
Concrete, however, has considerable possibility as a tie 
material, and a specially constructed tie, developed by 
Edgar N. Goodlett, is worthy of study. Quantities of 
ties of this type have now been in experimental service 
for four years and are reported to be giving good 
satisfaction. 

This special tie is made up of two reinforced-concrete 
end sections. Each end block is 10 in. x 36 in. face 
and 8 in. deep and the blocks are held together by two 
steel rods. In the middle of each face is an open slot 
4 in. x 12 in. at the top and going down at a slight 
bevel to a 3£-in. x lli-in. seat at the bottom. The rail 



. WOOD BLOCK 

CONNECT! NO RODS Y 



h s '- f-^- 

§" DEFORMED BARS 




NEW TYPE OF CONCRETE TRACK TIE 
At left, ties in place ready for ballasting on the Municipal Rail- 



is spiked in the usual manner to wooden blocks which 
are inserted in the slots. These blocks protrude about 
1 in. above the concrete and take the weight of rail, 
providing resilience. The open construction and the 
wooden spiking blocks are said to overcome the objec- 
tions which have been made against the use of concrete 
ties. In service the wooden block inserts compress into 
the beveled recesses, conducing to durability and in- 
creasing the spike holding power of the ties. 

Repair work with these ties is very simple. To re- 
move the wooden insert a bar is placed between the 
two joining rods and the tie is pried over onto its side. 
A hole in the tie running through the bottom permits 
the introduction of a tool by which the wooden block 
can be driven out and a new one inserted. The tie 
can then be again turned over and adjusted for serv- 
ice. As the wood block insert is protected by the 
concrete, its life should be much greater than that of 
the ordinary wood ties. The reinforced-concrete struc- 
ture is practically permanent. 

These ties have been tested by the Municipal Railway 
of San Francisco, by the Southern Pacific Railroad, 
and by the Oakland Antioch & Eastern Railway. The 
accompanying illustrations show some typical construc- 
tion. 



January 11, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



101 



What the Governors Say 

Public Opinion Is Usually Reflected Accurately in the Messages of the 
Chief Executives of the States to the Legislatures 



NOT since the cycle of economic legislation which 
started more than ten years ago and ushered in 
the system of state regulation of the utilities as 
it stands at present have the sessions of the legislatures 
of the many states been looked forward to with more 
concern than they are this year. The electric railway 
situation is acute. In many cases fair play to the utili- 
ties is possible only after legislation. Thus the legis- 
latures, more than ever, would seem to be the destiny 
that will help to shape the ends of the industry at this 
time. The legislative directing force in most cases will 
be the Governors. The instances are few in which their 
messages do not sense or reflect public feeling accurately. 
For this reason the Electric Railway Journal plans 
to publish extracts from the messages promptly as re- 
ceived. This week there follow remarks of the Gov- 
ernors of New York, Massachusetts and Connecticut. 

One Strong Commission and Municipal Ownership 
Desired in New York 

Governor Smith of New York, in his inaugural ad- 
dress, declared for a single headed public service com- 
mission and for municipal ownership. He said in part: 

There is widespread dissatisfaction, particularly in New 
York City, with the Public Service Commissions. In the 
First District, a radical change should be made in the struc- 
ture of the commission itself, if it is to accomplish results. 
At the time of its formation, in 1907, there was expressed 
grave doubt as to whether or not it would work out well. 
There were many who believed that the function of con- 
structing rapid transit railroads for the city of New York 
should be divorced from the function of regulating public 
utility corporations generally. In my opinion, experience 
has demonstrated that they were right. 

For years the trend in New York City, as well as in the 
State, has been toward single headed commissions, to the 
end that the responsibility may be fixed upon one man. 
During the recent war, the federal government taught us 
the lesson that results can best be obtained by a single 
executive, clothed with proper power, when any great work 
is to be carried out successfully. What we do in time of 
trouble is brought about by the very best judgment we can 
exercise. Why is it not sound in time of peace? 

It is my belief that the subway rapid transit system of 
the city of New York can be built better and quicker under 
the direction of a rapid transit commissioner whose entire 
time, brains and energy would be devoted to the completion 
of the subway system. The regulatory functions of the 
commission in the First District also might be performed 
by a single public service commissioner. Not only will this re- 
sult in an economy of administration but it will be productive 
of results. The argument has been made that a separation 
of the functions of the commission might interfere with the 
work. This I do not believe to be the fact. 

I therefore recommend that legislation be enacted to bring 
about this change, and I make this recommendation after 
years of observation. 

Upon the same principle outlined above, I also believe 
that the affairs of the Public Service Commission in the 
Second District will be more economically and more effi- 
ciently managed by a single headed commission, and I rec- 
ommend that legislation be enacted to bring this about. 

I further call your attention to the weakness of the law 
itself in not giving to the commissions sufficient power to 
enforce their orders. These weak spots history has taught 
us seem to have been inserted for the benefit of the cor- 
porations to be regulated. Without enumerating them in 
detail in this message, I would refer you to that part of 



the report of the joint legislative committee, appointed to 
investigate the Public Service Commissions transmitted to 
the Legislature on March 10, 1915, and I ask you to enact 
such legislation as will remedy these defects and strengthen 
the arm of the commissions that they may more effectively 
carry out the functions for which they were organized. 

Recent years have been marked by a great opening of 
the popular mind to the true scope of enlightened municipal 
administration. There is everywhere a recognition that it 
is only through the application of progressive conceptions 
of public duty that life can be made tolerable in our teeming 
cities with their unprecedented growth in population and 
the consequent living conditions. 

From every city in the State, represented by their chief 
executives in conference, there comes the demand that the 
State confer upon the cities the power to acquire, own, 
operate and control their public utilities. The supply of 
transportation, light, heat and power is of the utmost im- 
portance to each local community. The services rendered 
have become a necessity to the life, health, comfort, con- 
venience and industry of the cities. These great services 
are monopolies, and whatever is of necessity a monopoly 
should be a public monopoly, especially where it offers a 
service of universal use. 

I therefore recommend that legislation be passed grant- 
ing to our cities the power to acquire, own, operate and 
control their public utilities. 

Railways in Massachusetts Should Be on 
Enduring Basis 
Governor Coolidge of Massachusetts says that pub- 
lic ownership is no answer to the electric railway prob- 
lem, as it would not increase revenue. The Governor 
turned to the electric railway situation after touching 
upon railroad questions. He said: 

But this (steam railroad problem) is not so urgent as 
the street railway problem. While sufficient data are not 
at hand for a final and complete solution, and conditions 
are changing much from day to day, yet there are some 
things which are apparent and which must be kept in 
mind seeking a remedy. Street railway service in some 
form is now a public necessity. It ought to be supplied 
at moderate rates of fare to workers, to children and to 
the public generally. It has been provided as a private 
enterprise. It was expected to be more profitable than it 
ever turned out to be, and for that reason, and because it 
used the public street, certain extra taxes were laid on it, 
and conditions requiring expense were often attached to 
grants of location. 

The problem is where to get more money. There are 
only two sources — increased fares and the public treasury, 
directly by grant or indirectly by remission of taxes or 
other payments. Public ownership is no answer to this 
problem, as it would increase no revenue. The question is 
one of our needs and our duty, and must be squarely met. 
As a business enterprise the government desires its suc- 
cess, but no more so than any other private enterprise. 
As a public necessity the government is warranted in giv- 
ing aid. As it is a public enterprise the public ought to 
realize that whatever revenue it has they must furnish. 
Fares have been increased, but in some places there is no 
rate high enough to pay for operation, for raising rates too 
high diminishes the number of passengers. 

So long as a street railway can be operated with fair 
service, paid for by its patrons, it is on a sound and en- 
during basis. That ought to be the standard. The moment 
that is abandoned there is no standard to measure the 
soundness of the principle applied. No one knows how to 
assess the benefits or where they apply. Any other standard 
should be adopted with great caution and for a very limited 
period. 

The only other course is by local and State aid. This 
shifts the burden, but does not diminish it. Instead of 
paying the fare on the car it is paid in taxes, in rent and 



102 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 2 



the cost of living. But in the period of readjustment we 
may have to apply extraordinary remedies. 

The information even to state the problem accurately 
is not at hand. It is therefore recommended that there be 
at once a survey of the street railway situation by experts 
to report the amount of deficiency in revenue, the amount 
of taxes and other public charges paid, and what, if any, 
part of the deficiency should be met by remission of taxes 
and other public charges, and by appropriations of money, 
coupled with public control, by the localities and the Com- 
monwealth in order to keep necessary transportation fa- 
cilities in operation. Knowing the requirements and the 
resources, it ought not to be difficult to make them balance. 

The question of the policy toward public utilities should 
be taken out of politics. No greater harm can be done the 
public than by an attempt to make the operation of these 
agencies, which ought to be purely a matter of business, a 
means of partisan advantage. Unless this is done there 
can be no hope of reaching a proper solution. 

Special Investigation Commission Suggested 
Governor Holcomb of Connecticut regards the electric 
railway situation as very serious and recommends that 
a special commission be appointed to consider the mat- 
ter and report at the present session. He said in part : 

The electric railway situation in Connecticut is such as 
to require serious consideration. Our whole industrial 
fabric is in a measure dependent upon our electric railway 
systems and it is of the utmost importance to the future 
welfare and development of our State that their operation 
should be efficient and their facilities ample. The report 
of the Public Utilities Commission just rendered shows 
that practically all the street railway companies are oper- 
ating at a loss, which if continued long enough must result 
in dissolution, loss of investment and suspension of serv- 
ice. The commission in its report states: 

There are numerous contributing causes for present street rail- 
way conditions, some inherent, some temporary, and some ap- 
parently permanent. Among the principal may be mentioned 
general war conditions involving high cost and difficulty of pro- 
curing material and supplies ; high and constantly increasing cost 
of labor, and difficulty on account of the advantages afforded by 
private and governmentally controlled industrial enterprises of 
securing sufficient and competent help ; the increasing burden of 
taxation ; the municipal and statutory requirements of laying and 
maintaining street pavement ; the loss of patronage naturally in- 
cident to the use of privately owned automobiles ; and the more 
or less unrestricted competition of public service automobiles or 
"jitneys" so-called, operating at the option of the owner in the 
most profitable sections of the street railway company's chartered 
territory, during favorable weather conditions and on improved 
highways. 

The report further states: 

It is the opinion of this commission that the best interests of 
the State require and will continue to require electric street rail- 
way service as an essential transportation agency, but if both of 
these competing transportation agencies are to survive and render 
proper service, some protecting legislation should be en- 
acted whereby the necessary burdens would be more equitably 
apportioned and competitive rights more definitely limited. 

Under the street railway transportation system in Con- 
necticut, the indirect taxation for street pavement in cer- 
tain localities creates a burden upon other localities not 
thus favored, and requires the companies to construct and 
maintain a right of way not only for themselves but for 
competing transportation agencies which are not at present 
required to contribute their proportionate share toward 
the maintenance of such rights of way. The jitney or pub- 
lic service automobile, carrying passengers for hire, is in 
every sense of the word a public utility and as such should 
as in the case of all other similar agencies, be brought 
under the regulation of the Public Utilities Commission, 
and the traveling public should be protected in the matter 
of accident or damage from irresponsible common carriers 
and in the service they render. This whole electric railway 
situation is so serious and it is a matter involving to so 
great an extent the general welfare of our people, that it 
seems to me to be advisable for your honorable body to 
appoint forthwith a special commission to take it under 
consideration and to report at this session. 

A misprint occurred in the heading of the first column 
of the table published on page 59 of last week's issue. 
The heading of this column, which showed a total of 
991, should have read "number of companies" instead 
of "number of cars." The accompanying text showed that 
companies were intended. 



Women in Steam Railroad Service 

Increase of 40,000 in Number of Women Employed 
by Railroads in Ten Months — AH Fields of 
Service Covered 

IN JANUARY, 1918, the number of women employed 
by steam railroads in the United Stated was 60,000. 
By July it had increased to 81,000, and by Oct. 1 to 
approximately 100,000. These figures were presented 
on Dec. 6 before the labor reconstruction conference 
of the Academy of Political Science at Columbia Uni- 
versity, New York City. The speaker was Pauline Gold- 
mark, manager women's service section United States 
Railroad Administration. 

Of the 81,000 employed on July 1, 61,000 were work- 
ing as clerks of all kinds, stenographers, accountants, 
comptometer operators, etc. In this class appear wo- 
men ticket sellers and bureau of information clerks, who 
served the public for the first time. The next largest 
group of 4000 comprised cleaners. Women had long 
been cleaning stations, offices, etc., but 800 were also 
employed in the yards to clean coaches and Pullman 
cars, both inside and outside, and in the roundhouses 
to wipe locomotives. In personal service, including 
work in dining rooms and kitchens, as matrons and jani- 
tresses, 2000 were found. In the railroad shops, women 
entered the greatest variety of new occupations. Three 
thousand were employed, ranging from common laborers 
to skilled machanics earning the machinist's or car- 
man's rate of pay. The policy of equal pay to men and 
women for equal work has been followed by the United 
States Railroad Administration. 

The skilled steam railroad operations in which women 
have become proficient, according to Miss Goldmark, 
are as follows: They are operating a number of ma- 
chines such as bolt threaders, nut tappers, drill presses, 
for which no great skill or experience is needed, but 
they are also employed for highly skilled work. A 
number have succeeded as electric welders and oxy- 
acetylene burners. They have been found well adapted 
for work on the air-brake equipment and are cleaning, 
testing and making minor repairs on triple valves. In 
some places they are now working in a separate group 
on the lighter weight valves, weighing not more than 
40 pounds. Women are found now performing the 
duties of crane operators and hammer operators in the 
shops, of turntable operators in the roundhouses and of 
packers of the journal boxes in the yards. They are 
acting as attendants in tool rooms and storehouses, and 
they are doing block signal work and acting as lever 
women in the signal towers. 

In the post war period, while there is federal control 
of the railroads, Miss Goldmark states, the women will 
retain their own seniority rights, including the privi- 
leges of promotion. The railroads will of course recog- 
nize the seniority rights of all their employees return- 
ing from military service, but as far as the new em- 
ployees are concerned, women will have the same privi- 
leges as other new employees in retaining their positions 
or being assigned to other jobs. The present indications, 
however, are that they will remain as a permanent 
part of the great army of clerical workers, rather than 
in the out-of-door occupations and in the shops and 
roundhouses where the environment is oftener unavoid- 
ably unsuitable. 



January 11, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



103 



More Terminal Loops 

New Plan Relieves Congestion in San Francisco — 
Approximately 290 Cars an Hour During 
Rush Periods Pass Over Loop 

THE ferry loop at the foot of Market Street in 
San Francisco has been the limiting factor in the 
rush-hour traffic for some time. When the municipal 
lines began sending cars to the ferry on the new outer 
tracks on Market Street, the loops had to handle an 
additional forty cars per hour. This at once produced 
serious congestion. In the rush hours cars were blocked 
for five to eight squares from the loops, and the system 
could not serve the commuters who had to catch boats. 
Then the loop arrangement was changed and the change 
has been so effective that the limiting factor in the 
system has been shifted to another point, that is, cars 
can now be loaded and moved out of the loops faster 
than they can move along Market Street. 

The changes made at the loop provided for three 
tracks instead of two, the new arrangement being as 
shown in the accompanying drawing. The inner loop 
remains as it was, the middle loop is a new track and 
the outer loop is the original outer loop moved over 
closer to the Belt Line Railway. Operation of the 
steam line is not frequent enough to interfere seriously 
with the street cars. Sixteen cars can now stand on 
the three loops as compared to nine, which was the limit 
of the old double loop. With sixteen' cars on the loops 
there is still space for 8-ft. and 12-ft. traffic lanes 
between the standing cars so that access to the inner 
loops is provided. 

During the morning and evening rush hours about 
290 cars per hour now pass around the loops, 110 on 
the inner track, eighty on the middle track and 100 on 
the outer track. This is no faster than the rate at 
which the old loops were handling cars, but now the 
increased standing capacity on the loops makes it pos- 
sible for cars to remain there long enough to afford 




THERE ARE NOW THREE LOOPS IN FRONT OF THE MARKET STREET FERRY 



ample time for loading. Meantime the vehicular traffic 
along the Embarcadero crosses the neck of the loops. 
When this is stopped a number of loaded cars are ready 
to leave the loops promptly as an equal number of cars 
enter. 

Loops Have Reserve Capacity 
The capacity of the loops could be increased 20 per 
cent over the figures above given, it is believed, were 
it not for the fact that the cars cannot be operated 
out of Market Street away from the ferry any faster 
than they are now being put around the loops. That is, 







Curb., )'"*' ...C^y W/r ^\ \\ fMe 


MARKET ST. 






-&7> ; 




%r. if 


ISpp V? 50' 75' 100' 




' 2 | Dimensions in Circles 
Igjl F not to Scale 





PLAN OF TRACKS AT FOOT OF MARKET STREET 



with 152 cars per hour going out on the outer Market 
Street tracks, there is a headway of only twenty-six and 
one quarter seconds. This is not sufficient to allow 
passengers to get through to the inner tracks and as 
passengers cannot safely stand between moving cars on 
the inner and outer tracks, the outbound cars are blocked 
while the inner cars are loading. At present 137 cars 
per hour move from the loops onto the inner track and 
153 onto the outer track. The congestion on the out- 
bound tracks, while not so serious as that formerly 
obtaining at the loops, delays cars so that at Sansome 
Street, where the first United Railroads cars turn off, 
they are seven to twelve minutes late during the rush- 
hour periods. 



104 



Electric Railway Journ 



AL 



Vol 53, No. 2 



Simplifying the Automatic Substation 
Wiring Diagram 

ONE of the most recent automatic substations to be 
commissioned is the Warrenville substation of the 
Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad, of which E. S. 
Gillette is electrical engineer and S. E. Johnson is super- 
intendent of substations and lines. This substation 
contains a number of ingenious devices but the present 
note is intended primarily to call attention to a simpli- 
fied form of circuit diagram of its wiring which has 
just been developed by the substation and line depart- 
ment. In its usual form this kind of diagram is de- 
cipherable only to the expert, but it is desirable if 
possible to have a diagram in which the circuits can 
be traced out by an intelligent maintainer. The A. E. 
& C. diagram developed for this purpose is reproduced 
herewith. 

In this diagram the controller is developed and 
stretched out across the top of the drawing, with the 
contact fingers and segments plainly indicated and 
numbered. The main power apparatus is set off at the 
left, all power wires being indicated by heavy lines. 
The control apparatus and circuits are laid out as nearly 
as possible vertically in line with the controller fingers 
so as to facilitate the use of the diagram. To this end 
the same relay or contactor will ordinarily be shown in 
two places, one in the control circuit and the other in 
the power circuit. Each piece of equipment is labelled 
as well as numbered. The standard numbering of the 
apparatus is used, however, so that anyone at all 
familiar with substation diagrams will feel perfectly 
at home with this one. 



At the bottom of the chart is a table showing graphi- 
cally as well as by numbers the pieces of apparatus in 
circuit when each controller finger is engaged with a 
segment. This permits almost instant checking because 
the finger numbers are given directly below the con- 
troller fingers. To aid the eye and prevent error light 
vertical lines are drawn between fingers. The original 
diagram also contain an auxiliary table, omitted in the 
cut for simplicity, showing the relay settings. This 
table is as follows: 

RELAY SETTINGS FOR AUTOMATIC SUBSTATION 



•all 



Current Setting 
D.C. in Amperes 
at 600 Volts 







B 






03 




a 


« 


H 


37 




36 




32 




30 




29 




27 




26 




25 


12 see. 


24 


1 sec. 


23 


8 sec. 


3 


5 min. 


2 


Instan- 




taneous 


1 


3 sec. 



Close at 2 amp. Open at 0.78 
amp. 

Open at 50 amp. reverse 



Under load relay. 
Open on wrong polarity. 
Close at 1 90 volts. Open at 
180 volts. 



. . . . Reverse power relay. 

Close at 190 volts. Open 

at 180 volts. 

.... Overload inverse T.L. 

1400 Opens instantaneously. 

1 500 Opens instantaneously. 

1 600 Opens instantaneously. 



An excellent diagram in the usual form was given in 
connection with W. C. Slade's article in the issue of this 
paper for Dec. 14, 1918, page 1040. It will be of inter- 
est from comparison with the simplified diagram. 




Control Position 




□e (^3 Qt, ns De 0? no Q, 

aitfe 



ToCorrtactonRelayHoZO 




II! 



To Solenoid Contactor Halo 



souhoid cotmcm 



□a| 0*1 



"' RELAYS "'" ;ZM/~Y ; I ;3a.»[7; [ 3E 
RELAY CONTACTS ! |Ia»d37; I ^.M ■ 11 



EACH CIRCUIT 



SIMPLIFIED DIAGRAM OF AUTOMATIC SUBSTATION CIRCUITS, AURORA, ELGIN & CHICAGO RAILROAD 



January 11, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



105 



Exterminating Ground Squirrels on the 
Pacific Electric Railway 

By Clifford A. Elliott 

Cost Engineer Maintenance of Way Department, Pacific Electric 
Railway, Los Angeles, Cal. 

THIS company has experienced considerable trouble 
with the ground squirrel pest, which imposed a dif- 
ficult maintenance problem upon the way department. 
Climatic conditions in southern California favor the 
breeding of these squirrels in large numbers. The ro- 
dents burrow into the banks of cuts along the right of 
way and also honeycomb the roadbed. The resulting 
porous condition of the ground is the cause of soften- 
ing of roadbeds and cuts. The most damage is done 
during the rainy season, when storm waters enter the 
openings, loosen the cuts and cause landslides. The 
depredation of the squirrels in the embankments of 
bridges is also extensive. These pests infest some 



which produces a white vapor. The gas when generated 
is forced into the burrows, effort being made to have 
the wind in the operator's favor so that the gas may be 
forced deeper into the burrows. Adjacent holes are 
carefully watched for the vapor to appear and these 
are then tamped up at least 1 ft. deep by the operator's 
assistants. The vapor displaces the air in the holes 
and effectively disposes of the rodents. Usually when 
the large chamber, or main burrow, is gassed six to 
eight other outlets for the escaping vapor are discovered 
and these are immediately closed in order to get the 
desired results. The gas is not ignited when discharged 
into the burrows, the vapor alone accomplishing its 
object. When the complete gassing process has been 
efficiently undertaken, the burrows are refilled with 
vapor and the hole in which the gas discharge pipe has 
been operating is then closed. 

Upon entering a cut to gas, one foreman and four 
assistants are engaged. Two men with a gas machine 





"GASSING" OUT RODENTS ON 
At left, typical infested right-of-way ; in middle, g] 



jp of men "gassing" out 
destructive vapor. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY 

uirrels ; at right, device used in producing 



localities quite extensively and considerable trouble is 
experienced in wiping out their villages. The constant 
undermining of the tracks by them soon results in a 
general deterioration of the roadbed. During the 
spring months the rodents leave the company's right-of- 
way, going into adjoining fields to destroy the growing 
crops. 

The damage to the crops on abutting farms each year 
is very great, and the farmers complain continually of 
the pests which inhabit the company's right-of-way. 
The company each year co-operates with the farmers in 
carrying on a campaign to eliminate them, and addi- 
tional aid is given by the State Horticultural Commis- 
sion. 

Attempts have been made to exterminate the squirrels 
by putting out poison-soaked hulled barley. This has 
done some good, but during the spring season the plan 
is of no avail as the ripe, juicy roots of growing grain 
in the fields are more appetizing, and the rodents refuse 
to eat the barley that has been scattered near their 
burrows. 

The company has recently found in the market an 
automatic distillate vapor machine for gassing the 
squirrels in true war-time fashion, and the use of this 
device has gained excellent results. The squirrels are 
gassed in their burrows, as well as other small animals, 
such as rabbits, badgers, snakes, owls, etc., which un- 
fortunately inhabit the same holes as the squirrels. 

Regular engine distillate is used in the machine, 



work on one side of the cut, while two more with a 
second machine work on the opposite side. The best 
time t.o gas is after a rain, when the holes have 
been opened up by the water. One foreman and four 
men will average eighty main burrows in a ten-hour 
day, the two machines consuming 3 gal. of distillate 
during this period. 



Electric Railway Section, N. S. C, 
Inaugurates Monthly News Letter 

The first of a series of monthly news letters signed 
by H. B. Adams, chairman electric railway section 
National Safety Council, has been sent to the 131 com- 
pany members of the section. This letter contains an 
article on "Efficiency and Accident Prevention," and it 
also raises a number of points of interest to electric 
railways generally. 

Among other things, the executive committee of the 
Safety Council desires to know if there is considerable 
demand for special electric railway safety films for mov- 
ing picture machines, and to what extent electric rail- 
ways have produced such films or arranged with outside 
firms to have them produced. Mr. Adams sets as a 
standard for the nine months before the next Safety 
Congress a reduction of one accident per mile of track 
represented in the membership. As the present mem- 
bers operate 14,542 miles the standard is thus placed at 
15,000 accidents, or at the rate of 20,000 per year. 



106 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 2 



Letter to the Editors 

Cinders for Ballast Should Receive 
More Consideration 

Union Traction Company of Indiana 
Anderson, Ind., Jan. 7, 1919. 

To the Editors : 

In the Journal for Dec. 21, 1918, R. C. Cram set 
forth very clearly the necessity for using ballast in suf- 
ficient quantity and of proper quality. As stated by the 
author, ballast is the foundation that transmits the load 
from the track structure to the subgrade. The char- 
acter of the foundation depends on the amount of load 
on the track structure, eliminating, of course, unusual 
conditions in the subgrade. 

For electric interurban railway tracks other than 
those located in paved streets, having axle loads up to 
37,500 lb., the writer believes that cinders should not 
be placed so far down the list of desirable materials as 



penditure for loading, hauling and placing. Cinders 
must be loaded, hauled to destination and placed, but 
then they are on hand and some disposition must be 
made of them. 

Concerning the track-center distance where more than 
one track is used, the best practice for permanent main- 
line structures, such as poles, platforms and bridge sup- 
port is a minimum distance of 74 ft. from the center 
of the track. Center-pole line construction will require 
a track-center distance of 16 ft. assuming that the 
diameter of the pole is 1 ft. at the point of minimum 
clearance from the car body. L. A. Mitchell, 

Engineer of Maintenance of Way. 



Putting Ideas Across in Chicago 

THE car posters reproduced herewith constitute part 
of a series of eight which were recently used by the 
Chicago (111.) Elevated Railways. The first appeared 
about July 1. The posters, which measure IS in. x 10-in., 
are glued onto the windows in a conspicuous location. 



Soldiers in France Complain of Mud ill 



So do passengers on th 
Elevated cars. Help re 
move the cause of com 



plaint by keeping your A 
feet on the floor. 

THANK YOU. 




Plant A War Garden 

How are you using that extra 
hour of daylight? 

Have you planted a War Garden ? 

It is your patriotic duty to do so. 

The War Garden Committee of the State Council 
of Defense will help you. 

Call on it at 120 WEST ADAMS STREET 

EXAMPLES OF POSTERS USED BY THE CHICAGO ELEVATED RAILWAYS TO LAY ITS PROBLEMS 

BEFORE THE PUBLIC 




Mr. Cram places them. Cinders can be worked at lower 
temperatures than most other ballast materials, espe- 
cially bank run gravel, and they can be worked after 
heavy rains in wet weather. Cinders also retard the 
growth of vegetation. 

It may be that cinders produced from some kinds 
of coal, when used as ballast, will decrease the life of 
ties, but the writer's experience with this material 
for eight years, as produced by the power plants of the 
Union Traction Company of Indiana, is that cinders 
do not in any way decrease the life of ties. 

Cinders should not come in contact with the rails, 
especially where track circuits for automatic signals 
are used, as there probably will be greater leakage of 
return currents through cinder ballast than through any 
other kind of material used. Leakage of electric cur- 
rent should not be a criterion, however, in the use of 
cinders, as all ballast material should be kept from con- 
tact with the rails. When ballast is up to the top of 
the ties at the rails, small particles will work between 
the rails and the ties and increase the mechanical wear 
of the tie by breaking down the wood fibers. 

Cinders are a by-product of steam generating power 
plants and should not be wasted unless the financial con- 
dition of the railway will permit. They cost nothing as 
ballast. Any other kind of ballast material must be 
purchased, and then in addition there is the usual ex- 



The title of each poster and the "Thank You" are always 
printed in red, and in some cases also the company in- 
signia. 

The posters have brought forth some letters of sug- 
gestion from the public and have been mentioned in the 
local papers. They will be continued and will be used 
to present some of the serious problems confronting the 
company. 

Future Electrification in Great Britain 

In his presidential address before the Institution of 
Civil Engineers of Great Britain Sir John A. Aspinall 
had considerable to say with regard to electrification 
of steam railroads. "It has been remarkable," said he, 
"how when each suburban line has been worked by 
electrical trains with great frequency and increased 
rapidity there has been a very great growth of passenger 
traffic. 

The probable course of events will be that we 
shall find that electrification of the lines immediately 
around our great towns will quickly take place all over 
the country, but it is not until these widening circles 
begin to touch one another that we shall see electrical 
energy used for long-distance passenger trains. The 
additional revenue required to pay interest on the large 
capital outlay can be made most rapidly from the subur- 
ban traffic in well-selected districts." 



News of the Eledric Railways 

FINANCIAL AND CORPORATE • TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION 
PERSONAL MENTION 



Buffalo Talks Purchase 

International Railway Willing to Re- 
linquish Control If Guaranteed 8 
Per Cent on Valuation 

After the return of Mayor George S. 
Buck and the other members of the 
City Council of Buffalo, N. Y., from 
Cleveland, E. G. Connette, president of 
the International Railway, sent a com- 
munication to the Mayor setting forth 
that the railway wants the , city to 
control its service and is ready to re- 
linquish operation in the city if the 
city guarantees a return of 8 per cent 
on the valuation of the property. 

Drafting Tentative Agreement 

After the receipt of this communica- 
tion from Mr. Connette, the Council 
directed the Corporation Counsel to 
confer with the traction officials and 
draft a tentative agreement so that 
the Council will have a concrete plan 
before it upon which to work. The city 
law department is now preparing this 
tentative agreement. It is expected 
that the City Council will demand only 
a 6 per cent return. 

In his communication to the City 
Council, Mr. Connette called attention 
to the fact that the owners of the 
property were desirous of reaching an 
agreement with the city and pointed 
out that certain bases set down by the 
Mayor are acceptable to the company 
if taken together. Mr. Connette added: 

"I am prepared and authorized to 
agree to any method by which the fair 
valuation of our Buffalo property can 
be determined within the rules laid 
down by the courts to govern a valua- 
tion for rate-making purposes. The 
public service commissioners for this 
State have quite generally allowed 8 
per cent as a fair return on the cap- 
ital valuation. We regard this as low, 
but with proper guarantees in the 
shape of reserves, maintained either 
by the city or by the right to raise 
the fare, if necessary, we would ac- 
cept 8 per cent. I do not think it 
would be profitable to enter upon any 
effort to estimate the needed improve- 
ments. 

Company Needs More Revenue 

"I think that Buffalo has a very fair 
equipment. What we need most is 
money to pay the increased cost of 
operating the equipment which we 
have. The public's good-will has been 
against us for so long that I fear that 
we do not receive credit even for our 
good intentions." 

The Mayor says it would be desir- 
able in some way to substitute two 
mortgages for the present liens, one 



covering the lines within the city of 
Buffalo and the second covering all 
properties outside the city. 

The Public Service Commission has 
denied the petition of the railway for 
the commission to receive its answer 
to the rate complaint filed with the 
commission several years ago when the 
city thought there was a reasonable 
prospect of getting the 5-cent fare re- 
duced. The right of the commission 
Lo hear the case was questioned by the 
company and court proceedings were 
brought to enjoin the commission from 
hearing the case. The company con- 
tended that its franchise from the city 
protected its right to charge a 5-cent 
fare. Some time ago the city made 
application to withdraw its complaint 
from the commission and the company 
made an application asking the com- 
mission to receive its answer. It is 
said that the company by a certiorari 
or mandamus proceeding may try to 
compel the commission to receive its 
answer and go on with the rate case. 
The question of jurisdiction is still to 
be tested. 



Rapid Transit Can Proceed 

The Court of Appeals at Cincinnati, 
Ohio, has affirmed the decision of the 
Common Pleas Court in refusing an in- 
junction against the Rapid Transit 
Commission to prevent it from issuing 
$80,000 of bonds for the purpose of 
paying for the preliminary surveys for 
the proposed rapid transit loop and 
ether necessary work to be done in 
preparing for its construction. 

While the Common Pleas Court held 
that the commission was not bound by 
its resolution not to spend any of the 
money provided in the authorized $6,- 
000,000 bond issue until the plan of op- 
eration is definitely determined and 
approved, the higher court goes fur- 
ther and says this declaration is 
analogous to those contained in politi- 
cal platforms and for a similar pur- 
pose. Moreover, the court holds that 
the resolution was not a contract and 
that the commission is clearly unable 
to bind its own hands in this matter 
and thus disable itself from exercising 
its discretion in proceeding with fur- 
ther preliminary work that might be- 
come necessary to the direction of the 
enterprise. It cannot divest itself of 
the incidental and necessary right to 
spend money for such purposes. 

Attorney John C. Rogers brought the 
suit as a taxpayer, alleging that the 
commission adopted a resolution be- 
fore the bond issue was voted upon, to 
spend none of the money until the 
plans for the loop had all been com- 
pleted and approved. 



Brooklyn Outlook 

Receiver Friendly to Press but Not 
Over-communicative — Wants 
Facts First 

Lindley M. Garrison, receiver of the 
Brooklyn (N. Y.) Rapid Transit Com- 
pany, after two hours' interview with 
Federal Judge Mayer on Jan. 3, when 
asked as to the future of the road, said: 

"Until I have an opportunity to make 
a survey of the physical and financial 
properties of the company, I shall be 
unable to make any statement in regard 
to definite plans." 

Physical Survey Likely 

In a formal statement issued later, 
the receiver said in part: 

"We desire to operate this property 
with the greatest attention to the safe- 
ty of the traveling public that is pos- 
sible, and I propose to set about at 
once ascertaining the information that 
can be obtained on this subject and 
rutting into practice whatever will give 
the greatest assurance of safety to the 
traveling public. 

"I propose obtaining from the Public 
Service Commission, a physical survey 
of the property, if the members have 
already made one, and if not, propose 
requesting them to do so, so that I may 
benefit by any observations or sugges- 
tions resulting from the facts devel- 
oped. 

"In respect to damages accruing to 
the individuals, on the occasion of the 
recent lamentable accident, I, of course, 
cannot at present give any assurance, 
because I do not know the financial 
resources of the company available for 
the purpose, but I can say that it is 
the intention of the court and the re- 
ceiver to do everything humanly pos- 
sible to see that funds are available to 
pay all just claims. 

Facts Necessary to Decisions 

"With respect to the matter of in- 
creased income in order to maintain 
the roads at a proper standard of effi- 
ciency and give the best possible serv- 
ice, I cannot at this time usefully make 
any statement, as I am not advised of 
the facts. I propose to set about im- 
mediately acquiring all available infor- 
mation under this head, so as to be 
able to inform the court and carry out 
whatever policy is adopted by the court. 

"In respect to the questions that have 
been mooted in regard to the subsidiary 
companies, and what will be done in 
respect of them, I have no information 
and shall have to acquire the same 
before I can have any views or make 
any recommendations, or aid the court 
in carrying out any policy." 



108 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 2 



Chicago Electrification Proposed 

Terminal Plan Divided into Stages with Time Limit to Be Fixed 
Before Ordinance Is Passed 



A new ordinance, drafted by the 
Railway Terminal Commission of Chi- 
cago, has been submitted to the City 
Council as a basis for further dealing 
with the railroads on the subject of 
electrification. The ordinance covers 
the erection by the Illinois Central 
Railroad of a new passenger terminal 
at East Twelfth Street, and the rail- 
road is ordered to proceed to rearrange 
and relocate its tracks, stations and 
appurtenances on its main line in the 
city so as to make them suitable for 
operation by electric power in ac- 
cordance with time limits to be de- 
cided upon before the ordinance is 
passed. 

Michigan Central Included 

The Michigan Central Railroad, 
which also uses the East Twelfth 
Street station, is at the same time or- 
dered to arrange to operate its trains 
and cars by electric power from Ken- 
sington Station north to the Chicago 
River. 

Electrification of the Illinois Central 
Railroad is to be put into effect in 
four different stages, but the time 
limits for each have not yet been de- 
cided upon. Stages of development are 
as follows: 

1. The entire suburban passenger 
service within the city limits. 

2. Freight service on all tracks north 
of East Twelfth Street. 

3. Freight service on the main line 
south of Twelfth Street to the city 
limits and over the South Chicago 
Railroad, the Blue Island Railroad and 
the Kensington & Eastern Railroad. 

4. All remaining freight service and 
through passenger service within the 
city limits. 

Electrification of the Michigan Cen- 
tral Railroad will take place in two 
stages as follows: 

1. Freight service on all tracks north 
of East Twelfth Street. 

2. All remaining freight and passen- 
ger service north of Kensington Sta- 
tion. 

Suburban Service Affected 

Other railroads not operating by 
electricity will be permitted to enter 
the city over the Illinois Central tracks 
for the interchange of freight and the 
Illinois Central Railroad will be per- 
mitted to handle similar exchange busi- 
ness by steam. 

The ordinance contains provision for 
suburban service underneath Grant 
Park in connection with the develop- 
ment of plans for subways for street 
and rapid transit railways. Authoriza- 
tion is also given to change from time 
to time the type of construction or 
operation and to extend systems of 
distribution for power, light and water 
along the right-of-way of the com- 
panies affected. 

The attitude of the Railway Ter- 



minal Commission has been that a 
railroad can be electrified when it can 
be shown that it is financially prac- 
tical. For this reason it was consid- 
ered advisable not to institute an or- 
dinance covering the electrification of 
all steam lines, but to separate them, 
and provide for the electrification of 
each as financial conditions warranted. 
The large suburban service of the Il- 
linois Central Railroad naturally made 
that line the first to receive attention. 

An ordinance was submitted by the 
Illinois Central Railroad more than a 
year ago which provided only for the 
electrification of its suburban service. 
This was not acceptable to the city, 
and thus the new ordinance is the 
next step in the development. Public 
hearings have been and will continue 
to be held on this ordinance, and as a 
result of these the dates for the com- 
pletion of the various stages of the 
work will be decided upon. It is be- 
lieved that these will be periods of ap- 
proximately five-year intervals. 

Agitation Started in 1915 

Numerous items concerning the de- 
velopment of plans for electrification 
at Chicago have appeared in the Elec- 
tric Railway Journal during the last 
three years, beginning with the smoke 
abatement report which appeared late 
in 1915. As the present ordinance is 
concurred in in practically every detail 
by the railroads affected, it is believed 
that it will be passed Without difficulty, 
and that work on the electrification 
will start without delay. 



M. O. Bill Ready in New York 

A bill which is favored by the State 
Conference of Mayors, permitting each 
city in the State of New York to pur- 
chase and operate every public utility 
within the city limits, has been drafted 
and perfected and will be introduced 
in the Legislature soon, according to 
present plans. Governor Smith also 
favors such legislation. One provision 
of the Mayors' conference bill avoids 
the debt limit prohibition by permitting 
a city to issue public utility securities 
which would not be included in compu- 
tations of a city's debt limit. This is 
now the rule concerning New York 
City subway bonds and water and dock 
bonds. Where a city's debt limit does 
not interfere, a city may issue the usual 
obligations of a municipality to pur- 
chase public utilities. 

Travis H. Whitney, of the Public 
Service Commission for the First Dis- 
trict of New York, was one of the 
committee which drew the bill favored 
by the Mayors' conference. The meas- 
ure provides that a municipality shall 
not commence the acquisition or estab- 
lish or begin the operation of a pub- 
lic utility without first securing the 
consent of the Public Service Commis- 



sion, and all municipal public service 
corporations would be under the juris- 
diction of the public service commis- 
sions, the same as when they were un- 
der private control. 

Each city is to create a municipal 
director of public utilities with power 
to appoint and remove employees, who 
would have the power to provide ade- 
quate and continuous service at rea- 
sonable rates without undue discrimi- 
nation. 

Another provision would permit sev- 
eral municipalities or political divisions 
of the State to organize into a single 
utility district and jointly acquire and 
operate public utilities. 



Terminal Approved 

Cleveland Votes for Union Station Fac- 
ing the Public Square — For Steam 
and Electric Passengers 

The franchise giving the Cleveland 
Union Terminals Company a right to 
erect a union station facing the Public 
Square at Cleveland, Ohio, was ap- 
proved by a vote of the electors on 
Jan. 6, by a majority of 10,842. The 
plan includes both steam and interur- 
ban passenger station service, to the 
exclusion of the lake front proposition 
which was intended to take care of the 
steam roads only. 

O. P. Van Sweringen, president of 
the company, stated that construction 
will probably be begun in March. Ap- 
proval of the Federal Railroad Admin- 
istration will be sought at once. Funds 
for the construction are said to be 
ready. Within a few days a meeting 
of the heads of the railroads which will 
use the station will be called to com- 
plete details. 

Besides occupying all the space fac- 
ing one-fourth of the Public Square on 
the south from the new Hotel Cleveland, 
also a Van Sweringen proposition, to 
Ontario Street, the west side of the 
latter street will be improved with new 
structures. In addition, the same in- 
terests are building a freight terminal 
and a system of warehouses where all 
freight will be delivered and received 
at high-level for the roads which enter 
the basement section of the terminals 
from the river valley, thus saving cart- 
age up and down the steep hills to the 
depots where they are now located. 

A portion of a rapid transit line 
i-eaching Cleveland Heights and Euclid 
Heights, now becoming an extensive 
residence district, has been built. This 
will be completed to the new depot. 
Rapid transit service will also be fur- 
nished to other suburban districts. 
Mr. Arnold Reports on Plan 

Bion J. Arnold, who has been inves- 
tigating the transportation problem of 
Cleveland for the Chamber of Com- 
merce, made a report to that body on 
Dec. 17, in which he stated that the 
location of a union station on the Pub- 
lic Square would eventually cause such 
great congestion that another station 
would have to be built. The growth 
of the city has been such, he said, that 
it will double its normal operations in 



January 11, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



109 



about eight years. All business sta- 
tistics prove this. 

The proposed trackage for the en- 
trance of steam roads to the Public 
Square site might be adequate for fif- 
teen years, but should much new com- 
muter service be introduced, another 
depot might easily have to be built 
within that time. Electrification would 
appear essential for a depot in that lo- 
cation. Mr. Arnold advises against the 
abandonment of the suburban depots, 
as they accommodate people on the 
crosstown lines and will aid in the 
development of steam commuter serv- 
ice. 

Location of the station on the Pub- 
lic Square is advantageous because of 
convenience of access, but there are 
many objections to it in other ways. 
Considering the expense of building 
track entrances of interurbans to the 
station and the readjustment of opera- 
tions required in other ways, Mr. Ar- 
nold doubts the feasibility of the plan 
mapped out for them. On the orig- 
inal plan of building a station on the 
lake front, which is recommended for 
further consideration, a separate sta- 
tion for the use of interurbans would 
have to be built, as outlined in the 
original plan, shown in the Cleveland 
& Youngstown Railway ordinance. 



Kansas City Service Nearly Normal 

Company Looks Upon Strike as Ended — Peculiar Angles of a 
Peculiar Controversy 



Omaha Labor Case Settled 

Joint Chairmen William H. Taft and 
Basil M. Manly of the National War 
Labor Board held a hearing in Omaha, 
Neb., on Jan. 2 and 3 in connection with 
grievances charged by the carmen 
against the Omaha & Council Bluffs 
Street Railway. 

A decision read by Mr. Taft at the 
close of the hearing directs that the 
railway shall make some changes in 
schedules in the interest of fairness 
and justice to the men. It was held 
that the company acted within its 
rights, under the rules of the War La- 
bor Board, when it refused on Dec. 3 
to enter into a contract with the union. 

Messrs. Taft and Manly held, how- 
ever, that the pride of union men and 
the technical sensitiveness of the com- 
pany led to controversies. Union recog- 
nition was not a vital factor of the 
hearing, although the decision, in ef- 
fect, read that sometimes too much 
stress has been placed by the company 
on the question of whether a commit- 
ete of its employees represented a 
union. 

In the matter of alleged discrimina- 
tion against union men by the com- 
pany, the decision held that the com- 
pany is endeavoring to comply with the 
orders of the War Labor Board. The 
application for a modification of the 
award in the matters of increased 
wages and a fundamental change of 
schedules was overruled, because a 
hearing may be had before the entire 
War Labor Board on Feb. 1, when a re- 
vision of the award will be considered. 

The matters in dispute went before 
the board for settlement following a 
short strike. 



The Kansas City (Mo.) Railways re- 
sumed service on Dec. 13, two days 
after the strike started. By Jan. 1 
half the normal number of cars were 
in service, and cars were running as 
late as 9 o'clock at night. On Jan. 4 
owl car service was restored on the 
important lines, marking the turning 
point in the resumption to normal 
service. 

The court proceedings which have as- 
sisted the restoration of service have 
been diverse, because of the different 
conditions in Kansas City, Kan., and 
Kansas City, Mo. 

The company had filed in both Judge 
Van Valkenburgh's court, Missouri 
side, and in Judge Pollock's court, Kan- 
sas side, its suit to get light on the 
War Labor Board's decision of Oct. 24. 
and for injunction against hindrance in 
raising fares. On Dec. 2, the courts 
en banc, rendered their decision, the 
company appealing to the Supreme 
Court of the United States. Mean- 
while, the company had instituted its 
petitions to the State Public Service 
Commissions, to secure authority to 
increase fares as the War Labor Board 
had recommended. 

The employees struck on Dec. 11. 

On Dec. 17 the company sought 
leave to file suits for injunction against 
the strikers and others, in both federal 
courts. These suits for injunctions were 
supplemental bills to the suit regard- 
ing the War Labor Board's decision. 
Judge Van Valkenburgh, in the Mis- 
souri district, granted a restraining 
order. Hearing as to an injunction was 
set for Dec. 27; postponed from time 
to time. The defendants had empha- 
sized the question of jurisdiction; and 
had attacked the filing of the petition 
as a supplemental bill. On Jan. 4 
Clyde Taylor, attorney for the com- 
pany, filed, as attorney for the Con- 
tinental & Commercial Trust & Sav- 
ings Bank of Chicago, an Illinois cor- 
poration, an original bill, asking in- 
junction; this proceeding seeming to 
meet all possible objections as to jur- 
isdiction and as to supplemental bills, 
in the matter. Hearing of this ap- 
plication was set also for Jan. 11. 

On the Missouri side of the state 
line, the city police had promised pro- 
tection to property, and were trying 
to give it; the company had also the 
protection of the Missouri National 
Guard. 

The course of events on the Kansas 
side was somewhat different. Judge 
Pollock denied an injunction, but he or- 
dered the railway to restore service; 
ordered the city officials to provide pro- 
tection, and retained jurisdiction. On 
Jan. 2 the Kansas City (Kan.) Cham- 
ber of Commerce was allowed to in- 
tervene, with a showing that the rail- 
way had not complied with the order 
to restore service, and that the city 
had not provided guards. The court 



thereupon ordered the marshal to en- 
force its orders that cars should run 
and protection be provided; and grant- 
ed, at this time, the restraining order 
asked on Dec. 17 by the company. The 
marshal, advised of the prospective or- 
der, had many deputies ready; he 
swore in others, and also gave commis- 
sions and stars to motormen and con- 
ductors operating cars in Kansas. The 
marshal reported daily to the court in 
regard to the enforcement of the 
court's orders. 

Meanwhile, the strikers appeared be- 
fore the War Labor Board in Omaha, 
and were instructed to present evi- 
dence of their allegation that the 
company was not in good faith seek- 
ing to secure higher fares that higher 
wages might be paid. The War Board 
suggested that they would appear to 
better advantage if they returned to 
work; the company, however, definitely 
declined to restore their contract, or 
take them back except individually as 
the merits of each of the applications 
warranted. 

Following the refusal of the War 
Labor Board on Jan. 3 at Omaha, to 
reopen the Kansas City case, E. M. 
Harber, city counselor of Kansas City, 
Mo., sent a telegram on the strike sit- 
uation to the board. Mr. Harber stated 
emphatically that charges were un- 
founded that the company was not do- 
ing its best to secure higher fares. Mr. 
Harber, however, asked the board to 
restate its findings, to remove all pos- 
sible misunderstanding. 

President Kealy issued a statement 
on Jan. 5, after hearing of the proposal 
the strikers were about to make as to 
returning to work. This statement he 
concluded as follows: 

Too Late for Fomer Conditions 

It is too late for anyone to talk of re- 
turning under former conditions and re- 
storing the status quo. This might have 
been possible during the first few days be- 
fore hundreds of new men were employed 
and before the company had given its word 
to those hired. Lapse of time and acts of 
violence have foreclosed the rights of any 
former employee of this company who has 
broken a contract and put this community 
to loss and inconvenience, now to come 
back and demand to be returned to his for- 
mer status. This is a physical impossibil- 
ity. We have more than 1,400 men in train 
service and are adding to these at the rate 
of 100 a day. Complete restoration of nor- 
mal service now only waits upon the in- 
struction of students. 

A number of our ex-employees are taking 
advantage of this and have returned to 
work to-day. Many more have made their 
arrangements to do so to-morrow. In view 
of the fact that we have practically rebuilt 
our organization, all those wishing to re- 
turn to the work for which they are trained 
should do so without any delay. Every day 
means that more places are filled, and if 
they continue to wait a larger number of 
them cannot be used. 

For the benefit of the business and civic 
interests of the two Kansas Cities, we are 
insistent upon a termination of this matter 
in such a way as to insure an uninterrupted 
continuation of railway service in the com- 
munity. The necessity for this has been 
clearly shown by the fact that there have 
been three strikes in a period of sixteen 
months. 

For the first time in three years we are 
now able to rebuild our organization to the 
size it was before the war. 



110 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 2 



New York City Conferences 

Explanation Made of Negotiations with 
City Looking Toward Settlement 
of Transit Matters 

Theodore P. Shonts, president of the 
Interborough Rapid Transit Company, 
New York, N. Y., appeared before the 
Public Service Commission for the First 
District on Jan. 7 and corroborated the 
testimony given by James L. Quaken- 
busch, general attorney for the com- 
pany. Mr. Quakenbusch testified on 
Jan. 6 before the commission that he 
and Grenville McFarlane, a Boston 
lawyer, who is said to have been as- 
sociated with William Randolph Hearst 
in the promotion of public ownership 
legislation, had had several confer- 
ences with Mayor Hylan over the mat- 
ter of increased fares for the Inter- 
borough. 

Railway Officers Confer 
With Mayor 

Mr. Shonts said that he personally 
had called upon the Mayor and sug- 
gested that the city be represented on 
the Interborough board of directors. 
Mr. Shonts is quoted as follows: 

"Mayor Hylan told me that there 
must be some solution of the fare 
problem. I suggested that a commit- 
tee from the roads and the Board of 
Estimate get together and try in some 
way to thresh the whole thing out. 
Mayor Hylan said he did not know but 
that it would be a good thing." 

During the present inquiry there has 
been much talk about a "protocol" 
drawn following conferences between 
the railway and city officials whereby 
the city would assume control of all 
the transit lines. In its original form 
this document provided that, as the 
city and the Public Service Commis- 
sion would not consent to an increase 
in fare unless the companies agreed 
to convey their railroads and assign 
the leases of those they did not own, 
trustees be appointed by the public au- 
thorities to manage the lines so as to 
furnish the best possible service and 
to protect the investors. 

Eight-Cent Fare Suggested 

It further provided that the fare 
should be increased to 8 cents, with 3 
cents additional for transfers; that all 
of the profits should be deposited with 
a trust company, and that the profits, 
if there be any, should be divided be- 
tween the city and the companies. It 
is also provided that the Legislature 
be petitioned for an amendment to the 
Constitution, so that the city could 
make a trust agreement similar to that 
between the city of Boston and the 
Boston Elevated Railroad. Other nec- 
essary laws, to enable the carrying out 
of the plan, were also to be sought, 
so that all the lines could be oper- 
ated as a unified system after the 
Chicago plan. 

It was also provided that the In- 
terborough and the Brooklyn Rapid 
Transit Companies receive their pref- 
erentials from the city as a eniaran- 



teed payment. The plan provided that 
the city should transfer to the trus- 
tees any accumulated funds out of its 
one-half part of the sum in excess of 
the minimum returns above the cost 
of service, and that if this sum did not 
amount to sums set forth in tables to 
be known as "Guaranty Fund Tables," 
the trustees must make up the differ- 
ence out of the funds in their posses- 
sion after paying the costs. If the 
fund was not then full the plan pro- 
vided for payments by the city to com- 
plete the amount necessary. The cost 
of service was to cover these items: 

All operating expenses, including dam- 
ages and maintenance, repairs, and re- 
newals. 

Taxes. 

Rentals and interest on all funded debt. 

Such allowance for depreciation of prop- 
erty and for obsolescence and losses in re- 
spect to property sold, destroyed, or aban- 
doned property, as the trustees may deem 
necessary or advisable, or prior to their 
appointment as may be agreed upon, or 
fixed by arbitration. 

All other expenditures and charges 
which, under the laws of the State of 
New York, now or hereafter in effect, may 
be properly chargeable against income or 
surplus. 

The city and the Public Service Com- 
mission were to have the right to ap- 
point two directors. 

On Jan. 7 Mr. Shonts referred to 
the feeling between the Mayor and the 
commission, and said that he repre- 
sented a client that was, figuratively 
speaking, between two fires, and that 
the conferences were conducted so that 
an agreement could be reached with 
the Mayor, and then submitted to the 
commission on its merits. Mr. Shonts 
said that Mr. Quakenbusch's explana- 
tion was quite correct. 



Mr. Cameron Exonerated 

Cases against employees of the 
United Railways, St. Louis, Mo., in- 
cluding Bruce Cameron, superintendent 
of transportation, hastily indicted in 
July last for their alleged connection 
with the disappearance of the referen- 
dum petitions calling for a vote on the 
new franchise for the railway, since 
refused by the company as too onerous 
in its terms, have been dismissed in 
court for lack of evidence. When the 
case was called recently, attorneys for 
the railway announced their readiness 
to proceed, but no one appeared to 
prosecute for the city. 

In proclaiming his innocence at the 
time the indictments were returned 
Mr. Cameron said: 

"I have been indicted upon the evi- 
dence of one Jackson, who confesses 
he committed the deed himself, and 
of which I am innocent and had no 
knowledge or connection. My case will 
be tried in court, where my innocence 
will be established." 



Carhouse and Cars Destroyed 

The carhouse and twelve cars, be- 
longing to the Southwestern Gas & 
Electric Company, Texarkana, Tex.- 
Ark., were destroyed by fire on Dec. 
27, causing a loss of more than $100,- 
000. The company operates 14 miles of 
electric railway. 



Council Approves Purchase 

Seattle Body Votes to Take Over Local 
Railway — Friendly Suit to Fix 
City's Purchase Right 

The City Council of Seattle, Wash., on 
Dec. 31, passed, by a vote of five to 
two, the ordinance authorizing the city 
to purchase the railway property of 
the Puget Sound Traction, Light & 
Power Company, for $15,000,000 in 
utility bonds. The ordinance was passed 
after negotiation lasting over a period 
of four months. 

Date of Delivery Uncertain 

While the exact date for the delivery 
of the properties cannot be set, A. W. 
Leonard, president of the company, 
states that unless unexpected obstacles 
arise, the transaction ought to be closed 
in forty-five to sixty days. 

To determine the legality of the 
transaction, and to interpret the mean- 
ing of the utility bonds, the City Coun- 
cil and traction officials agreed to file 
a "friendly" case in the King County 
Superior Court. Papers in an injunc- 
tion suit restraining the city from is- 
suing bonds had been prepared, and the 
case was filed immediately after the 
ordinance was passed. 

By the terms of the purchase ordi- 
nance, the company is required within 
forty-five days after the termination of 
any litigation in connection with the 
transaction to deliver the property to 
the city free and clear of all incum- 
brances. All franchises are to be sur- 
rendered to the city and the company 
is to dismiss all legal actions pending 
against the 'city. All taxes are to be 
paid up to the date of the transfer, 
including the gross earnings tax for 
1918. The company is required to pay 
a forfeit of $400 a day, for every day 
after the forty-five days following the 
termination of the litigation, which 
transpires before the deed to the prop- 
erty and the bill of sale are delivered. 

The ordinance also provides that the 
company must replace any property 
destroyed by fire or otherwise pending 
delivery to the city. When delivery is 
made, the company will be required 
to submit a statement showing that 
from Oct. 1 last up to the time of de- 
livery, there has been spent monthly 
on maintenance the same average 
monthly sum that was spent for that 
purpose during the last five years. If 
this sum is not spent on maintenance, 
the company will be required to turn 
the cash over to the city. Until all of 
the above conditions are fulfilled, the 
city will retain the $15,000,000 in utility 
bonds. 

More Than 200 Miles Involved 

The property to be acquired by the 
city includes 203 miles of track, 540 
cars, carhouses and yards, repair shops 
at Georgetown, cable stations and all 
equipment and supplies required in 
the operation of the railway system. 
The railway is said to comprise only 
about one-fifth of the Puget Sound 
Traction, Light & Power Company's 



January 11, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



ill 



properties in the Seattle district. Com- 
pany headquarters will be continued 
in Seattle, with A. W. Leonard presi- 
dent, at the head. 

Councilman Oliver T. Erickson, the 
father of municipal ownership in Seat- 
tle, voted against the purchase, on the 
ground that the price was too high. 

It has been reported that a refer- 
endum would be invoked on the rail- 
way purchase, but city officials do not 
expect any such development in view 
of the fact that at the time the ad- 
visory ballot was submitted in No- 
vember the people voted four to one 
in favor of the purchase. 



Omaha Ready to Sell 

The appointment of a committee of 
three to include the Mayor is being 
urged upon the Council of Omaha, 
Neb., to confer with the officers of the 
Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Rail- 
way, Omaha, Neb., with respect to the 
matter of the possible purchase of the 
property by the city. The company's 
position on the matter has been stated 
through G. W. Wattles, its president. 
He is quoted as follows: 

"I will be very glad to talk to the 
committee appointed by the City Coun- 
cil. I have stated openly to the Coun- 
cil that we are willing to sell the street 
railway. But there are two sides to 
that proposition. If the city wants to 
pay us the money we have put into 
the development of this property to its 
high standard of the present day, plus 
the legal rate of interest on that money, 
then we won't lose much time in agree- 
ing and I shall advise the stockholders 
to sell. But if, on the other hand, the 
city is going to try to take away from 
the stockholders of this company the 
• property which their money and their 
efforts and their foresight have de- 
veloped, if they are going to try to take 
this property away without a just 
compensation to those who have put 
their money into it, then we shall have 
a great deal to say." 



News Notes 



Municipal Ownership Bee Buzzing. — 

The City Council of Columbus, Ohio, on 
Dec. 30 asked City Attorney Scarlett 
for an opinion on the legal and financial 
measures necessary to acquire the rail- 
way property of the Columbus Railway, 
Power & Light Company. This is re- 
garded as a first step toward municipal 
ownership, but is really incidental to 
the franchise and fare dispute between 
the company and the city. 

City Wants Leased Lines Abolished. 
— One of the first measures presented 
after the new City Council at Provi- 
dence, R. I., had organized provides that 



the Council committee on Rhode Island 
Company affairs be directed to prepai-e 
a plan and present it to the General 
Assembly abolishing the leased line 
system, reducing the capital stock and 
eliminating unprofitable lines. The 
resolution calling for these changes has 
been referred to the committee for con- 
sideration. 

Accepts Wisconsin Indeterminate 
Permits. — At the instigation of Presi- 
dent A. M. Robertson, the Duluth-Su- 
perior Street Railway has surrendered 
its franchise to operate in Superior, 
Wis. The system operating between 
the two cities is now on the indeter- 
minate permit basis so far as Wiscon- 
sin is concerned. Difference in the 
terms of the permit and franchise is 
mainly based on the appearance before 
the State instead of city officials for 
any grants to be made in behalf of 
the company or public. 

Hudson Tunnel Bill Rejected.— The 
Senate interstate commerce committee 
voted on Dec. 12 its disapproval of the 
Calder bill, providing for an appropria- 
tion by the government of $6,000,000 
to build a vehicular tunnel under the 
Hudson River at New York. A deci- 
sion not to report the bill to the Senate 
was reached after the committee had 
heard representatives of the Joint Tun- 
nel Commission of New York and New 
Jersey and other advocates of the tun- 
nel scheme. The project was rejected 
on the ground that Congress would be 
setting a precedent for tunnel and 
bridge enterprises, backed by govern- 
ment capital. 

Question of Contract Rights in New 
Jersey. — The report of the committee 
of the New Jersey League of Munici- 
palities to decide whether the United 
States Supreme Court will pass upon 
the power of the Board of Public Utili- 
ty Commissioners of New Jersey to 
abrogate municipal franchise contracts 
providing for maximum rates for utility 
service, will be submitted at a meeting 
to be held in Trenton, N. J., on Jan. 20. 
The question has been referred to the 
executive committee of the league. If 
the matter goes to the United States 
Supreme Court, it is said that the test 
will be made in connection with the de- 
cision of the State Commission author- 
izing the Public Service Railway to 
raise its fares. 

Moving Platform Plan Presented. — ■ 
The Continuous Transit Securities 
Company, of which M. Everhart Smith 
is president, has filed with the Public 
Service Commission for the First Dis- 
trict of New York a plan for the es- 
tablishment of a moving platform in 
P'orty-second Street in place of the 
present shuttle subway operation be- 
tween the East and West Side sub- 
way lines. It is proposed to utilize 
two of the four tracks and to con- 
struct three moving platforms, the 
fastest of which will operate at a 
speed of 9 m.p.h. and its seating ca- 
pacity 31,600 passengers an hour. The 
cost is estimated at less than $1,000,- 
000. The commission has taken the 
plan under consideration. 



Berkeley Preparing for Blanket 
Franchise. — As the first step toward 
granting a resettlement franchise to 
the San Francisco-Oakland Terminal 
Railways, the City Council of Berkeley, 
Cal., has requested the State Railroad 
Commission to place a valuation on all 
properties owned by the company in 
Berkeley. A revaluation as requested 
by the Council will be placed on hold- 
ings of the company as they existed 
on March 2, 1917, which is the date of 
the first request made by the railway 
for a blanket franchise. Under the 
proposed betterment franchise the 
company will operate under a single 
permit instead of a multitude of fran- 
chises covering various units of the 
system. 

Brooklyn Officials Ask Change of 
Venue.-^-The attorneys for President 
Timothy S. Williams, of the Brooklyn 
(N. Y.) Rapid Transit Company, and 
other officers of the company indicted 
in connection with the accident on Nov. 
1, have secured an order directing the 
District Attorney to show cause why 
a change of venue to a county outside 
of New York City should not be grant- 
ed. The order is returnable before 
Justice Callaghan in Special Term of 
the Supreme Court, Part I, on Jan. 16. 
Justice Kapper was to have tried the 
first of the cases on Jan. 6, but the 
order of Justice Jenks acts as a stay, 
and no trial can be had until Jan. 30, 
at the earliest. The stay remains in 
operation until three days after the 
court makes a decision on the argu- 
ment for the change of venue. 



Programs of Meetings 

New England Street Railway Club 
The New England Street Railway 
Club will hold its annual Manufactur- 
ers' Night on Jan. 23, at the Hotel 
Somerset, Boston, Mass. A large com- 
mittee is making unusual preparations 
for the dinner, entertainment, music 
and vaudeville. 

Illinois Electric Railway Association 
The annual meeting of the Illinois 
Electric Railway Association will be 
held at the Hotel La Salle, Chicago, 
111., on Jan. 17. It is expected that P. 
H. Gadsden, chairman of the commit- 
tee on readjustment of the American 
Electric Railway Association, will ad- 
dress the meeting. There will also be 
an address on safety by H. B. Adams, 
chairman of the electric railway sec- 
tion of the National Safety Council. 
John Leisenring of the Illinois Trac- 
tion System, H. A. Johnson of the Chi- 
cago Elevated Railways, B. J. Fallon 
of the Chicago Elevated Railways and 
W. P. Potter of the Illinois Traction 
System, chairmen of the electrical, me- 
chanical, way and traffic committees 
respectively will each present a paper. 
The allegory "The Grim Reaper," which 
was presented before the Central Elec- 
tric Railway Association at Indian- 
apolis in November, will be presented 
at Chicago. 



112 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 2 



Financial and Corporate 



More Revenues Needed 

New York Railways in Latest Fiscal 
Year Lacked $153,000 of Meeting 
First Mortgage Bond Interest 

During the year ended June 30, 1918, 
the income of the New York (N. Y.) 
Railways was $153,634 less than the 
sum required to pay its operating ex- 
penses, rentals and interest on its first 
mortgage bonds. In other words, it 
lacked by this amount sufficient to pay 
the interest on its first real estate and 
refunding 4 per cent bonds and paid 
no interest whatever on its $30,609,487 
cf 5 per cent adjustment bonds. Nat- 
urally the stock, which under the re- 
organization was reduced from $52,- 
000,000 to $17,500,000, received nothing. 
The company has no surplus to draw 
upon to make good these losses. In 
fact, it had an existing deficit at June 
30, 1918, of $1,355,880. 

The result, the company's annual re- 
port states, is inevitable. Reserves have 
been depleted, and available funds from 
all other sources are being used up in 
an endeavor to maintain the service 
until an increased fare can be had. 
Unless this is speedily forthcoming a 
receivership cannot be avoided, with 
its attendant losses and probable dis- 
ruption of service, as under a receiver- 
ship a large portion of the service now 
rendered by the company at a loss 
would be discontinued. 



Since strikes on the lines of the sys- 
tem were in effect within the first half 
of the fiscal year ended June 30, 1917, 
which created abnormal results both 
as to revenue and expenses, extended 
comparison between 1917 and 1918 
revenues and expenses would be use- 
less. The following comment, there- 
fore, while setting forth the amount 
of the increases and decreases as be- 
tween 1918 and 1917, is confined gen- 
erally to a comparison between the 
year ended June 30, 1918, a year free 
from strikes but within the war period, 
and the year ended June 30, 1914, a 
period prior to the war. 

The gross passenger revenue for the 
year ended June 30, 1918, showed an 
increase over that of the preceding 
year of $419,518 or 3.75 per cent. As 
compared with 1914, the revenue from 
passengers during 1918 fell off $1,806,- 
433 or 13.46 per cent. There was also 
a decrease approximately correspond- 
ing thereto in the number of revenue 
passengers carried, there having been 
34,849,794 less passengers carried in 
1918 than In 1914. Other street railway 
operating revenue increased $6,406 over 
1917, and as compared with 1914 de- 
creased $104,021. 

Railway operating expenses during 
the last year were $8,131,471, an in- 
crease over 1917 of $262,661 or 3.34 
per cent. 

The total charge to the maintenance 
accounts during 1918 (equal to 20 per 



Amount Cent 
$11,195,729 97.40 



608,615 
3,526,824 
1,051,400 

597,697 



30 68 
9 15 
5.20 



$7,997,325 69.58 



COMPARATIVE INCOME STATEMENT OF NEW YORK RAILWAYS FOR YEARS ENDED 

JUNE 30, 1917 AND 1918 

. 1918 . 1917 

Per Per 

Amount Cent 

Revenue from transportation $11,615,247 97.45 

Other railway operating revenue 304,786 2 .55 

Total revenue from railway operations $11,920,033 100 .00 

Operating expenses: 

Maintenance of way and structures $1,368,433 11.48 

Maintenance of equipment 1,454,483 12.20 

Horsepower — revenue car service 908 0.01 

Operation of power plant 675,366 5 66 

Operation of cars 3,593,811 30.15 

Injuries to persons and property 1,157,154 9 71 

General and miscellaneous. 641,495 5 .38 

Total "actual" expenditures $8,891,650 74.59 

Maintenance of way and structures, reserve $33,186 0.28 

Maintenance of equipment, reserve 472,095 *3 . 96 

Injuries to persons and property, reserve 321,240 *2 .69 

Total reserves $760,179 *6.37 

Total operating cxpenditures.and reserve credits $8131,471 68 22 

Taxes assignable to railway operations 1,170,223 9 82 

Total operating expenses and taxes 9,301,694 78 .04 

Income from railway operations $2,618,339 21.96 

Non-operating income 627,118 5 .27 

Grossineome $3,245,457 27.23 

Deductions from gross income 2,676,550 22.45 

Net income available for interest on 4 per cent bonds $568,907 4 .78 

Interest on 4 per cent bonds 722,541 6 07 

Net income before deducting interest on adjustment mortgage 

income bonds and other requirements *$ 153,634 *1.29 

Add — surplus account * 1,202,246 *10.09 

Surplus *$1, 355,880 * 1 1 . 38 

♦Decrease or deficit. 



$99,768 
39,416 
267,699 



(I K7 

0.34 
2.33 



23 20 
5 00 



cent of the total operating revenue) 
was $2,384,007, an increase of $85,175 
as compared with 1917. The total ex- 
penditures for maintenance during the 
year were $2,822,916, or $438,909 in ex- 
cess of the charge, thus reducing the 
company's reserve for maintenance and 
depreciation. During 1914 the actual ex- 
penditures for maintenance were $2,- 
447,395, and there was credited to the 
depreciation reserve account $324,773, 
the total charge for maintenance and 
depreciation being $2,772,168. 



TRAFFIC STATISTICS OF N. Y. RAILWAYS 

1918 1917 

Cash fares 223,765,819 215,672,697 

Revenue transfers 14,377,030 13,866,986 

Free transfers 83,891,488 85,088,109 

Total passengers 322,034,337 314,627,792 

Ratio of free transfer pas- 
sengers to revenue pas- 
sengers, (per cent) 35.23 37.07 

Average fare per passen- 
ger: 

Per passenger, including 

transfers (cents) ... . 3.607 3.559 

Per revenue passenger 

(cents) 4.877 4.877 

Operating expenses per 
passenger: 

Per passenger includ- 
ing transfers (cents) 2.525 2.501 
Per revenue passenger 

(cents) 3.415 3.428 

Car-miles 26,993,360 28,918,483 



During 1918 the amount expended 
for injuries to persons and property 
was $1,157,154, an increase of $105,754 
over 1917. The costs as accrued during 
the year, however (on the basis of 
7.2 per cent of the gross passenger 
revenue), resulted in a net charge to 
operating expenses on this account for 
1918 of $835,884, the difference between 
the amount expended and accrued rep- 
resenting the balance in the accumu- 
lated reserve account which was dis- 
continued after June 30, 1918. 

Taxes assignable to railway opera- 
tions showed a rise of $138,212 or 13.39 
per cent as compared with 1917. This 
increase is accounted for principally by 
additional federal income and excess 
profits taxes applying to leased lines, 
the burden of which will, it is antici- 
pated, be relatively even greater dur- 
ing the coming year. 

The gross income for 1918 was an 
increase of $4,569 over 1917. As com- 
pared with 1914, however, there was a 
decrease of $1,208,131. Income deduc- 
tions during 1918 increased $10,150 
over 1917, due principally to an increase 
in interest on bills payable, less de- 
creases in charges on account of in- 
terest on other unfunded debt, and 
decreases in sundry rents, etc. 

There was a deficit of $153,634 in net 
income for 1918, and the deficit at June 
30, 1918, was $1,355,888, an increase 
as compared with 1917 of $211,148. 
A comparison of 1914 with 1918 shows 
that at June 30, 1914, the amount of 
surplus available for interest on ad- 
justment mortgage income bonds and 
other requirements, was $1,196,164 or 
$2,552,044 more than on June 30, 1918. 

Miscellaneous operating statistics 
of the company for the years ended 
June 30, 1917 and 1918, are shown in 
the table above. 



January 11, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



113 



Effect of Higher Fares 

Kevenue Increased and Riding De- 
creased in Most Cases — Interurban 
Traffic Suffered Less than Urban 
In a recent canvass made by the in- 
formation bureau of the American Elec- 
tric Railway Association among electric 
railways which are collecting increased 
rates of fare, the replies indicated that 
the riding habit of the patrons of 53 
per cent of the companies was adverse- 
ly affected by the fare increases. On 
the other hand, 40 per cent of the 
companies found no alteration, and 7 
per cent experienced an actual increase. 
This information was obtained from 161 
companies with about 16,513 miles of 
single track. This is 34.12 per cent of 
the total mileage for the United States. 

Revenue Decreased in Few Cases 

In 81 per cent of the cases the op- 
erating revenue of the company was 
increased. In 10 per cent there was no 
increase, and in 9 per cent there was 
an actual decrease. 

Of the purely urban companies, 
seventy-one of which reported, 58 per 
cent showed a decrease in riding, 36 
per cent showed no adverse effect, and 
6 per cent reported an increase. Seven- 
ty-eight per cent reported increased 
revenue, 10 per cent no change and 12 
per cent actual losses. 

Of the thirty-four purely interurban 
companies reporting, 29 per cent 
showed a loss in riders, 52 per cent no 
change and 19 per cent a gain. Eighty- 
six per cent reported increased rev- 
enues, 11 per cent no increase and 3 per 
cent a loss. 

Of fifty-six companies doing both 
urban and interurban business, 61 per 
cent reported a decrease in riding, 37 
per cent no change and 2 per cent an 
increase. Eighty-two per cent of the 
companies reported an increase in rev- 
enue, 13 per cent no change and 5 per 
cent a. loss. 

The accompanying table gives the 
ratio (expressed in per cent) between 
the actual percentage gain in revenues 
and the theoretical increase in revenue 
or percentage increase in fare. For in- 
stance, if a company secured a gain of 
20 per cent in actual revenues from a 
20 per cent increase in fare, its ratio 
v/ould appear as 100 per cent. Less 
than the theoretical gains in revenue, 
therefore, are reflected by ratios of less 
than 100 per cent. 

Eighty-five Companies Reported 
The table represents the experiences 
of eighty-five companies reporting def- 
inite results of advances in fares. In 
the determination of the percentages, 
the cash fare was used as a basis, ow- 
ing to the lack of definite figures on 
reduced rate tickets. The table, there- 
fore, should not be used as a criterion 
for measuring very accurate results. 

Fifty-two per cent of the companies, 
in their fare increase campaigns, used 
publicity in order to educate the people, 
either by newspaper advertisements or 
by company organs and leaflets dis- 
tributed among the car patrons. 



Of 100 companies stating whether or 
not valuations were required before the 
increases were permitted, thirty-seven 
replies were in the affirmative. Some 
stated that either the commission 
granting the increase had estimated the 
value or that questionnaires were sub- 
mitted by the commission and answered 
by the companies. There were sixty- 
three negative replies. 

One hundred companies answered as 
to the duration of the award. Fifty-nine 
of the companies received emergency 
awards, ranging from the duration of 
the war to certain specified periods 
after the signing of the treaty of peace. 
The other 41 per cent received perma- 
nent awards, several of them, however, 
being subject to further review by the 
commissions. 



RATH )S RETWEEN PERCENTAGE INCREASES 



IN REVENUE 


AND PERCENTAGE 


IN- 




CREASES IN FARES IN 85 CASES 






OF REVENUE GAINED 








Urban and 


U 


rban 


Interurban Intc 


■rurban 




1 to 19 Pel 


■ Cent Increase in Fares 




Per Cent 


Per Cent Per Cent 




86.6 


19.2 


29.4 




100.0 


29 4 


57.5 




100 1 


42 




137.5 


100 






20 to 49 Per Cent Increase in Fares 




10 6 


60.0 


17.5 


22 5 


24.3 


60.0 


210 


22.5 


24.5 


60.0 


33.3 


30 


25 


64 


40.0 


31 7 


27 


64 3 


40.5 


37 5 


32 


64.8 


60.0 


50 


36 


67 5 


60.0 


50.2 


36 5 


70.0 


67 6 


63.2 


37.5 


75.0 


83.3 


71 5 


37.5 


75.2 


112.0 


75.0 


37.5 


83.3 


120 


80 


40.0 


84.0 


135.0 


90 


41.0 


90.0 


147. 1 


91.0 


50 


94.0 




100.0 


50.0 


100 




100 


50.0 


100 




107 


50 


100 




110.0 


50 


100 




150.0 


50 7 


100. 1 






51.0 


118.8 







50 to 1 00 Per Cent Increase in Fares 
20 10 6 50.0 

40 80 



Mr. Tone Returns as Receiver 

S. La Rue Tone, engineer, former 
president of the company and former 
Public Service Commissioner, was 
named, accepted and sworn in on Dec. 
31 as receiver for the Pittsburgh (Pa.) 
Railways. Mr. Tone was president of 
the company when it went into the 
hands of receivers last spring. He was 
appointed to succeed J. D. Callery, re- 
signed. It is the second time he has 
succeeded Mr. Callery in the affairs of 
the road, having been elected to the 
presidency when Mr. Callery resigned. 

Charles A. Fagan and W. D. George, 
his fellow receivers, issued the follow- 
ing statement when informed of Mr. 
Tone's appointment: 

"We are highly gratified with the ap- 
pointment of Mr. Tone as one of the re- 
ceivers. His standing as an engineer 
and his long experience as vice-presi- 
dent and then as president of the Pitts- 
burgh Railways, coupled with his wide 
and comprehensive knowledge of pub- 
lic utility matters gained during his 
service as Public Service Commissioner 
of the Commonwealth, all render him 
eminently qualified to discharge his 
duties to the satisfaction of all." 



Columbus Proxy Fight 

Local Interests Assume Arbitrary At- 
titude Toward Management In- 
terests Now in Control 

The contest between the stockholders' 
protective committee and the Clark in- 
terests for control of the Columbus 
Railway, Power & Light Company, Co- 
lumbus, Ohio, has centered in the selec- 
tion of the proxy committee and each 
side has been contending for the balance 
of power in that respect. 

At a metting of the directors of the 
company on Dec. 31, measures were 
taken to support the Clark Manage- 
ment Company and a proxy committee, 
consisting of F. R. Huntington, William 
C. Willard and E. R. Sharp was named. 
At least two of these men are resi- 
dents of Columbus. They evidently do 
not see the necessity which is insist- 
ed upon by other Columbus interests of 
localizing the control and responsibility 
to the public. 

This step forestalled the committee 
in its demand for three out of five mem- 
bers of the proxy committee, to which 
Clarence M. Clark, representing the 
management company, refused to yield. 
The committee, however, has selected 
three men as its proxy committee and 
it has been proposed that a joint com- 
mittee of seven handle the proxies. 
The fight has thus centered about the 
selection of the seventh member, and 
up to Jan. 4 no agreement had been 
reached. The protective committee in- 
sists that it be allowed to name the 
seventh man and Mr. Clark and his as- 
sociates were just as determined to 
name him themselves. 

Mr. Clark, it is said does not expect 
to be a member of the committee, no 
matter what settlement may be ar- 
ranged. 

Several members of the committee, 
however, expressed the belief that an 
agreement would finally be reached and 
that it would not be necessary to can- 
vass all the stockholders. 

On Dec. 31 Mr. Clark issued a state- 
ment which in part reads in the fol- 
lowing way: 

There is no desire on our part to control 
the board of directors or the management 
of the company. The only question at issue 
between me and the stockholders' protec- 
tive committee this morning was as to the 
proxy committee of five. I at all times 
have been willing to agree on five names 
for such committee, all names to be satis- 
factory to both sides, or I agreed to have 
the stockholders' committee choose two, 
the board of directors two and these four 
to select the fifth member of the proxy 
committee. 

I also stated to the stockholders' com- 
mittee that I would agree now on a board 
of directors, practicallv all of whom should 
be local men of standing, and on their se- 
lection such board could take such steps 
as desired in changing and creating the 
executive management of the company. 

The stockholders' committee would agree 
to nothing but the acceptance of its ulti- 
matum — that on the proxy committee of 
five the committee must have three — Messrs. 
Kiesewetter, Kurtz and Massie. It was 
upon this issue alone that we agreed to 
disagree. There is really no issue between 
the purposes desired by the stockholders' 
committee and the interests all represent, 
in so far as the local management is con- 
cerned. 

The ultimatum of the stockholders' com- 
mittee was presented to the directors of 
the company this afternoon and the direc- 
tors concurred in my position in not con- 
senting to the appointment of a minority 
of the proxy committee. 



114 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 2 



Vote Not Mandatory 

Plymouth & Sandwich Company Loses 
Action to Compel Town Authorities 
to Subscribe for Stock 

The full bench of the Supreme Court 
of Massachusetts has issued a decision 
in favor of the town of Plymouth in 
an action brought by the Plymouth & 
Sandwich Street Railway to compel the 
Selectmen to subscribe for 500 shares 
of stock in accordance with Chap. 95 
Acts of 1911. 

Town to Subscbibe to Stock 

By this act the town was authorized 
to subscribe for the above shares at 
not more than par value ($50,000), to 
facilitate the construction of the road, 
and the town voted soon after the pas- 
sage of the act that "the Selectmen 
. . . be and are hereby authorized in 
the name of and on behalf of the town 
to subscribe for . . . 500 shares 
. . . at a price not exceeding the par 
value thereof. Such subscription or pur- 
chase shall not be made by the Select- 
men until they are satisfied that the 
balance of the amount necessary for the 
construction and equipment of said road 
is fully provided for." 

In February, 1917, the railway made 
demand on the Selectmen for the pur- 
chase of 500 shares of its capital stock 
and on the refusal of the Selectmen a 
petition for mandamus was brought. 

The court finds that on Jan. 1, 1917, 
the cost of construction and equipment 
of the road amounted to about $387,- 
000, "with some thousands of dollars 
yet to be expended for necessary con- 
struction." Of the $387,000, $152,000 
had been provided by the issue of capi- 
tal stock; $217,000 by borrowing money 
on notes payable in one year after the 
noney was borrowed (some of these 
notes were overdue), and for the bal- 
ance of the $18,000 the company had 
run in debt. 

The decision holds that by the true 
construction of the vote of the town 
the Selectmen were given permission to 
subscribe to the stock and that this is 
not an instance in which votes giving 
authority to do an act are to be con- 
strued to be votes directing that act 
to be done. Beyond this, says the find- 
ing, the authority or permission to sub- 
scribe was made conditional on the 
Selectmen being satisfied that the bal- 
ance of the amount necessary for the 
construction and equipment of the road 
has been fully provided for; i.e. on the 
Selectmen being satisfied that the 
amount necessary for the construction 
and equipment of the road in addition 
to the $50,000 which would come to the 
company from the subscription of the 
town, had been fully provided for. 

Selectmen Not Satisfied 

A single justice found that the Se- 
lectmen in good faith, and after con- 
sideration of the situation, are not so 
satisfied, and the full bench upholds the 
previous finding. "In saying this," 
says the finding, "we have not over- 
looked the fact that the petitioner (the 
company) had no mortgage debt, that it 



planned to refund the construction 
notes by an issue of stock or other 
form of permanent security when the 
road had been completed and was in a 
position so to do, and the bankers for 
the petitioner agreed with the petition- 
er to effect a renewal of such said 
notes as were not exchanged at ma- 
turity for preferred stock, and at the 
meeting held on Feb. 1, 1917, between 
representatives of the petitioner and 
the Selectmen, the former agreed to ac- 
cept the bonds of the town issued under 
the votes passed at the meeting of 
March 25, 1911, or to find purchasers 
for the same." 



B. R. T. Receiver Will Raise 
$8,000,000 

Lindley M. Garrison, receiver for 
the Brooklyn (N. Y.) Rapid Transit 
Company, on Jan. 7 outlined to an ex- 
tent his financial plans for the imme- 
diate future of the property. In an- 
swer to a question as to whether the 
financial condition of the company at 
the present time was sound, he said: 

"That depends on what you call 
sound. The company has enough money 
to pay its current operating expenses, 
the salaries of the motormen, conduc- 
tors, etc. It has not enough money to 
complete its construction and equip- 
ment of new lines. About $8,000,000 is 
needed. Of this $3,500,000 will be re- 
quired to obtain the necessary increase 
in motive power to operate the new 
type of cars which will be used when 
the new lines are in operation. It will 
be necessary to build additions to the 
existing power stations. The further 
sum of $4,500,000 will be needed to pro- 
vide equipment such as rolling stock, 
wiring and finishing up certain con- 
struction work. 

"I expect to apply to the court to 
obtain this amount of $8,000,000 
through the necessary issuance of re- 
ceiver's certificates to that amount. I 
will not, however, apply to the court 
until after Jan. 15 when the matter of 
making the receivership permanent 
comes before the court." 



Interest 
Safeguarding Indianapolis 

At a meeting of the directors of the 
Indianapolis Traction & Terminal Com- 
pany, Indianapolis, Ind., held on Dec. 31, 
it was decided to pass the payment of 
$120,000 interest charges on the In- 
dianapolis Street Railway general mort- 
gage 4 per cent bonds, and also the 
payment of $60,000 to the sinking fund 
account, due on Jan. 1, 1919. According 
to statements of officials of the com- 
pany, this step was taken to safeguard 
the interests of all concerned in the 
financial integrity of the company until 
a meeting of the security holders could 
be arranged. The semi-annual rental 
of $150,000 on the Indianapolis Street 
Railway was paid on Jan. 1 when due. 
These developments should all be 
viewed in the light of the emergency 
fare matter reviewed elsewhere in 
this issue. 



New Buffalo Committee 

Local Interests Promise Co-operation 
on Modification of Previous 
Deposit Agreement 

While the members of the City Coun- 
cil of Buffalo, N. Y., are touring the 
country investigating the railway sit- 
uation in the large cities, the situation 
in Buffalo as regards the International 
Railway is becoming more acute. The 
International Traction Company of 
New Jersey, which owns the stock of 
the International Railway, failed to 
pay, on Jan. 1, the interest on its $18,- 
000,000 of collateral trust 4 per cent 
gold bonds. The interest was not paid 
because the International Railway has 
not declared a dividend since last 
March. 

Previous Agreement Criticised 

A second committee has been or- 
ganized to protect the holders of these 
securities. Those on this committee 
are all Buffalo men. The Manufac- 
turers & Traders' National Bank, Buf- 
falo, has been designated as deposi- 
tory for the committee. 

In a public announcement this com- 
mittee says that the so-called protec- 
tive committee organized on Dec. 10 
fails to place any limit whatever on 
the expenses to be incurred by the 
committee for compensation of itself 
and legal counsel and also prevents a 
bondholder from withdrawing from the 
agreement after once having deposited 
his bonds unless 30 per cent of the 
holders of the deposited bonds file 
written objections to the plan adopted 
by that committee. Even then a bond- 
holder can withdraw only by paying to 
the committee such amount as it may 
determine to be his proportionate share 
of its obligations and expenses in- 
curred up to that time. 

The new committee, of which H. T. 
Ramsdell is chairman, fixes the com- 
pensation to be paid to the members 
of the committee and its counsel at 
not more than 1 per cent of the face 
value of the deposited bonds. Any 
bondholder may withdraw from the 
agreement upon paying his proportion- 
ate share of any liability at that time 
incurred by the committee, provided 
that not more than 1 per cent of the 
face value of his bonds shall be charged 
for compensation and expenses of the 
committee. Mr. Ramsdell says that 
the main purpose of this committee is 
to co-operate with the so-called pro- 
tective committee already formed, and 
to endeavor to obtain a modification of 
the agreement under which it is act- 
ing to conform- with the above pro- 
visions. If this is accomplished the 
new committee will immediately de- 
posit all of the bonds in its hands with 
the committee formed previously. 

A 5-cent fare is still being charged 
in Buffalo. The company must weather 
the financial storm until after the spe- 
cial referendum election in March and 
there is every indication that the 6- 
cent fare proposition will again be 
defeated by the voters. 



January 11, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



115 



Financial 
News Notes 



Goshen Suspension Vetoed. — The pe- 
tition recently filed by the Chicago, 
South Bend & Northern Indiana Rail- 
way for permission to discontinue city 
service in Goshen and remove certain 
tracks has been denied by the Coun- 
cil of that city. 

Receivership Hearing Put Off. — The 
hearing: of the petition for receiver- 
ship of the Montgomery Light & Trac- 
tion Company, Montgomery, Ala., filed 
by the Commercial Bank and Savings 
Company, New Orleans, La., which 
was set for Dec. 20, was continued by 
Judge Henry D. Clayton of the United 
States District Court, with the con- 
sent of all parties. No definite date 
has been fixed for the hearing. 

Evansville Foreclosure Sale on Jan. 
18.— Judge Robert J. Tracewell, of the 
Vanderburg County Superior Court, has 
fixed Jan. 18 as the date of sale for 
the properties of the Evansville Rail- 
ways. William A. Carson, who has 
been acting as receiver for the com- 
pany, has been appointed master com- 
missioner. The tentative plan for the 
purchase of the road by the bondhold- 
ers and for its reorganization by them 
was reviewed in the Electric Rail- 
way Journal for Jan. 4, page 71. 

Interurban to Be Sold. — The Colum- 
bus, Magnetic Springs & Northern 
Railway will be sold by the receiver, 
Charles J. Finger, at Delaware, Ohio, 
on Jan. 15. As noted in the Electric 
Railway Journal for Jan. 4, page 72, 
the Columbus, Delaware & Marion 
Electric Company has made a propo- 
sition to the residents of the town 
through which the line operates to as- 
sist in financing the road and keep it 
in operation if they meet certain con- 
ditions which are laid down. 



Takes Advantage of Grace Period.— 
Holders of the 4J per cent general 
mortgage bonds of the New Orleans 
Railway & Light Company, New Or- 
leans, La., were recently notified in 
respect of the interest due on Jan. 1, 
on the bonds, that the company found 
it necessary because of abnormally 
high operating costs to avail itself of 
the days of grace as provided by the 
mortgage securing the bonds. It is 
confidently believed that interest will 
be paid within this period of grace. 

Colorado Springs Default. — Default 
having occurred in the payment of the 
interest due on Jan. 1 on the first 
mortgage 5 per cent bonds of the 
Colorado Springs & Cripple Creek Dis- 
trict Railway, Colorado Springs, Col., 
James Timpson, Robert Struthers, Jr., 
and Emerson W. Judd, owning or rep- 
resenting a substantial amount of the 
bonds, have consented to act as a 
committee to protect the interests of 
the bondholders. A protective agree- 
ment is in the course of preparation. 
Holders of the bonds are requested to 
notify the secretary of the committee, 
Mr. Judd, New York, of the amount 
of the bonds which they hold. 

City Will Ask for Co-receiver. — The 
Board of Estimate of New York City 
on Jan. 3 decided to protect the city's 
investment in the dual subways oy 
asking for the appointment of a co- 
receiver of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit 
Company, for which Lindley M. Garri- 
son, ex-Secretary of War, was ap- 
pointed temporary receiver. The motion 
to make the temporary receivership 
permanent will be heard by Judge 
Julius M. Mayer of the Federal District 
Court on Jan. 15, at which time the 
city of New York will be represented 
by the Corporation Counsel. It is prob- 
able, however, that a formal applica- 
tion for a co-receiver on behalf of the 
city will be made before that time. 

Fresno Interurban Suspends Passen- 
ger Service. — The California Railroad 
Commission on Dec. 24 gave the owners 
of the Fresno Interurban Railway per- 
mission to discontinue street-car serv- 
ice in the city of Fresno on the ground 
that the traffic offered did not justify a 



continuance of operation. The commis- 
sion found that every day the line was 
operated resulted in a heavy loss which 
the company was not able to stand. At 
the time suspension of passenger service 
originally came up, the commission or- 
dered the installation of automobile 
service, but even this failed to pay. The 
company will, however, continue its 
freight service. 

Receivership Suit Goes to Trial. — A 
motion by the United Railways, St. 
Louis, Mo., for dismissal of receiver- 
ship proceedings brought against it by 
stockholders has been dismissed by 
Federal Judge Dyer in the District 
Court. This means the case will go to 
trial, probably at the March term of 
court. The court gave the railway 
until Jan. 20 to file an answer to the 
stockholders' bill of complaint. Suit 
for a receivership was filed on Jan. 

7, 1918, by John W. Seaman, New 
York, a stockholder. On Jan. 31, 1918, 
the railway filed a motion for dis- 
missal. This was sustained on Feb. 

8, Judge Dyer ruling that the bill of 
complaint was defective. An amended 
bill was filed on July 13, and the rail- 
way again moved it be dismissed. It 
is this move for dismissal that has now 
been denied. 

Communities Willing to Come to 
Terms. — The disposition of Bay State 
Street Railway representatives and 
remonstrants against the proposed dis- 
continuance of non-paying lines of the 
road, to come to terms of agreement 
whereby the road will be enabled to 
continue operations through the pres- 
ent crisis in its affairs, has led Judge 
Morton in the United States District 
Court to terminate the hearing on the 
receiver's petition to discontinue the 
non-paying lines. S. H. Pillsbury, at- 
torney for the receiver, suggested to 
Judge Morton that the decision on the 
petition be postponed indefinitely, as 
the majority of the district representa- 
tives had made arrangements with of- 
ficials of the railway whereby their 
lines will continue to be operated, and 
that the other community representa- 
tives have indicated their desire to dis- 
cuss similar terms.- 



Electric Railway Monthly Earnings 



GALVESTON-HOUSTON ELECTRIC COMPANY, 



GALVESTON, TEX. 



Period 
lm., Oct., '18 
lm., Oct., '17 
12m., Oct., '18 
12m., Oct., '17 



$207,068 
197,919 
2,599.424 
2,028,899 



*$172,775 
* 1 26,61 4 
M, 741, 101 
M, 349,087 



$34,293 
71,305 
858,323 
679,812 



Fixed 
Charges 
$39,531 
38,403 
470,016 
447,661 



32,902 
388,307 
232,151 



HOUGHTON COUNTY TRACTION COMPANY, HOUGHTON, MICH. 



lm., Oct., 1 
lm., Oct., 1 
12m., Oct., 1 
12m., Oct., ! 



$21,060 
26,023 
325,155 
341,821 



*$18,725 
*I7,850 
*2I9,455 
"208,703 



$2,335 $5,026 

8,173 5,076 

105,700 60,282 

133,118 61,631 



INTERBOROUGH RAPID TRANSIT COMPANY, NEW YORK, N. Y. 
lm., Nov., '18 $3,435,686 *$2,345,068 $1,090,618 $1,536,845 §t$239,82? 
lm., Nov., '17 3,454,687 *l, 900, 069 1,554,618 1,097,265 §1685,033 

5m , Nov., '18 16,170,935 *11,440,439 4,730,496 7,230,483 §1439,963 
5m , Nov., '17 15,928,087 *9,018,680 6,909,407 5,380,053 §12,765,798 



JACKSONVILLE (FLA.) TRACTION COMPANY 



Ira., Oct., '18 
lm.,Oct.,'l7 
12m., Oct., '18 
12m., Oct., '17 



$73,973 
59,743 
887,295 
678,268 



*$72,5I5 
*42,606 
*649,78l 

♦455,967 



$1,458 
17,137 
237,514 
222,301 



$16,892 
15,819 
196,759 
188,242 



NORTHERN TEXAS ELECTRIC COMPANY, FORT WORTH, TEX. 

Fixed Net 

Charges Income 

$28,172 t$34,800 

29,148 1 137,357 

339,746 +.949,031 

349,354 J676.956 



Peri, 
lm., Oct 



Operating Operating Operating 

Revenue Expenses Income 

$200,632 +$147,242 $53,390 

298,951 +142,029 156,922 

3,028,815 *1, 855,037 1,173,778 

2,363,682 *l, 346,955 1,016,727 



PENSACOLA (FLA.) ELECTRIC COMPANY 



$40,173 
25,807 
473,692 
331,242 



*$34,135 
* 15,592 
+320,377 



$6,038 $8,533 

10,215 7,808 

153,315 97,739 

138,136 93,405 



SAVANNAH (OA.) ELECTRIC COMPANY 



$106,443 
88,589 
1,145,310 
942,348 



*$83,1I5 $23,328 $25,767 

+ 59,743 28,846 24,526 

'■788,949 356,361 300,375 

+625,264 317,084 288,959 



TAMPA (FLA.) ELECTRIC COMPANY 



lm., Oct., '18 $82,785 
lm., Oct., '17 82,709 
12m. , Oct., '18 1,034,114 
12m., Oct., '17 1,007,494 

* Includes taxes, t Deficit, 
accruals under rapid transit CO 



$2,495 
2,407 
55,576 
44,731 



$2,439 
4,320 
55,986 
28,125 



*$48,24l $34,544 $5,087 $29,457 

*46,814 35,895 5,501 30,394 

*603,753 430,361 61,529 368,832 

*557,897 449,597 54,532 935,067 
t Includes non-operating income. J Includes 
tracts with city payable from future earnings. 



116 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 2 



Traffic and Transportation 



Washington Wants More 

Indications That Companies There Will 
Apply for More Than Present 
Five-Cent Fare 

The Washington Railway & Elec- 
tric Company and the Capital Trac- 
tion Company, Washington, D. C, will 
probably ask for an increase in fares 
in the near future. This was inti- 
mated by railway officials at a public 
hearing conducted by the Public Util- 
ities Commission of the District of 
Columbia to consider arguments for 
and against inter-company transfers. 
Companies Want Full Hearing 

The hearing was a result of recom- 
mendations made by John A. Beeler, 
traffic expert in the employ of the 
commission, advocating inter-company 
transfers at certain points, affecting all 
car lines operating in Washington. 

While the railway companies are op- 
posed to some of the transfer points 
recommended, George E. Hamilton, 
president of the Capital Traction 
Company, stated that his company 
would not contest a full hearing. It 
is presumed that the other companies 
will assume the same attitude. 

Mr. Hamilton stated that it was the 
belief of the officials of his company 
that the 5-cent cash fare which has 
been in effect was insufficient at pres- 
ent to produce the revenue necessary 
for a reasonable return to stockholders 
and bondholders. If it became evident 
that this was true, he said, the com- 
panies would expect the commission 
to increase revenues through whatever 
method was deemed best. 

It was pointed out by John A. Han- 
na, vice-president of the same com- 
pany, in charge of operations, that the 
operating revenues for December, un- 
der the straight 5-cent cash fare, had 
been less than the - operating income 
for any month during the period from 
March, 1917, to August, 1918, inclu- 
sive. He said the general falling off 
hi operating revenues was due in part 
to the influenza epidemic and in a 
measure to a decrease in population, 
following the cessation in war activities. 

Disagree on Estimated Loss 

Aside from any monetary loss the 
companies might incur by reason of 
the proposed inter-company transfer 
points, which was estimated at ap- 
proximately $30,000 in the Beeler re- 
port, but which railway officials state 
will reach to between $50,000 and $60,- 
000 annually, Mr. Hanna pointed out 
that such a system would cause in- 
creased congestion at certain transfer 
points which are now troublesome 
problems and would also seriously over- 
crowd cars now running to capacity. 

Railway officials stated that under 



the proposed inter-company transfer 
system the companies would be com- 
pelled to carry long-haul passengers at 
a loss and suggestions were made 
tending to introduce a new scale of 
fares which would increase the passen- 
ger fare on lines running to suburbs. 



Latest Fare Tabulation 

American Electric Railway Association 
Again Reports Fare Increases in 
Thirty-one Cities 

The information bureau of the Amer- 
ican Electric Railway Association an- 
nounces fare increases in thirty-one 
more cities since its last report. The 
supplementary list now made public is 
as follows: 

Nature of 
Population Increase 
2,547,201 Five to 6 cents. 
767,813 Seven to 8 cents. 
158,559 Five to 6 cents. 
132,861 Five to 6 cents. 
114,293 Seven to 8 cents. 
89,272 Five to 6 cents. 
88,618 Seven to 8 cents. 
51,770 Five to 7 cents. 
52,243 Seven to 8 cents. 
43,403 Seven to 8 cents. 
44,345 Seven to 8 cents. 
41,483 Reduced rate 

tickets abolished 
40,759 Five to 7 cents. 
40,160 Seven to 8 cents 
33,526 Seven to 8 cents 
26,681 Seven to 8 cents 
26,067 Five to 8 cents. 
22,314 Five to 6 cents. 
21,356 Five to 6 cents. 
17,324 Five to 8 cents. 
17,160 Five to 6 cents. 
16,017 Six to 7 cents. 
15,733 Five to 6 cents. 
1 5, 1 88 Seven to 8 cents. 
14,629 Five to 6 cents. 
13,839 Five to 6 cents. 
13,789 Five to 6 cents. 
13,410 Five to 6 cents. 
13,073 Seven to 8 cents 
12,962 Five to 7 1 cents. 
10,824 Five to 6 cents. 
10,678 Five to 6 cents. 
9,900 Five to 10 Cents, 
(twe.ve tickets 
for$l.) 
4,138 Five to 6 cents. 
7,153 Five to 7 cents, 
(four tickets 
for 25 cents. 

A recapitulation of fare information 
for cities of more than 40,000 popula- 
tion has been made by the association. 
A summary of this information follows : 



City 

Chicago, 111. (el. lines).. 

Boston, Mass 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Grand Rapids, Mich 

Cambridge, Mass 

Utica, N. Y 

Somerville, Mass 

York, Pa 

Maiden, Mass. (Bos. el.) 
Chelsea, Mass. (Bos. el.) 

Newtown, Mass 

Dacatur, 111 



Charlotte, N. C 

Everett, Mass 

Brookline, Mass. . . . 

Mi'dford, Mass 

Walla Walla, Wash. 
Gloversville, N. Y... 

Enid, Okla 

Tucson, Ariz 

< liens Falls, N. Y... 

Ithaca, N. Y 

Long Branch, N. J. . 
Water town, Mass. . 
Asbury Park, N. J.. 

Saratoga, N. Y 

Helena, Mont 

Morristown, N. J... 

Arlington, Mass 

Tiffin, Ohio 

Tuscaloosa, Ala. . , . 
Johnstown, N. Y. . . 
Bowling Green, Ky. 



Fare Increases Granted 



No. Cities 



Six-cent unit zones, two zones, or more I 

Five-cent unit zones, two zones 3 

Six-cent central zone, 2-cent suburban zone 9 

Five-cent central zone, 2 cents outside zone 2 

Five-cent central zone, 3 cents a mile outside 1 

Eight-cent fares 7 

Seven-cent fares, plus 1 cent for transfer 11 

Seven-cent fares 5 

Six-cent fares 44 

Five-cent fare, plus 1 cent for transfer 4 

Reduced rate tickets eliminated '3 

Fare Increase Applications Pending 

For 10-centfare 10 

For 8-cent fare 2 

For 7-cent fare 8 

For 6-cent fare, one cent for transfer 1 

For 6-cent fare 23 

For a charge for transfers 2 

For a zone system 3 

For general relief to be left to authorities 4 

Note — This list includes fifteen cities in which 
one increase has already been granted. 

Cities negotiating for purchase of property 2 

Cities in which no action has been taken 15 

Cities in which relief has been refused 13 



Four Cents a Mile 

Road in Thinly Populated Farming 
Country Allowed Extraordinary Rate 
for Cash and Ticket Fares 

The Public Service Commission for 
the Second District of New York on 
Dec. 5l passed an order fixing the 
maximum fare on the Southern New 
York Power & Railroad Corporation's 
lines, outside Oneonta, at 4 cents a 
mile for cash and ticket fares and 3k 
cents per mile for mileage book rate. 
The commission's order says no changes 
are to be made in the present schedule 
of fares in force in Oneonta. The rail- 
road operates from Mohawk to One- 
onta, with a branch extending from 
Index to Cooperstown and a local sys- 
tem in Oneonta. The present fare rate 
is 3 cents a mile. The company alleged 
that this charge was insufficient to 
yield reasonable compensation for the 
services rendered. 

It was shown that for the year ended 
Aug. 31, 1918, there remained of total 
receipts of the company, after paying 
operating expenses, taxes, rent of track 
and equipment, $66,457 out of which 
to pay fixed charges, depreciation and 
contingencies and any return on cap- 
ital invested. The company has out- 
standing $952,000 of bonds and 
unfunded interest-bearing debt amount- 
ing to $122,725. Annual interest pay- 
able on this indebtedness amounts to 
between $50,000 and $55,000. Increases 
in pay dating from Sept. 1 will increase 
operating expenses by $15,000 per an- 
num, not reflected in the above figures. 
It appeared probable that the company, 
provided the volume of its business and 
rates remained the same, would be in 
receipt of barely sufficient revenue to 
pay its operating expenses, taxes and 
fixed charges. 

Commission Guided by Court 

Commissioner Cheney, who wrote the 
opinion in the case, said: 

We have hestitated before consenting to 
an increase of fare to 4 cents per mile, 
which is a higher rate than is charged for 
the carriage of passengers by any other 
road in the State except a few short lines 
operating under peculiar conditions. The 
reason of the hesitation is that we doubt 
the efficacy of the remedy for the ills this 
corporation is suffering and we fear that 
the loss of traffic will offset any benefit to 
be derived from the increase of fare. But 
the Court of Appeals has held that "the 
question what general policy should be 
adopted by the respondent in developing 
suburban trade was one to be decided by 
it and not by the State. The methods and 
rates which it should apply to the de- 
velopment of any policy were subject for 
regulation, but the question whether the 
welfare of the road would be best sub- 
served by one policy or another was a 
subject to be decided by the officers and 
stockholders of the corporation." 

In view of that decision we are inclined 
to adopt the only method which appears to 
be available to enable this road to render 
service to the communities whose principal 
transportation facilities are afforded by it, 
and not assume to decide questions of policy 
in corporate management. 

We therefore find that the rates and 
charges of passenger service now charged 
by the Southern New York Power & Rail- 
way Corporation are insufficient to 
yield a reasonable compensation for 
the service rendered and are unjust 
and unreasonable and that the just 
and reasonable fares and charges for such 
service to be hereafter observed and in 
force by it as a maximum shall be at the 
rate of 4 cents per mile for tickets and cash 
fares and cents per mile for mileage 
books. 



January 11, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



117 



Interurban Advances 

Indiana Board Approves Indianapolis 
& Cincinnati, Union Traction and 
T. H.. I. & E. Petitions 

Interurban passenger fares were in- 
creased to 22 cents a mile on the lines 
of the Indianapolis & Cincinnati Trac- 
tion Company and the Union Traction 
Company of Indiana by orders issued on 
Dec. 31 by the Public Service Commis- 
sion. The order in the case of the Terre 
Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction 
Company, the third line asking for an 
increase over the present fare of 21 
cents a mile, was not handed down un- 
til Jan. 6. 

New Rate Effective Jan. 10 

The increased rate was to take effect 
on Jan. 10 and the order is to remain 
operative until June 30, 1919. The rate 
of the Indianapolis & Cincinnati Trac- 
tion Company was increased from 2 to 
21 cents a mile early last year and 
the rate of the Union Traction Com- 
pany was increased from 2 to 2i cents 
in June, 1918. 

The commission takes the position in 
the orders that it is not primarily in- 
terested in the valuation of the inter- 
urban companies, but that its chief 
concern is to keep the electric system 
of transportation in operation. 

The commission points out that the 
chief source of revenue for the inter- 
urban companies is the passenger fare. 
The order relates that interurban rail- 
ways in Ohio and Illinois are now 
operating under a 3-cent rate, the same 
as is charged by the steam railroads. 

Whether the increased rate from 2i 
to 2| cents will have a tendency to 
reduce the number of passengers and 
thereby defeat the purpose of the order, 
is considered by the commission in the 
order. It is noted that the various 
companies showed that there was a de- 
crease in passenger traffic under the 
operation of the 2 \ -cent rate and that 
very little of the theoretical increase 
was realized. 

Interurban Outlook Not Promising 

In summarizing the interurban situa- 
tion in Indiana the order says: 

"This railroad system, made up of 
several railroads, is easily one of the 
great assets of the State and its future, 
on an assumed basis of $30,000 to 
$32,000 a mile, is menaced by new 
conditions of which the most promi- 
nent are greatly increased costs of op- 
eration due to conditions growing out 
of the war, and the inroads of the auto 
passenger and truck cars. The sign- 
ing of the European war armistice will 
tend to ease the situation somewhat, 
but it will probably increase the build- 
ing of good roads and the number of 
automobiles — the 'natural enemies' of 
the interurban railroads of this char- 
acter." 

The order says that the commission 
did not accept the book value of the 
Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern 
property submitted at the hearing of 
the case in December. This valuation 



was $26,050,558. "The prayer of the 
petitioner is justified on a basis of ap- 
proximately half this sum," the order 
says. 

Attention is called to the fact that 
the only remonstrance to the increase 
in rates by the Terre Haute, Indian- 
apolis & Eastern Traction Company 
was made by the citizens of Ben Davis. 
The evidence showed that 90 per cent 
of the travel between Indianapolis and 
Ben Davis was on commutation tick- 
ets not affected by the basic mileage 
rate increase. 

In the order of the Union Traction 
Company it is observed that the net 
operating revenue of this company un- 
der the operation of the 2 \ -cents fare 
in July, August and September, 1918, 
was $343,982 and in 1917 for the same 
period was $342,197. But in 1918 it 
is shown that the cost of maintenance 
of way and structures was 12.96 per 
cent greater than for the same period 
in 1917. 

Emergency Rates Only 

The 2g-cent rate is designated as an 
emergency rate in all three orders. It is 
to be computed upon the penny zone 
system and the minimum charge is to 
be 10 cents, except within the limits of 
incorporated cities and towns. 



New York Opposed to Fare 
Increase 

The attitude of the present city ad- 
ministration of New York toward the 
applications of the Interborough Rapid 
Transit Company and the New York 
Railways for increases in fares was 
announced at City Hall on Jan. 3 at the 
conclusion of a two-hour executive ses- 
sion of the board. The Interborough 
has petitioned for the right to charge 
8 cents on the subway and "L," and the 
surface car lines 8 cents, with 3 cent 
transfers. Announcement of the Board 
of Estimate policy was made by Comp- 
troller Craig, as spokesman for the 
Board. After some preliminary re- 
marks the Comptroller said: 

"We have determined not to consent 
to an increased fare to any private 
operator such as the Interborough. If 
the dual subway contract is modified at 
all it must be modified in other par- 
ticulars so as to make the modification 
reciprocal and mutual." 

"Are you impressed with the need 
of higher fares?" was asked. 

"Temporarily," said Mr. Craig, 
"there is an occasion for a greater 
fare than conditions justified at the 
time the contracts were made." 

This, however, applied only to the 
subways and elevated as operated un- 
der the dual subway contract and did 
not in any wise include reference to 
the surface situation. 

"What if the lines were operated by 
the city?" was another question. 

"Under the rapid transit act," an- 
swered the Comptroller, "municipally 
operated lines must be self-sustaining. 
Fares would have to be adjusted to 
meet the situation." 



Higher Fare Warranted 

Higher Wages and Fair Return for 
Milwaukee Must Come from 
Increased Fares 

As the return on the investment of 
the Milwaukee companies is much be- 
low what can be regarded as a fair 
amount, the entire cost of any increase 
in wages should be met through in- 
creased rates. Such is the conclusion 
reached by Hagenah & Erickson as a 
result of an examination made for the 
employees' association of the Milwau- 
kee Electric Railway & Light Com- 
pany and the Milwaukee Light, Heat 
& Traction Company. 

Valuation Conservative Basis 
for Rates 

In answer to specific questions asked 
by the association, the examiners 
found that the valuation of $47,564,162, 
adjusted to June 1, 1918, by the meth- 
od followed by the Wisconsin Railroad 
Commission, presents an extremely 
conservative basis for rate adjust- 
ments, and that an annual allowance 
of 3 per cent of the depreciable prop- 
erty for depreciation is well within the 
range of what would be considered by 
any authority a fair amount. 

In regard to what constitutes a fair 
rate of return, the report points out 
that this is ordinarily not less than 
7.5 per cent of the fair value. Courts 
and commissions have generally held 
that a return of from 7.5 to 8 per cent 
is not only reasonable but necessary 
to attract capital. At present a re- 
turn of 8 per cent is probably too low. 
In the past ten years, it is said, the 
Milwaukee companies'' return has not 
been unreasonable. The estimated re- 
turn for 1918 is 4.8 per cent. The 
railway system alone shows 3.84 per 
cent; the electric and heating system, 
just over 6 per cent. These returns are 
said to be too low for the best inter- 
ests of the service. 

Wage Increase Must Be Met by 
Fare Advance 

Lastly, the report states that the 
adoption of the standard of wages rec- 
ognized by the War Labor Board would 
mean an increase of $640,000 a year 
for railway employees and shop men 
and $265,000 a year for electric and 
heat department employees, a total of 
$905,000. On the point of electric rail- 
way wages Mr. Erickson says: 

The entire cost of any increase in wages 
in this department must come through in- 
creased fares, and we believe that such in- 
crease should be sufficient not only to- 
cover the advance in wages to the Na- 
tional War Labor Board standard, if such 
action is contemplated, but that action 
should also be taken at such time to 
further increase the earnings of this de- 
partment to the end that the net earnings 
after such increase in wages, will yield a 
return more in accord with what' public 
service commissions and courts have re- 
garded as a fair return on a public utilitv 
investment. 

The auditing committee of the em- 
ployees' association, in recommending 
the adoption of the examiners' report, 
states that it has no suggestions to 
make regarding the rate of return ex- 



118 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol 53, No. 2 



cept to point out that savings and 
loan stock secured and protected by 
rigid State laws earns in excess of 7 
per cent. Continuing the committee 

says: 

Since the report was written, the Wis- 
consin Railroad Commission has increased 
electric rates. In addition to providing for 
increased cost of coal, materials and taxes, 



the commission has allowed 1.9 mills for 
wages in the electric and heating depart- 
ments. This amounts to $350,000 per year. 
This increase in wages was made on the 
date the commission's order was delivered. 
The electric order made no provision for 
increased wages for electric railway em- 
ployees. The $640,000 a year needed to 
bring the wage scales of such employees 
up to War Labor Board standards can be 
provided only through increased railway 



Features of Indianapolis Decision 

Emergency Relief Granted Previously to Company Considered 
Sufficient in View of Downward Price Tendency 



The ruling of the Public Service 
Commission of Indiana in the case of 
the Indianapolis Traction & Terminal 
Company declining to grant a further 
increase in fares on the Indianapolis 
city lines beyond the 5-cent fare es- 
tablished last October and abolishing 
the 1-cent charge for transfer, with 
rebate, all referred to briefly in this 
paper for Jan. 4, states that the emer- 
gency relief which has been granted 
the company in the increase to a 
straight 5-cent fare will continue in 
effect until 100 days after the final 
peace terms are signed and ratified by 
the United States. 

Sinking Fund Money All Expendeed 

The commission finds that an emer- 
gency still exists, but believes that ow- 
ing to a downward tendency in prices, 
the company will now secure relief 
from the excessive operating costs 
which have existed, and with voluntary 
action on the part of the company in 
reducing sinking fund and fixed charge 
accounts, sufficient revenue will be re- 
ceived to discharge all its obligations. 

The commission suggests that a spe- 
cial meeting of stockholders and bond- 
holders be arranged with a view to 
diverting the money collected in sink- 
ing funds to the immediate purchase 
of additional modern equipment. At 
the time of issuing the order the com- 
mission apparently was under the im- 
pression that amounts aggregating 
more than $2,000,000 which have been 
paid into sinking fund account were in 
cash, and the order was intended to 
provide for the use of these funds for 
improvements to the property. 

This money, however, has been used 
to purchase bonds for the sinking fund, 
and these bonds have been canceled 
and the money is not available for the 
purchase of equipment, etc. 

The commission also ordered the 
company to reorganize its transporta- 
tion department as a possible means 
of bettering service, and suggested 
changes in the personnel of that de- 
partment at least during the period 
of reorganization. 

The order discusses at some length 
the financial structure of the company; 
its earnings during the sixty-day trial 
period of the 5-cent fare established in 
October, the result of which the com- 
mission believes was misleading owing 
to the existence of the "flu" ban dur- 
ing a part of that period; the reports 
filed by the company and the former 



public directors; the discrepancy be- 
tween the report of the company's 
checkers and those of the commission 
as to the percentage of uncollected 
fares, which varied from 3 to 13 per 
cent, etc. 

Mr. Morgan Hopeful 
Marshall S. Morgan, Philadelphia, 
vice-president of the company, who has 
been in Indianapolis assisting in for- 
mulating steps to carry out the order 
of the commission, stated that the situ- 
ation was very hopeful in that the 
commission in its order of Oct. 12 had 
placed a tentative valuation on the 
Indianapolis property of between $14,- 
000,000 and $16,000,000, which the com- 
mission's engineer had stated was a 
low estimate. 

Mr. Morgan stated that if the com- 
mission based its rate on this valuation 
and allowed 7 per cent for a just 
return on the investment and 3 per 
cent for depreciation, as had been done 
in the case of other Indiana utilities, 
the company would have sufficient 
funds to meet all fixed charges, obtain 
new capital and make improvements 
to the property. It was stated by 
officials of the company that the points 
suggested by the commission would be 
taken up in turn and every effort made 
to comply with the terms of the order. 
It was pointed out that very little time 
had been given the company between 
the date of the order, Dec. 28, and Jan. 
1 when the payment of bond interest 
and dividends and the installment into 
sinking fund were due. 

Prepayment Collection Proposed 
The company is arranging for adapt- 
ing all of its double-truck closed cars 
for prepayment fare collection. 



New I. T. S. Interstate Tariff 

New tariffs recently approved by the 
Interstate Commerce Commission al- 
low the Illinois Traction System, 
Peoria, 111., to charge the same rate of 
fare as that of the steam carriers. 
Previously the system has maintained 
2 cents a mile fares, but a charge of 
25 cents has been made for handling 
each piece of baggage. 

Although the new interstate tariffs, 
which correspond with the intrastate 
rates now prevailing on the traction 
lines by order of the Federal Court, 
will be on the same basis as the steam 
carriers, it is stated that a differential 
in rate will still exist between points 



in Illinois and St. Louis in favor of 
the Traction System. This is because 
of the fact that in preparing its inter- 
state tariffs the Traction System has 
pursued its past policy of straight 
mileage fares into St. Louis and has 
made no special or arbitrary charge 
for transportation across the Missis- 
sippi River at St. Louis. 

Free handling of baggage on the 
same basis as that prevailing on the 
government-operated steam railways 
is announced by the Illinois Traction 
System to take effect with the estab- 
lishment of the new 3 cents a mile in- 
terstate passenger rates on Jan. 10. 



Rhode Island Fare Case Jan. 13 

The hearing set for Dec. 30 before 
the Supreme Court of Rhode Island 
on the appeals taken by several mu- 
nicipalities of the State from the recent 
ruling of the Public Utilities Com- 
mission increasing the fares on the 
lines of the Rhode Island Company was 
postponed to Jan. 13 by agreement of 
counsel. 

The hearing was originally set for 
Dec. 16, but before that date G. Fred- 
erick Frost, attorney for the Rhode 
Island Company, was injured in an 
automobile accident and at his request 
the hearing was postponed for two 
weeks as it was expected by Dec. 30 
he would be able to appear in court. 
His condition, however, did not improve 
as rapidly as was expected and ac- 
cordingly another postponement was 
permitted. 

Several months ago the Public Util- 
ities Commission authorized the com- 
pany to increase fares and approved 
the establishment of a zone system. 
This aroused the taxpayers in a num- 
ber of the towns and East Providence, 
North Providence, Johnston and War- 
wick through their attorneys filed an 
appeal from the ruling of the com- 
mission. 



Denver Fare Demonstration 

Service on the lines of the Denver 
<Col.) Tramway was completely sus- 
pended for six and a half hours on the 
evening of Jan. 2 because of demonstra- 
tions by crowds of men and boys who 
objected to the collection of a 7-cent 
fare. Service was resumed early on 
Jan. 3 on regular schedules. 

The trouble began when homeward- 
bound workmen in the stock yards dis- 
trict refused to pay more than a 5- 
cent fare, ejected the trainmen and 
tan the cars into the city. As incom- 
ing cars reached the business district, 
they were abandoned. 

The 7-cent fare, which was approved 
by the State Public Utilities Commis- 
sion, although opposed by the city offi- 
cials, was put into effect on Dec. 26. 
For several weeks previous to Dec. 26 
a 6-cent fare had been in effect with the 
approval of both the State Utilities 
Commission and the City Council. The 
conditions of the grant of the 7-cent 
fare in Denver were reviewed briefly 
in the Electric Railway Journal for 
Dec. 21, page 1119. 



January 11, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



119 



Transportation 
News Notes 



Wisconsin Road Wants Increase. — 

The La Crosse & Onalaska Street Rail- 
way, La Crosse, Wis., operating an in- 
terurban line, has filed with the Rail- 
road Commission of Wisconsin a peti- 
tion for an increase in fare. 

P-A-Y-E in St. Paul.— The pay-as- 
you-enter system was adopted for use 
on the St. Paul lines of the Twin City 
Rapid Transit Company on Dec. 27. 
This method of operation has been in 
use for some time in Minneapolis ex- 
cept on the suburban, intercity and 
two or three city lines of the com- 
pany. 

Stockton to Charge Six Cents.— The 
Railroad Commission of California has 
authorized the Stockton Electric Rail- 
road to charge a 6-cent fare, on the 
ground that the increase is necessary to 
meet wage increases and the higher 
cost of materials and supplies. The 
company had applied for permission to 
charge 7 cents. 

Columbus Request Denied.— The Pub- 
lic Service Commission of Indiana has 
denied the petition of the Central In- 
diana Lighting Company for an in- 
crease in fare from 5 to 7 cents at 
Columbus. As in several other cases 
decided recently the commission ruled 
in effect that the war emergency urged 
by the company in its petition no long- 
er existed. 

Kansas City Fare Award Sustained. 
— The Supreme Court of Missouri on 
Dec. 31 sustained the Utilities Com- 
mission of that State in the 6-cent fare 
award to Kansas City (Mo.) Railways. 
All the judges concurred in reversing 
the Cole County Circuit Court and in 
ordering the lower court to affirm the 
action of the commission. This is 
merely a reflection by the court of the 
action taken in the St. Louis fare case, 
referred to previously in this paper and 
again elesewhere in this issue. 

Kokomo Petition Withdrawn. — The 
Public Service Commission of Indiana 
on Dec. 26 issued an order permitting 
the Indiana Railway & Light Company 
to withdraw the petition it filed with 
that body some months ago for au- 
thority to increase fares in Kokomo. 
The company filed its motion on Dec. 
14, but the commission did not take 
immediate action on it. The review 
of the commission indicates that the 
relief that was asked for by the com- 
pany would have been denied had the 
petition been carried to a hearing. 

Distinction Between Cash and Ticket 
Fares. — Because the ticket fare under 
the new ordinance is 5J cents on cars 
of the Cincinnati (Ohio) Traction Com- 
pany, two persons, a man and woman, 
attempted to ride on the payment of 11 



cents in cash. C. W. Culkins, Street 
Railroad Director, approved the act of 
the conductor in ejecting them. The 
ordinance provides for a cash fare of 
6 cents each for passengers and for the 
sale of tickets at 5h cents each in strips 
of six. An increase in fare under the 
Cincinnati service-at-cost franchise 
went into effect on Jan. 1. 

St. Louis Fare Rehearing Denied. — 
The State Supreme Court of Missouri 
has overruled the motion of City Coun- 
selor Daues of St. Louis for a rehear- 
ing before the court, in connection with 
its decision reversing the lower court 
in the 6-cent fare case affecting the 
United Railways, St. Louis. As ex- 
plained in the Electric Railway Jour- 
nal for Dec. 28, page 1155, the Supreme 
Court of the State reversed and re- 
manded the decision of Circuit Judge 
J. G. Slate of the Cole County Circuit 
Court, who on Sept. 7 held that the 
Public Service Commission was without 
jurisdiction to grant an increase in 
fare. 

Plans Appeal to Legislature. — The 

formal order of notice of a petition to 
the General Assembly, at its coming 
session, to amend the charter of the 
Danbury & Bethel Street Railway, 
Danbury, Conn., by repealing the por- 
tion of section 6 of the charter which 
provides for the collection of a 5-cent 
fare within the borough of Danbury 
and within the borough of Bethel. 
Since the granting of the charter, in 
1885, Danbury has become a city, but 
the 5-cent fare provisions apply to the 
limits of the city as now extended. The 
application is made by Judge J. Moss 
Ives, as receiver for the company. 

St. Louis Company Wants Action. — 
An early hearing on the proposal for a 
zcne system and on other plans for 
increasing the revenue of the United 
Railways, St. Louis, Mo., is reqested 
in a letter written by President McCul- 
loch of the company to the Public Serv- 
ice Commission of Missouri. Mr. Mc- 
Culloch declares that the 6-cent fare, 
with the increase in wages which went 
into effect even before the fare in- 
crease did, does not enable the company 
to meet its expenses and net a 6 per 
cent return on the investment, and that 
further relief must be had. Mr. Mc- 
Culloch's request for such relief was 
first made to the commission on Aug. 
31. 

Auburn Increase Allowed. — The Pub- 
lic Service Commission for the Second 
District of New York on Dec. 31 au- 
thorized the Auburn & Syracuse Elec- 
tric Railroad to charge a 6-cent fare 
in Auburn, including the lines to Owas- 
co Lake and to the Sole Cemetery, 
effective on five days' notice. The in- 
crease is during the war and for a 
reasonable time after the peace treaty 
becomes effective. Because of fran- 
chise restrictions the company's appli- 
cation for 6-cent fare came within the 
Court of Appeals decision in the Quinby 
case. The Aubum authorities, how- 
ever, oh Dec. 10 waived the franchise 
restrictions and submitted the matter 
to the commission for determination. 



Skip Stops Withdrawn in Springfield. 

— After receiving an order from the Fuel 
Administration on Dec. 12 A. D. Mac- 
kie, general manager of the Springfield 
(111.) Consolidated Railway, announced 
that the skip stops would be abolished. 
The fuel administrator at Chicago for 
the district in which Springfield is lo- 
cated notified the local administrator 
in Springfield that the matter of skip 
stops was purely optional with the 
Council and citizens of Springfield and 
that he did not insist upon the order 
being carried out to continue the stops. 
Mr. Mackie had previously stated to 
the Mayor that skip stops would be 
continued in Springfield until the fuel 
administration ordered otherwise. 

Special Courtesy to the Blind.— A 
step toward greater courtesy was taken 
by the Tampa (Fla.) Electric Company 
on Dec. 9 when cards instructing op- 
erators to give special assistance were 
distributed to the blind people of Tam- 
pa. A person holding one of these 
cards may have a car stopped at any 
place on the line, whether a corner or 
within the center of a block, and a like 
convenience will be accorded them 
when boarding cars. They will only 
have to stand near the track and hold 
the card in the air, where it can be 
seen by the motorman. The new plan 
to assist the blind was devised by C. 
F. W. Wetterer, general manager, fol- 
lowing a discussion at a meeting of 
the Blind Welfare Association. 

New Albany I. C. C. Hearing, Jan. 
22.— Col. Charles L. Jewett, head of 
the legal department of New Albany, 
Ind., has been notified that the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission on Jan. 22 
will hold an oral argument on the peti- 
tion of the Louisville & Southern In- 
diana Traction Company, and Louis- 
ville & Northern Railway & Lighting 
Company, regarding increases in fares 
between New Albany, Jeffersonville 
and Louisville. M. A. Pattison, attor- 
ney examiner, conducted a hearing on 
the petition in Louisville last July, af- 
ter which a finding was returned in 
which the petition was denied. When 
the objections of the company were 
sustained by the commission, Colonel 
Jewett was apprised of the hearing 
that has been scheduled. 

Front-End Collectors Now "Ground 
Conductors."— The Dallas (Tex.) Rail- 
way is using "ground conductors" to 
handle the crowds boarding cars in 
the downtown sections during the rush 
hours. Under this plan, men with au- 
thority to collect fares have been sta- 
tioned at the most important boarding 
points on Main, Commerce and Elm 
Streets. These men stand at the front 
end of cars as they stop to take on 
passengers, and the patrons are thus 
permitted to board the cars by both 
front and rear entrances, thus effecting 
a saving in the time required to load 
the cars. This system of fare collec- 
tion at congested points has been used 
elsewhere with success, but to Dallas 
evidently belongs the credit for coining 
the term "ground conductors," as ap- 
plied to the front end collectors. 



120 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 2 



Gary Increase Denied. — The Public 

Service Commission of Indiana has de- 
nied the application of the Gary Street 
Railway for an increase of its city 
fares to 6 cents. This means that the 
present 5-cent fare will remain in 
force. The application of the company 
was filed with the commission on Aug. 
8 but the hearing was not held until 
Nov. 12. The company also asked for 
authority to increase its fare on the 
Gary and Hammond line and on the 
Gary and Indiana Harbor line from 5 
cents to the city limits to a fare of 8 
cents. Denial of this application was 
also included in the decision handed 
down by the commission. This means 
that the present 10-cent fare between 
Gary and Hammond and between Gary 
and Indiana Harbor will remain in 
force. 

Six-Cent Fare Request Refused. — 

The State Railway Commission of Ne- 
braska on Dec. 28 refused to grant the 
Lincoln Traction Company an increase 
in fares on its city lines, and the pres- 
ent 5-cent fare was ordered to remain 
in force until June 30, 1919, when the 
commission promises to reconsider the 
matter. The company's application, 
filed on Nov. 10, last, asked for a 6- 
cent fare with an additional charge of 
1 cent for transfer privileges. In 
August last the commission authorized 
a 5-cent fare, effective from Sept. 1, 
with 6 cents between certain suburban 
points. Appeals are now pending in 
the courts from previous decisions of 
the commission on fare. Previous ref- 
erence to the matter were made in the 
Electric Railway Journal for Aug. 
10, page 262; Sept. 21, page 529; Dec. 
7, page 1030. 

Tampa Discusses Skip Stops. — The 
responsibility of eliminating skip stops 
in Tampa, Fla., will fall on the shoul- 
ders of the City Council, if this move 
is taken in the near future by the 
Tampa Electric Company. C. F. W. Wet- 
terer, manager, has been informed by 
the Electric Railway Board at Washing- 
ton that the fuel administration has not 
authorized the elimination of the skip 
stop. The company was on the verge 
of putting cars back on the old sched- 
ules, but the order was rescinded and 
a letter was written the City Council 
stating the skip stop would not be elim- 
inated without a resolution from that 
body ordering stops at every comer. 
Several of the Councilmen have agi- 
tated the elimination of the skip stop 
and during the week ended Dec. 7 a 
letter from the city clerk, written at 
the direction of the Council, asked the 
railway to get back on the old system. 

Butte Denied Seven-Cent Fare. — The 
Public Service Commission of Montana 
has denied the petition of the Butte 
Electric Railway for a cash fare of 7 
cents. The commission has also re- 
stored the 21-cent fare for children and 
mail carriers on duty, thus doing away 
with the 3-cent fare provided for in 
its order giving the company the right 
to increase its fares from 5 cents to 6 
cents. This order was made on Nov. 
SO, and the company had until Dec. 5 



to file its schedule of rates in conform- 
ity with the rates of 6 cents for adults 
and 3 cents for children and mail car- 
riers on duty. Before Dec. 5 arrived 
the company petitioned the commission 
to amend its order of Nov. 30, by strik- 
ing therefrom all reference to the 
tariff for "children and mail carriers 
on duty, 3 cents," and "all reference to 
2 h -cent fares and modify the order to 
provide for a ticket fare of 6 cents 
for the service as had heretofore been 
provided for 5 cents and to provide a 
cash fare of 7 cents." 

San Diego Hearing This Month. — A 
public hearing on the application of the 
San Diego (Cal.) Electric Railway to 
the Railroad Commission of California 
for investigation of rates, and, in fact, 
all other conditions bearing upon the 
conduct of the railway will, it is ex- 
pected, be held in San Diego during the 
present month. The company, although 
losing money, is not asking any de- 
finite increase in its present fares; it is 
simply laying its cards face up on 
the table before the commission and 
the public with the object of acquaint- 
ing all concerned with the serious con- 
ditions now confronting the owners and 
management. The company has most 
carefully prepared its case, giving a 
detailed history of operation and fi- 
nancial conditions from the horse-car 
days to the present time. So the public 
may know, its exhibit may be found 
at the Chamber of Commerce by all who 
wish to read it. Copies are also in the 
hands of city attorneys of San Diego, 
Coronado, East San Diego and National 
City. 

Municipal Line Increases Fare. — The 
London & Port Stanley Railway, Lon- 
don, Ont., a municipally-owned radial 
line, is to have its second war-time rate 
increase. Rates were fixed following 
electrification and rehabilitation in 
1915. Six months ago passenger and 
freight tariffs were advanced, but a 
30-cent round-trip summer excursion 
rate was retained for the benefit of 
residents of London. The commission 
operating the road reported to the City 
Council that within the past six months 
costs increased at the rate of $50,000 
per annum, and the Council determined 
to support an application to the fed- 
eral parliament to alter the charter by 
striking out the provision for the 30- 
cent fare. A rate of 50 cents for adults 
and 25 cents for children will be sub- 
stituted. The provincial government 
has denied an appeal by the city of 
St. Thomas and the village of Port 
Stanley for the right to tax the Lon- 
don & Port Stanley Railway, which is 
now exempt as a publicly-owned util- 
ity. 

Utica and Syracuse Service Inquiry. 
— The Public Service Commission for 
the Second District of New York ar- 
ranged to confer with the municipal 
authorities in Utica and Syracuse on 
Dec. 10 over local transportation facil- 
ities. Representatives of the New 
York State Railways were also invited 
to attend. At prior conferences ar- 
rangements were made whereby ad- 



ditional power service was to be pro- 
vided the New York State Railways in 
Utica by the Adirondack Electric 
Power Corporation, and while there 
have been delays it is stated they were 
due to unavoidable happenings. The 
Adirondack Power Corporation, which 
is installing a new transmission line 
from Amsterdam to Utica to enable it 
to supply more power to the electric 
railroad, is progressing its contract and 
the line is expected to be completed by 
Dec. 15. The commission some time 
ago investigated transportation condi- 
tions in Syracuse with the result that 
service was improved. The Syracuse 
conference will be to review the pres- 
ent conditions. 

Riders Should Decide Skip-Stop Ques- 
tion. — Thomas E. Mitten, president of 
the Philadelphia (Pa.) Rapid Transit 
Company, sent a letter to Councils on 
Jan. 2 in which he further defended the 
skip-stop system. He declared the sys- 
tem in full effect increased the com- 
pany's carrying capacity equal to 200 
cars, that it would save $1,000,000 a 
year and reduce the riding ti~ne of pa- 
trons on the lines from five to fifteen 
minutes a day. The number of auto- 
mobile buses in Philadelphia increased 
more than 250 per cent since 1914, 
and to that, according to Mr. Mitten, 
could be credited a considerable portion 
of increased electric railway accidents. 
Mr. Mitten sent with the letter a copy 
of the address delivered by him on the 
skip-stop system before the commit- 
tee of thirteen at a meeting in City 
Hall on Dec. 27. In connection with 
this address he again informed Councils 
that, as publicly stated, the plan of 
the management of the company pro- 
vides that the car rider finally shall 
say whether the skip-stop system shall 
go or stay. 

Charleston Suburban Fare Increase. 

— It was announced on Dec. 28 that the 
State Railroad Commission of South 
Carolina at its next meeting would is- 
sue an order allowing an increase in 
the passenger fares of the suburban 
lines of the Charleston Consolidated 
Railway & Lighting Company, effective 
on Jan. 1. There will be a straight 
fare of 5 cents from the incorporated 
limits of the city of Charleston to the 
Navy Yard, and a straight fare of 3 
cents form the Navy Yard to North 
Charleston, round-trip tickets between 
the two latter points, however, being 
5 cents each. The order of the commis- 
sion is for ninety days and, at the ex- 
piration of that time, should there be 
no complaint to the commission the re- 
vised rate will be permanent. Should 
there be a complaint, a new hearing 
will be granted. The increased rates 
are the result of a hearing held by the 
commission on Dec. 12. At the time of 
the award of the War Labor Board in 
the Charleston wage case that body di- 
rected the attention of the commis- 
sion to the need of more revenue by 
the company. This phase of the mat- 
ter was referred to in the Electric 
Railway Journal of Dec. 14, page 
1068. 



January 11, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



121 




Henry S. Lyons retired on Dec. 
31 as secretary of the Boston (Mass.) 
Elevated Railway. 

C. E. Cole has been appointed road- 
master of the York (Pa.) Railways to 
succeed R. E. L. Kelb. 

J. H. Richards has been appointed 
secretary of the Boise (Idaho) Railway 
to succeed T. R. Hamer. 

H. A. Smeck has been appointed 
claim agent of the Binghamton (N. Y.) 
Railway to succeed A. K. Martin. 

David Wilson has been appointed sec- 
retary of the Railroad Commission of 
Arkansas to succeed J. B. Dunlap. 

W. D. Humphrey has been appointed 
chairman of the Oklahoma Corporation 
Commission to succeed J. E. Love. 

T. J. O'Connor has been appointed 
roadmaster of the Texas Electric Rail- 
way at Dallas, to succeed J. L. Adams. 

Robert MacKenzie has been elected 
president of the Sarnia (Ont.) Street 
Railway, Ltd., to succeed James Flin- 
teft. 

Charles England has been appointed 
auditor of the Fort William (Ont.) 
Electric Railway to succeed J. C. Craw- 
ford. 

D. L. Waters has been appointed 
auditor of the United Traction Com- 
pany, Albany, N. Y., to succeed W. H. 
Elder. 

W. T. Lee has been appointed chair- 
man of the Corporation Commission of 
North Carolina to succeed Edward L. 
Travis. 

L. Demery has been appointed mas- 
ter mechanic of the Hornell (N. Y.) 
Traction Company, to succeed M. J. 
Gordon. 

William F. Breidenbach has been ap- 
pointed secretary of the Sheridan 
(Wyo.) Railway to succeed William R. 
Sullivan. 

J. Milton has been appointed master 
mechanic of the Chicago, Aurora & De- 
Kalb Railroad, Aurora, 111., to succeed 
William Harmes. 

E. H. Mason has been elected second 
vice-president of the City & Suburban 
Railway, Brunswick, Ga., to succeed A. 
deSola Mendes. 

S. L. Lupton has been appointed a 
member of the State Corporation Com- 
mission of Virginia to succeed Alex- 
ander Forward. 

L. LeMay has been elected secretary 
and treasurer of the Memphis (Tenn.) 
Street Railway to succeed the late W. 
H. Burroughs. 

Harry K. Tompkins has been ap- 
pointed secretary of the Fishkill Elec- 
tric Railway, Beacon, N. Y., to succeed 
W. H. Southard. 

A. Shiel has been appointed auditor 
of the Northwestern Pennsylvania 



Railway, Meadville, Pa., to succeed 
C. H. Allen. 

Orin Stiffler has been appointed su- 
perintendent of the Indiana County 
Street Railway, Indiana, Pa., to suc- 
ceed Irwin Barry. 

William J. Bradley has been ap- 
pointed auditor of the Second Avenue 
Railway, New York, N. Y., to succeed 
N. M. Hudson. 

C. J. Callahan has been appointed 
secretary of the Public Utilities Com- 
mission of the State of Idaho to suc- 
ceed E. G. Gallet. 

C. D. Donovan has been appointed 
master mechanic of the City Electric 
Company, Albuquerque, N. M., to suc- 
ceed Antonio Vargas. 

E. A. Hoffman has been appointed 
superintendent of transportation of 
the Wilkes-Barre (Pa.) Railway to 
succeed C. F. Crane. 

George Schneider has been appointed 
claim agent of the Westchester Elec- 
tric Railroad, Mount Vernon, N. Y., to 
succeed A. P. Guion. 

J. A. Mower has been appointed 
claim agent of the Eastern Pennsyl- 
vania Railways, Pottsville, Pa., to suc- 
ceed James E. Burr. 

S. R. Inch has been elected vice-pres- 
ident of the Utah Light & Traction 
Company, Salt Lake City, Utah, to 
succeed O. J. Salisbury. 

E. S. Chesebro has been appointed 
treasurer of the Yarmouth Light & 
Power Company, Yarmouth, N. S., to 
succeed Carl T. Keller. 

Frank Gardner has been appointed 
engineer maintenance of way of the 
Houston (Tex.) Electric Company to 
succeed C. R. Brewster. 

J. A. Strite has been elected presi- 
dent of the Chambersburg & Shippens- 
burg Railway, Chambersburg, Pa., to 
succeed W. H. Fisher. 

F. A. Zimmerman has been appointed 
secretary of the Chambersburg & Ship- 
pensburg Railway, Chambersburg, Pa., 
to succeed J. G. Schaff. 

A. E. Lane has been elected presi- 
dent of the Ephrata & Lebanon Trac- 
tion Company, Ephrata, Pa., to suc- 
ceed Charles O. Collett. 

E. C. Given has been appointed treas- 
urer and auditor of the Boise Valley 
Traction Company, Boise, Idaho, to 
succeed E. A. Wetmore. 

S. W. Hardwich has been appointed 
master mechanic of the Northern Texas 
Traction Company, Fort Worth, Tex., 
to succeed Theodore Taylor. 

Herbert W. Trafton has been ap- 
pointed a member of the Public Utili- 
ties Commission of the State of Maine 
to succeed John E. Bunker, who died 
some time ago. 



Miss Julia A. Prasch has been ap- 
pointed treasurer of the Yakima Val- 
ley Transportation Company, North 
Yakima, Wash., to succeed C. A. Becker. 

C. F. Dupuis has been appointed a 
member of the Board of Railroad Com- 
missioners of North Dakota, effective 
Jan. 1, 1919, to succeed C. W. Bleick. 

S. Larue Tone, president of the Pitts- 
burgh (Pa.) Railways when it was 
placed in receivers' hands last April, 
was on Dec. 31 appointed the third 
receiver. 

J. P. Keeney has been appointed chief 
engineer of power plants and substa- 
tions of the Virginia Railway & Power 
Company, Norfolk, Va., to succeed W. 
C. Bell. 

H. L. Harris, auditor of the Twin 
State Gas & Electric Company, Brattle- 
boro, Vt., has also been appointed sec- 
retary of the company to succeed H. 
K. Bechtel. 

E. H. Kifer has been appointed gen- 
eral manager of the San Antonio 
(Tex.) Public Service Company to suc- 
ceed W. B. Tuttle, who still retains his 
position as vice-president of the com- 
pany. 

William E. McGovern has been ap- 
pointed auditor of the Eastern Wiscon- 
sin Electric Company, Sheboygan, 
Wis., to succeed Simon Kurtz, who has 
been appointed assistant auditor of 
the company. 

J. P. Costello has been appointed 
superintendent of railways of the 
Reading Transit & Light Company, 
Reading, Pa., to succeed S. E. Smith, 
who is now general superintendent of 
the company. 

E. F. Goetz, master mechanic of the 
Chambersburg & Shippensburg Rail- 
way, Chambersburg, Pa., has also been 
appointed general manager and pur- 
chasing agent of the company to suc- 
ceed S. M. Coover. 

J. S. Goldsmith has been appointed 
assistant general counsel of the Pub- 
lic Service Commission of Maryland, 
Baltimore, Md., to succeed Osborne I. 
Yellott. James C. Legg has also been 
appointed as a commissioner. 

P. E. McChesney has been appointed 
purchasing agent of the Eastern Texas 
Electric Company at Beaumont to suc- 
ceed E. J. Davis, who now has general 
supervision over the city and inter- 
urban lines of the company. 

E. P. Summerson has been appointed 
secretary of the Lehigh Power Secur- 
ities Company, New York, N. Y., which 
controls the Lehigh Valley Transit 
Company, Allentown, Pa., to succeed A. 
E. Smith, who still retains his position 
as treasurer. 

L. B. Martin has been appointed to 
the newly created position of general 
superintendent of interurban lines of 
the Illinois Traction System, with 
headquarters in Springfield. Mr. Mar- 
tin has been superintendent of main- 
tenance of way of the company for 
several years past. His successor as 
superintendent of maintenance of way 
has not been named. 



122 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 2 



Thomas B. Pratt, formerly with the 
publicity department of the New York, 
New Haven & Hartford Railroad, has 
succeeded Peter D. Vroom as publicity 
manager of Henry L. Doberty & Com- 
pany, New York, N. Y. Mr. Vroom 
is to take up active newspaper work 
in another city. 

F. D. Howells, former chief engineer 
of public utilities for the city of Los 
Angeles, has become general manager 
of the California Highway Transporta- 
tion Association. This organization, 
made up of freight and passenger au- 
tomobile companies, is endeavoring to 
aid in the development of workable 
state laws governing automobile trans- 
portation utilities. 

F. W. Bedard has been appointed 
general superintendent of the Urbana 
& Champaign Railway, Gas & Light 
Company, Champaign, 111., and E. A. 
Roehry has been made general super- 
intendent of the Cairo Railway & Light 
Company, Cairo, 111., according to an- 
nouncement from the office of H. E. 
Chubbuck, vice-president, executive of 
the Illinois Traction System. 

Frank Ring has been appointed traffic 
manager of the Walla Walla (Wash.) 
Valley Railway. Mr. Ring formerly 
was employed by the Pacific Power & 
Light Company and later was promoted 
to the management of the Kennewick 
office, which place he resigned to take 
a position in the Baker-Boyer Bank in 
Walla Walla. He succeeds E. G. Mil- 
ler as traffic manager of the railway. 

Joseph H. Lyons, widely known 
among labor union men of the Coast, 
has been appointed superintendent of 
transportation on the Tacoma (Wash.) 
Municipal Railway. Mr. Lyons as- 
sumed his new duties on Jan. 1, when 
the city took over the city-owned lines 
from the Tacoma Railway & Power 
Company, which has been operating 
them ever since they were opened. 

A. A. Blackburn, who for fourteen 
years has been chief engineer and as- 
sistant to the general manager of the 
Belfast (Ireland) City Tramways, has 
been appointed engineer and manager 
of the Huddersfield Corporation Tram- 
ways to succeed R. H. Wilkinson, whose 
appointment as manager of the Brad- 
ford City Tramways was noted in the 
Electric Railway Journal for Dec. 7, 
page 1017. 

Herman M. Aldrich for the last four 
years superintendent of the North- 
ampton (Mass.) Street Railway, and 
for ten years superintendent of the 
Amherst & Sunderland Railway, has 
resigned to become superintendent of 
the Claremont Railway & Lighting 
Company, Claremont, N. H., the prop- 
erty of which was sold recently to 
local manufacturers of Claremont after 
abandonment had been threatened by 
the original owners. 

Godfrey Goldmark has been appoint- 
ed counsel to the Public Service Com- 
mission for the First District of New 
York to succeed Judge William L. Ran- 
som, whose resignation took effect at 



midnight on Dec. 21. Mr. Goldmark 
formerly was a partner of ex-Judge 
Hiram R. Steele. He entered the com- 
mission as secretary to Chairman 
Straus. A year later he became assist- 
ant counsel and recently has specialized 
in regulation. 

J. M. Barry has been appointed local 
manager of the Alabama Power Com- 
pany at Anniston, Ala., to succeed 
Laurence W. Jackson resigned. For 
some time Mr. Barry was in charge of 
the distribution of electricity for the 
Great Western Power Company, at San 
Francisco, and prior to that was chief 
of the San Francisco department of 
electricity, to which position he came 
from Portland, Oregon, where he was 
electrical engineer for the Northwest- 
ern Electrical Company. 

H. Ware Barnum, Ware, Mass., has 
been appointed general counsel for the 
Boston (Mass.) Elevated Railway, ac- 
cording to announcement made by the 
trustees of the company. Mr. Barnum 
has been Assistant Attorney-General 
of Massachusetts since January, 1915. 
He is about forty years old and for a 
number of years was a member of the 
firm of Elder, Whitman & Barnum. He 
has had a large experience in legis- 
lative work. He is a graduate of St. 
Lawrence School, New York; Harvard, 
A. B., 1900, and the Harvard law 
school, 1903. Mr. Barnum succeeds 
Russell A. Sears. 

S. T. Phillips, heretofore general 
electrical equipment foreman, New 
York State Railways, Rochester Lines, 
has resigned to become master mechanic 
of the Gary (Ind.) Street Railway. Pre- 
vious to going to Rochester Mr. Phil- 
lips was associated with J. F. Uffert, 
now superintendent of equipment New 
York State Railways, when Mr. Uffert 
was master mechanic of the Hudson 
Valley Railway and the United Trac- 
tion Company, at Glens Falls and Al- 
bany, N. Y., respectively. He was for a 
number of years connected with the 
New York Edison Company and the 
Hudson River Electric Power Company, 
Glens Falls, N. Y. 

Lindley Miller Garrison, receiver for 
the Brooklyn (N. Y.) Rapid Transit 
Company, was born in Camden, N. J., 
in 1864. He was educated in the public 
schools, at Philip Exeter Academy, at 
Harvard, New York University, Rut- 
gers and Brown and was awarded the 
LL.D. degree at New York University. 
He studied law in the offices of Redding, 
Jones & Carson in Philadelphia and 
was admitted to the Pennsylvania bar 
in 1886. He practiced with Redding, 
Jones & Carson and their successors, 
Jones & Carson, from 1883 to 1888. In 
the latter year he was admitted to the 
bar of New Jersey and practiced at 
Camden, N. J., until 1898. From 1899 
to 1904 he was a member of the firm of 
Garrison, MacManus & Enright, Jersey 
City. He was vice-chancellor of New 
Jersey from June, 1904, to March 5, 
1913, and was Secretary of War in the 
cabinet of President Wilson from March 
5, 1913, until Feb. 10, 1916, when he 



resigned. He was lately been a mem- 
ber of the law firm of Hornblower, 
Miller, Garrison & Potter, New York. 



Obituary 



Mr. Turner Dead 

Walter V. Turner, manager of en- 
gineering for the West>nghouse Air 
Brake Company, died at Columbia Hos- 
pital, Wilkinsburg, Pa., on Jan. 9. He 
had been seriously ill since the middle 
of November. In his death the air- 
brake industry has lost its greatest 
expert. 

Mr. Turner was born in England in 
1866, and before he came to America 
in 1888 he was in the wool business. 
After a short time spent on a ranch 
in New Mexico, he entered the employ 
of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe 
Railroad and soon became chief inspec- 
tor. Becoming interested in air brakes, 
he soon gained a reputation for pro- 
ficiency in them and was placed in 
charge of the air-brake instruction car 
on that road. From general air-brake 
instructor he was promoted to mechan- 
ical instructor for the entire system. 
During this time he took out twenty- 
two air-brake patents, which were sold 
to the Westinghouse Air Brake Com- 
pany. 

He became connected with the West- 
inghouse Company in 1903; in 1907 he 
was made mechanical engineer; in 
1910, chief engineer; in 1915, assistant 
manager and in 1916, manager of en- 
gineering. His first task with that 
company was to develop the K triple 
valve, of which there are now over 
2,000,000 in use. By his untiring en- 
ergy and ingenuity the art of braking 
trains has developed by leaps and 
bounds. He has taken out more than 
400 patents and a hundred or more are 
still pending. Among his latest inven- 
tions are those which have contrib- 
uted extensively to the success of elec- 
tric train operation, the electro-pneu- 
matic brake and the system of empty 
and load brake control stand out pre- 
eminently. By making use of these 
features the capacity of the New York 
subways has been increased tremen- 
dously. Mr. Turner was also an au- 
thor, among the more important of his 
books being "Train Control — Its De- 
velopment and Effect on Transporta- 
tion Capacity," which was published in 
two volumes. He was awarded the 
Longstreth medal in 1911, and the El- 
liott-Cresson medal in 1912. He was a 
fellow of the Royal Society of Arts, 
England, and a member of the Amer- 
ican Society of Mechanical Engineers, 
the American Electric Railway Asso- 
ciation, Franklin Institute (Philadel- 
phia), and the Pennsylvania State 
Chamber of Commerce. The degree of 
"Doctor of Engineering" was con- 
ferred on him by the University of 
Pittsburgh in 1918. 



Manufactures and the Markets 

DISCUSSIONS OF MARKET AND TRADE CONDITIONS FOR THE MANUFACTURER, 
SALESMAN AND PURCHASING AGENT 
ROLLING STOCK PURCHASES BUSINESS ANNOUNCEMENTS 



Soft Coal Output Increased 
Six Per Cent in 1918 

Production for the Last Year Esti- 
mated by the Geological Survey 
at 447,748,000 Net Tons 

The lowest weekly production of bi- 
tuminous coal reported in the last three 
years was brought about by the time 
lost on account of the Christmas holi- 
days during the week ended Dec. 28, 
according to the Geological Survey. 
Estimates for this week place produc- 
tion at 6,385,000 net . tons, 3,746,000 
net tons or 37 per cent behind produc- 
tion of the week ended Dec. 21, and 
3,352,000 net tons or 34 per cent be- 
hind production of Christmas week of 
last year. The average daily produc- 
tion for the current week (five days) 
is estimated at 1,277,000 net tons as 
compared with 1,913,000 net tons for 
this coal year to date and 1,763,000 
net tons for the same period of 1917. 

Bituminous Production Increased 
35,187,000 Tons in Nine Months 

Total production of bituminous coal 
for the period April 1 to Dec. 28 is 
estimated at 447,748,000 net tons as 
against 412,561,000 net tons during the 
period April 1 to Dec. 28, 1917, or an 
increase of 35,187,000 net tons. 

The production of bituminous coal 
and lignite in the calendar year 1918 
is' estimated at 585,883,000 net tons, 
an increase compared with 1917 of 34,- 
092,000 net tons or 6.2 per cent. Four 



the Christmas holidays caused anthra- 
cite production during the week of 
Dec. 28 to decrease more than 500,- 
000 net tons, compared with the pro- 
duction of the week preceding and was 
approximately 200,000 net tons lower 
than the production during the corre- 
sponding week of 1917. For the period 
April 1 to Dec. 28 the production of 
anthracite is estimated at 73,830,000 
net tons which is 1,606,000 net tons or 
slightly more than 2 per cent below 
the production of a similar period of 
last year. 

Copper Wire Goes Lower 

Rubber Covered on 27 to 28-Cent Base, 
Represents a Drop of Seven 
Points 

As a result of the drop in copper 
price wire has fallen many points. Of 
ten prominent manufacturers three 
were quoting on Monday 27 cent base 
on rubber-covered, two 28 cents, four 
SO cents, and one 32 cents. Consid- 
ering discounts, however, rubber-cov- 
ered base is probably between 27 and 

28 cents, a drop of around seven points. 
Quite recently one or two manufactur- 
ers have stopped selling on base, and 
they are now selling on cost. 

On Saturday bare wire was quoted 
in Chicago at from 25 to 26 cents, 
while weatherproof ranged from 28 to 

29 cents a pound. 

Since Monday copper has made fur- 
ther reductions and if the wire quota- 




OSKIOh*- <C in— CiOW O ®K)OMOO S J* — N ^ — <0 if) W £ jg <\J ff> g JO ON J — B 

Jon.^ Feb.^ Mar" 1 Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec 
ESTIMATED AVERAGE TOTAL PRODUCTION FOR WORKING DAY OF 
BITUMINOUS COAL, INCLUDING COAL COKED 



states reported decreases, Georgia, 
Iowa, Missouri and Texas. The most 
important increases were in Pennsyl- 
vania, 11,264,000 tons, Ohio, 5,715,000 
tons, Illinois, 5,064,000 tons and West 
Virginia, 4,908,000 tons. The estimates 
indicate that West Virginia still retains 
second place as a coal producer but 
the lead is so small that final returns 
may place Illinois in this place, which 
was assumed by the State of West Vir- 
ginia in 1908. 

The loss of time brought about by 



tions continue to follow the downward 
trend of copper still lower prices 
should prevail next week. 

A prominent wire producer said a 
couple of weeks ago that the wire peo- 
ple could expect to do business on 19- 
cent copper. Deliveries in the second 
quarter of the year are already selling 
at this figure it is understood. Spot 
electrolytic copper on Tuesday was 
quoted at 20.62 h cents and there were 
some recessions from that price later in 
the week. 



Iron and Steel Scrap 
Prices Drop 

Mills Making Almost No Bids, But 
Dealers Holding Off Until More 
Definite Prices Develop 

Iron and steel scrap values are still 
dropping and no sales of any conse- 
quence are being made. The drop here 
is greater than in the new product. 

Almost no bids are being made by 
consumers, and dealers still hesitate to 
buy while values are so uncertain. 

A further disturbing factor is the 
heavy offering of scrap arising from 
the termination of war contracts. The 
Canadian government is offering around 
lf'0,000 tons of scrap and the U. S. 
Government is known to hold a large 
tonnage. This, however, is expected 
to come on the market only slowly so 
that values will not be unduly sacrificed. 

Dealers seem to feel that it will be 
several weeks before any definite and 
safe market for scrap develops. 

It is hard to secure any real quota- 
tions but resales were made this week 
on the following basis in Chicago: 

Rerolling and short old steel rails, 
$24.00-$25.00 per gross ton; frogs, 
switches and guards, $19.00-$20.00 per 
gross ton, car wheels $24.00-$25.00 per 
gross ton, old iron rails, $26.00-$28.00 
per gross ton; old iron and steel axles, 
$28.00-$30.00 per net ton. 

With the exception of old steel rails 
which are quoted in New York as 
$17.00-$18.00 per gross ton, the Chi- 
cago prices above quoted are lower than 
the quotations received for the Pitts- 
burgh, Cincinnati, New York and Phil- 
adelphia districts. In these cases, how- 
ever, prices are f.o.b. buyer's mill, 
whereas the Chicago quotations were 
based on exchanges between dealers 
and brokers. 



G. E. Employees Back 

Men Return as Work Is Provided — 
Company Does Not Admit Juris- 
diction of War Labor Board 

A hearing was held in New York 
on Wednesday of this week by the War 
Labor Board in the General Electric 
Company sympathetic strike case. At 
its conclusion the board announced that 
it would take under consideration and 
state later whether or not it would 
assume jurisdiction in a case where one 
of the parties was unwilling to be 
bound by the decision. 

Manager H. Griswold, Jr., of the 
Erie Works expressing his unwilling- 
ness to submit the controversy to the 
board or to be bound by any finding 



124 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol 53, No. 2 



it might make, expressed willingness 
to refer any differences to the system 
of representatives at Erie which is 
similar to that set up by the War La- 
boar Board at Pittsfield and Lynn. 
E. W. Rice, president of the company, 
said that the only controversy between 
the management and the workers ex- 
isted at Erie, where 20 per cent of 
the employees went out because of al- 
leged unfair discharge of ten men. The 
Schenectady and Pittsfield plants were 
working under an award of the War 
Labor Board, and in violation all Schen- 
ectady employees and 50 per cent of 
the Pittsfield employees went out in 
sympathy. The Fort Wayne works were 
operating under an agreement between 
the management and workers made 
through a Department of Labor repre- 
sentative, and in violation of it 75 per 
cent went out in sympathy. 

So far as work was available, the 
men at the various plants have gone 
back. At Schenectady, where about 
15,600 went out, all but about 1000 
have been taken back, and there was 



no work for these at the time. The 
situation is similar at the other works. 
None were out at Lynn. The men 
were taken in a preferential order, 
the general result being that first pref- 
erence is given to those who had been 
in war service, then those having de- 
pendents, etc. 

The Department of Labor does not 
look forward to any unemployment 
crisis, according to a statement on the 
general labor situation by Assistant 
Secretary of Labor, Louis F. Post: 
"There is no reason," he says, "why 
either business men or wage-earners 
should be apprehensive with regard to 
commercial stagnation. The war has 
on the whole increased the purchasing 
power of the masses and has created 
new markets. America must assist in 
the rebuilding of Europe, and avenues 
for foreign trade hitherto closed to us 
are now open. Raw materials which 
were denied to private and non-essen- 
tial industry during the war are now 
accessible to the manufacturers of 
America through their release by the 



War Industries Board. Credits which 
were similarly denied to private con- 
cerns because they were needed for 
Government use have also been re- 
leased by the Capital Issues Committee. 
There is no reason for anyone to be 
alarmed over the future." 



Street Cars Still Subject to 
Mexican Tariff 

By the decree of Aug. 27, 1918, ma- 
chinery of all kinds unless otherwise 
specified, as well as separate parts, 
was to be admitted free of charge into 
Mexico. Subsequently, however, by 
the circular of Oct. 21, 1918, the Di- 
rector General of Customs of Mexico 
directed that exceptions be made in the 
case of certain articles which will con- 
tinue to stay at the old rate of 45 
cents per 100 lb. gross weight. In- 
cluded in the articles still subject for 
duty, as transmitted by Vice-Consul 
Joseph W. Rowe of Mexico City, are 
motor cars for railway use, and elec- 
tric batteries. 



Track and Roadway 



Waterbury & Milldale Tramway, Water- 
bury, Conn. — It is reported that the Water- 
bury & Milldale Tramway contemplates the 
construction of an extension from South 
Street, Bristol, over Wolcott Street and 
through Wolcott. connecting with the car 
line from Waterbury to Hotchkiss Lake. 
J. H. Cassidy, secretary. 

Detroit (Mich.) United Railway.— Two 
new extensions have recently been placed 
in operation by the Detroit United Railway. 
One of these lines is the Northwestern 
Belt Line, a single-track extension of the 
Hamilton line operating to Woodward Ave- 
nue through the company's carhouse and 
shop property in Highland Park and con- 
necting with Grand River Avenue near the 
westerly city limits. This line will later 
be double-tracked. The other line placed 
in operation is the Ferndale line from 
Springwells Avenue, around the edge of 
Woodmere Cemetery to Dearborn Avenue 
and connecting with Fort Street. A branch 
line is being built northward paralleling 
with Solvay Avenue. 

Cincinnati (Ohio) Traction Company. — 
Walter A. Draper, vice-president of the 
Cincinnati (Ohio) Traction Company, re- 
cently notified city officials that the com- 
pany is prepared to lay new rails on 
Eastern, Freeman and Central Avenues 
whenever the city is ready to undertake 
improvements on those streets. 

Peterboro (Ont.) Street Railway. — The 
Hydro-Electric Power Commission of On- 
tario, which operates the Peterboro Street 
Railway, reports that it proposes to erect 
20 single-track miles of overhead construc- 
tion. 

Trenton, Bristol & Philadelphia Street 
Railway, Philadelphia, Pa. — This company 
reports that during 1919 it will reconstruct 
3 or 4 miles of track if labor can be pro- 
cured. 

Dallas (Tex.) Railway. — Plans of the 
Dallas Railway for 1919 call for the com- 
pletion of its building program which is 
now under way. The program involved the 
expenditure of $800,000. About half of 
that sum has now been spent. The re- 
mainder is to be spent this year. This is 
in improvements and extensions. The main- 
tenance charges and general repairs for 
1919, it is expected, will be higher than 
usual because it has been difficult to 
keep up with the demands during 1918. 
The plans for extensions call for the build- 
ing of the Oak Dawn line out to the 
cemetery. The Second Avenue extension is 
just being completed. There will be some 
work in Oak Cliff, the Colonial Avenue 
line is to be double-tracked and the Lake 
Avenue line is to be extended to 
the hospital. It is probable that additional 
plans for extensions will be made during 
1919 and some of the additional work will 
doubtless be under way before the close of 
the year. 



Power Houses, Shops 
and Buildings 



Southwestern Gas & Electric Company, 
Texarkana, Ark. — Fire recently destroyed 

the carhouse of the Southwestern Gas & 
Electric Company, together with twelve 
cars, causing a loss of about $100,000. 

Pacific Electric Railway, Eos Angeles, 
Cal. — A new passenger station has re- 
cently been completed by the Pacific Elec- 
tric Railway at Fullerton. 

Washington Railway & Electric Company, 
Washington, D. C. — A contract has been 
awarded by the Washington Railway & 
Electric Company to Lake Stone, Washing- 
ton, for the construction of a new one- 
story, concrete substation at Fourteenth 
and East Capitol Streets, at $3,000. 

Hammond, Whiting & East Chicago 
Railway, Chicago, 111. — This company ad- 
vises that during 1919 it expects to con- 
struct a new 400-kw substation and an 
addition 50 x 50 ft. to its carhouse. 

Danville Street Railway & Light Com- 
pany, Danville, 111. — The carhouse of the 
Danville Street Railway & Light Company, 
containing nine city cars, was recently de- 
stroyed by fire, causing a loss of about 
$75,000. 

Chicago & Joliet Electric Railway, Joliet, 

111. — A report from the Chicago & Joliet 
Electric Railway states that during 1919 
it proposes to install one 1500-kw substa- 
tion at Joliet, one 300-kw. automatic sub- 
station at Dellwood Park and 6000 ft. 
of 250,000 CM. 12,000-volt underground 
cable connecting the Joliet substation with 
the substation of the Public Service Com- 
pany at Jackson and Ottawa Streets. All 
euipment has been purchased, except cable 
and small material, such as bus bar sup- 
ports, disconnect switches, insulator racks, 
etc. 



New Advertising Literature 



Eugene F. Phillips Electrical Works, 
Etd., of Montreal, Canada: A 270-page 
handbook entitled "Philips' Wires and 
Cables." The book, which is pocket-size 
and handsomely bound in leather, is printed 
on coated paper, is illustrated and com- 
prises five sections. The subjects of these 
are electrical conductors, bare and weather- 
proof wires and cables, magnet wires and 
cotton-covered wiresi, rubber-Insulated 
wires and cables and flexible cords, paper- 
insulated power cables and telephone 
cables and varnished-cambric insulated 
cables, and general information. Aside 
from the complete information furnished 
about the company's many different varie- 
ties of wires and cables, tables of wire 
weights and diameters and other very use- 
ful information to the wire user are given. 



Rolling Stock 



St. Cloud (Minn.) Public Service Com- 
pany expects to purchase two motor cars 
this week. 

Municipal Railway of San Francisco ex- 
pects to purchase this year five automobile 
buses and twenty 32-ft. steel city passenger 
cars. 

Fort Wayne & Northern Indiana Trac- 
tion Company, Fort Wayne, Ind., intends 
to purchase some time during the year one 
single-truck work car, 30 ft. over all. 

Newport News & Hampton Railway, 
Gas & Electric Company, Hampton, Va., 
expects to purchase ten steel ash cars this 
year. 

Winnipeg (Canada) Electric Railway is 

reconstructing its present rolling stock at 
the rate of ten cars per month, forty cars 
having already passed through its hands. 
It is understood that the ten new cars 
that were ordered from the Ottawa Car 
Company, as reported in the July 31 issue 
of the Electric Railway Journal are at 
present in the last stages of construction. 



Trade Notes 



C. E. A. Carr Company, Montreal and 
Toronto, has added H F. Powell to its 
selling force. 

Ohmer Fare Register Company states in 
a recent issue of its house organ, the Ohmer 
Fare Register, that there is a demand for 
the company's product greater than it can 
supply and that when peace comes a bigger 
business than ever in registers is expected. 

Walter N. Polakov, consulting engineer, 
announces the founding of Walter N. 
Polakov & Company, Inc., consultants in 
power production methods, industrial in- 
vestigations, labor problems, scientific 
record systems and production accounting, 
with offices at 31 Nassau St., New York 
City. With the close of hostilities a num- 
ber of capable engineers formerly associ- 
ated with him have joined the staff of the 
corporation. 

National Car Coupler Company, Attica, 
Ind., has issued a statement in which It is 
affirmed that 93 per cent of its employees 
have petitioned the company to continue 
operation under the old system, and have 
voluntarily waived any rights they might 
have under the recent award of the Na- 
tional War Labor Board granting a basic 
eight-hour day, collective bargaining and 
reinstatement of certain discharged em- 
ployees. The statement says that in view 
of this petition and of its harmonious rela- 
tions with its employees during twenty 
years of its existence, the company "re- 
spectfully but decidedly declines to abide 
by the award." 



Electric Railway^ v ' 
Journal 

Consolidation of Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Review 

volume 53 New York, Saturday, January 18, 1919 Number 3 



Standardization Is More 

Than Ever a Timely Topic 

IN LOOKING forward to the 1919 convention of the 
Engineering Association one tries to visualize what 
he would like to see in the program. Involuntarily his 
mind turns to standardization, now more timely than 
ever because everything costs so much more than it 
did before the war. Before anything new in this line is 
started, it would be profitable to ask why present asso- 
ciation standards are not more widely used, so that 
future standards may be more closely fitted to the in- 
dustry's needs. A lot of unused standards on the books 
do not add to the association's usefulness and prestige. 
Better a few in daily use than many "damned with 
slight regard," to paraphrase a well-known quotation. 
There are, however, some fields for new standards which 
might be entered at this time. Take, for example, the 
matter of car design. Here a beginning might be made 
in unifying certain dimensions for the purpose of 
utilizing standard materials and thus reducing cost. 
Many detail parts of a car and its equipment are sub- 
ject to some standardization. Track special work also 
might come in for attention, a good place to begin be- 
ing the report on spiral standardization by E. M. T. 
Ryder prepared originally for consideration by the com- 
mittee on way matters and printed in the form of an 
article in the issue of Electric Railway Journal for 
April 6, 1918, page 649. Most important of all, the en- 
gineers should determine just what they can do best 
to help in the reconstruction work and then "get busy" 
in the coming year to do that and only that. 



Why Not Stake 

the Manufacturer? 

TEMPORARILY the electric railway industry is in 
the dumps, but perhaps for that very reason the 
manufacturer of electric railway devices has never tried 
harder to help his customers. It is our frank opinion, 
however, that electric railways are not meeting the man- 
ufacturer half way as often as they ought when it comes 
to the question of inventing or adapting something to 
meet their needs exclusively. They expect him to hear 
without murmuring all the development expenses and 
do not always give him at least the comfort of being 
without competition. Thousands of dollars are spent. 
Then, to cap the climax, the bidders may be told that 
the devices offered are not perfect, that the board of 
directors won't approve the appropriation or that the 
price is too high as compared with some stock article 
that weighs as many pounds, contains as much material 
or that stands as many inches high or wide ! 

As a matter of simple justice, any railway that wants 



something unusual should be willing to bear a part of 
the development charges — all the more so as the device, 
though satisfactory for its own conditions, may be 
worthless everywhere else and may also impose a future 
burden upon the manufacturer because of storage and 
other charges in connection with special patterns, jigs, 
tools, etc. No manufacturer relishes being put in the 
position of appearing to charge an excessive unit price 
just because the order is special. He would far prefer 
to sell at a price comparable with his standard output. 
This he can do only if the development charges for a 
special application are billed and paid for as a separate 
item instead of being concealed in the unit selling 
price. Then the customer will not look upon the manu- 
facturer as a monopolistic profiteer, while the manufac- 
turer will feel encouraged to develop his inventive 
facilities to the utmost. 



What Equipment Tests 

Are Necessary or Desirable? 

TESTS of electric railway equipment are of two 
kinds ; those which are made during and immediate- 
ly after the construction of the apparatus to determine 
the fitness of the materials used and to make certain 
that the workmanship is all that is desired, and service 
tests with the assembled equipment operated under 
every-day conditions. Tests of the latter type are ana- 
lyzed in an article in this issue by C. W. Squier. The 
tests which he outlines are very extensive and are such 
as are frequently made on large electric railway sys- 
tems. On smaller properties there are not the facilities 
or instruments for carrying out tests on such a large 
scale and on these properties the managers would, no 
doubt, consider the cost of making elaborate tests to 
be prohibitive. Certain of the tests discussed may, 
however, be within the reach of the smaller properties, 
and all can gain much information from this article 
as to how such tests should be carried out. For the pur- 
pose of enabling them to supplement and check manu- 
facturers' claims, a number of roads maintain quite 
complete testing organizations. The care which they 
take in testing their equipment shows that they appre- 
ciate the importance of this work. The same conviction 
as to the value of careful testing should pervade even 
the smallest roads, where the spirit of getting at the 
root of difficulties by resorting to some form of test 
rather than by cut-and-try repair methods should be 
fostered. 

For apparatus to be tested by a railway, is no dispar- 
agement of the exhaustive work of this character which 
is done by manufacturers. We all know that the latter 
have systematized testing procedure until it is well 



126 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 3 



nigh a science. Furthermore, it is the custom of manu- 
facturers to follow up the performance of their equip- 
ment in service to enable them to make good any defects 
in design or workmanship. A little later we plan to 
publish some articles showing just what the manufac- 
turers do along this line. However, even when the 
railways receive their equipment in perfect condition, it 
is necessary to maintain some kind of periodic testing 
work, with occasional special investigations, in order 
to determine whether or not the equipment continues 
to do what is expected of it. 



Engineering Association 

Wisely Decides to Go Forward 

THE Electric Railway Journal has deplored the 
fact that the American Electric Railway Engineer- 
ing Association did not continue its activities during 
the war period, and has expressed this thought on 
several occasions. It seemed to us and to many others 
that the association was needed, if ever, to assist its 
members in doing their work well under adverse con- 
ditions. To be sure, it would not have been easy to 
work under war conditions, and the lines of activity 
would necessarily have been modified and curtailed; but 
much could have been done. In view of this convic- 
tion we are pleased to note that, after cessation of asso- 
ciation activity for many months, the executive com- 
mittee has opened the throttle and the machinery will 
soon be in operation again. 

For the present attention will be focused on but a 
few subjects, but these will be selected by a specially 
appointed committee on subjects which will presumably 
have several considerations in mind, as follows: First, 
railway men competent to do effective committee work 
are heavily overburdened due to the run-down condi- 
tion of physical equipment. Second, a very limited 
period is available for the preparation of reports. 
Third, the program for the convention should be made 
interesting, stimulating and constructive — in other 
words, the antithesis of tiresome. Fourth, whatever 
is done now, whatever is said and done at the conven- 
tion, and whatever plans are laid for future work, all 
should be done with the definite object of helping to get 
electric railways back onto their feet. 

To the above end a commendable step was taken by 
the executive committee in deciding to ignore the pres- 
ent committee organization in preparing a program, in 
order that the future work may be unhampered by 
tradition, precedent or committee personnel. As we 
have pointed out editorially before, there is in the 
electric railway association (and elsewhere as well) a 
tendency to keep committees going almost regardless of 
what they do. Committees are appointed for special 
purposes, but they are frequently not discharged when 
they achieve this purpose or prove their incompetence 
by failing to do so. It is a favorite diversion at public 
meetings to appoint committees for this or that purpose, 
sometimes without due consideration. The average 
committees so appointed do little, prepare perfunctory 
reports which make unattractive programs, and drag on 
a miserable existence until somebody suggests that 
they be "discharged with the thanks of the association." 
Now is a good time for a committee clean-up in all 
fields. 



Temporary War-Time Construction 
May Now Have Become a Menace 

TEMPORARY structures are quite as much a part 
of the necessary equipment of a construction com- 
pany as are wheelbarrows and hammers. But useful 
as they may be while construction work is on they con- 
stitute a menace as well as a nuisance if permitted to 
remain, and, therefore, like the wheelbarrows and brick- 
bats they should be carted away when the job is finished. 
We as a nation have just been engaged in one of the 
largest rush-order construction jobs ever tackled by any 
people — the creating out of nothing and over night, as 
it were, of a mighty military machine. We have done 
the job and in doing it we have had a perfect orgy of 
temporary construction. As a people we have spent 
enough money on such construction to build a Panama 
Canal, an Assouan Dam, and irrigate a chain of small 
deserts besides. It was all necessary, and we are not be- 
moaning the expenditure of time, money and materials. 
The electric railways have done their share al&ng with 
the other industries. Some of their temporary struc- 
tures were built because the money was not available to 
build otherwise, others because the need was known or 
thought to be transient. 

Great as the immediate need of these structures may 
have been or may now be their presence carries with it 
a certain element of risk. Regarding them, the motto 
of the insurance companies is "Beware." Every in- 
surance man knows that a temporary building once 
in service in the operating field is likely to remain where 
it is until it either falls down or burns down. In such 
service not only are they risks themselves but they 
constitute risks to neighboring property as well. This 
is the more true since, because of its convenience and 
general availability, wood is the building material com- 
monly used. Owing to advances in the building art com- 
paratively cheap temporary structures can be built with 
such materials as concrete, metal lath and plaster, and 
their use seems desirable wherever temporary operating 
structures are necessary. In any event, however, a 
temporary structure should be removed at once when its 
immediate purpose has been served. 



What Causes 

Curve Resistance? 
"/^URVE resistance has never been exhaustively in- 

V_>» vestigated, and our knowledge is in several re- 
spects deficient." So wrote A. M. Wellington many 
years ago. Despite the fact that we have developed 
refined methods of measurement and learned a vast 
deal about the mechanics of railroading since Wel- 
lington wrote the classic volume, "Economic Theory 
of Railway Location," the statement quoted pretty well 
sums up the present status of the matter. To engineers 
who have ever had anything to do with railway loca- 
tion or the selection of motive power, curve resistance 
possesses a certain fascination. This is because of the 
presence of some elusive variables which so far have 
escaped being charted to everybody's satisfaction. 

Various theories have been propounded to account 
for curve resistance. By some writers centrifugal force 
is assumed to play a major part. Others account for it 
on the basis of obliquity of traction, that is to say, of 
the tendency of a train passing around a curve to draw 
itself straight. Still others believe that the skidding 



January 18, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



127 



of the wheels incident to the different distances traveled 
by the inner and outer wheels of an axle is the cause. 
In a paper contributed by Bulletin 207 of the American 
Railway Engineering Association, J. G. Sullivan dis- 
cusses the older theories and presents one of his own 
which seems to possess some merit. 

Mr. Sullivan discounts the centrifugal force theory 
because with proper superelevation of the outer rail the 
action of centrifugal force is* simply to place more of 
the weight of the car body on the outer rail. He con- 
siders the obliquity of traction theory absurd since a 
locomotive will push practically as many cars around 
a curve as it will pull, and all experience has been that 
it is the outer rail head reather than the inner one 
that is cut away. Regarding the skidding of the wheels 
along the rails, Mr. Sullivan makes the point that, even 
assuming a coefficient of friction of 22 per cent, only 
one-fourth of the force usually assumed to represent 
curve resistance would be accounted for. 

His own theory is that the reason that the outer 
wheels "exert a pressure against the outer rail on a 
curve is the fact that a revolving cylinder tends to 
rotate on a straight line perpendicular to the axis of 
rotation"; in other words, he attributes the attempt of 
the outer wheel flanges to climb the rail head as due to 
the gyroscopic action of the wheels. 

It has been customary to express curve resistance 
either in terms of grade which would produce an 
equivalent resistance or as a certain number of pounds 
per ton per degree of curve. Such expressions neglect 
the effect of speed and track and truck conditions. If the 
gyroscopic theory is the correct one it would be expected 
that curve resistance would vary as some power of the 
speed. Tests reported in Bulletin 92 of the Engineer- 
ing Experiment Station of the University of Illinois in- 
dicate the truth of this assumption. Other tests made 
by Prof. L. E. Endsley for the American Steel Foun- 
dries show that curve resistance is affected to a very 
marked degree by the condition of the track rails, truck 
frames, and wheel treads and flanges. While many ex- 
perimenters have worked on the problem and a great- 
many more engineers have formulated opinions rela- 
tive to it, there seems to be nothing available inclusive 
enough to serve as a basis for general reasoning. 

In view of the almost negligible amount of construc- 
tion work in progress the matter of curve resistance is 
not of very great interest at the present time. It has 
never received as much attention as true train resis- 
tance because it is usually much smaller in magnitude 
and, besides, curves ordinarily form a small percentage 
of the mileage of a railway. These engineers, however, 
who have to do with mountain grade steam railway 
electrification could well make use of a more exact 
knowledge of the subject, as mountain roads have a 
great deal of curvature, and in some cases the use of 
special rolling stock is involved. For such equipment 
the old arbitrary figures of 0.7 or 0.8 lb. per ton per 
degree of curve do not necessarily apply. At any rate 
it is better engineering practice to base empirical for- 
mulas on known facts than on guesswork and tradition. 
With the possibilities of accurate power measurement 
afforded by electric traction and with the recent de- 
velopments in methods of measuring track stresses, an 
extensive new investigation of the subject should yield 
results of considerable technical value. 



How Far Can 

Wages Be Standardized? 

IT IS NOW more than five months since the first 
wage awards to electric railway employees were made 
by the War Labor Board. The results to the companies 
following the fixing of comparatively high wage scales 
for these men have been reviewed from time to time in 
these columns, and it is conceded generally that these 
awards brought to a crisis the financial difficulties of 
many a transportation agency. The harm has been 
done, however, and there is no prospect of relief from 
the wage burden unless at the end of six months the 
companies are able to make a showing which will con- 
vince the board that an injustice has been done in any 
case or that new conditions have arisen which warrant 
a change. 

In this connection some thought might be given to 
the question of requesting the War Labor Board to 
depart from its policy of attempting to fix standard 
wages. This principle undoubtedly was adopted as one 
of expediency during war times. But the point might 
well be raised as to whether this policy is strictly fair. 
In the November issue of the Monthly Labor Review 
of the United States Bureau of Labor there is an article 
entitled ''Comparison of Food Costs in Forty-Five 
Cities." From this article one is likely to form the 
conclusion that if the establishment of a 48-cent maxi- 
mum wage per hour in a number of cities is fair to 
some companies, it must inevitably work an injustice 
on others. 

It is true that the board departed somewhat from 
a fixed standard when it established a 42-cent maximum 
in some districts, 45 cents in others and 48 cents in 
still another group of cities. But even these distinc- 
tions do not appear to have been based on a careful 
weighing of "local conditions," if one is to judge from 
the weighted averages of food prices as listed in the 
article mentioned above. One finds, for instance, that, 
as compared with an average of 100 for the United 
States as a whole, the food cost averages in four of 
the cities having a 48-cent maximum wage scale for 
trainmen are 94.20, 98.74, 99.63 and 99.95, while another 
city for which the 48-cent wage was recently established 
has an average of 115.02. It is true that these per- 
centages are based entirely on food costs and on only 
a portion of the articles constituting the entire expendi- 
ture for food. Inasmuch as food costs take about 40 
per cent of the average expenditure in the cost of living, 
it is not unlikely that similar differences would be 
found to prevail on the other items in family main- 
tenance in various localities. To this extent at least 
there is shown a decided lack of uniformity as between 
cities. In fact, this contention has been made fre- 
quently by employers and employees alike in arbitration 
hearings where wage scales were the subject of dis- 
cussion. 

If some of the cases over which the War Labor Board 
has jurisdiction are to be reopened during the next 
few months the question might well be raised as to 
whether the interests of justice are best served by the 
continuance of the present policy of fixing standard 
wages. 

Electric railways can now supply data to show just 
what effect the standardizing has had upon their operat- 
ing problems. 



128 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 3 



Car Equipment Service Tests Determine 
Fitness of Apparatus 



By C. W. SQUIER 

Electrical Engineer 




RAILWAY MOTOR TEST AT MANUFACTURER'S PLANT 



BEFORE ordering the equip- 
ment for electric railway cars 
the operating and designing 
engineers of the railway devote, a 
large amount of time to preparing 
specifications and working out the 
proper materials and apparatus nec- 
essary for satisfactory operation. 
As soon as the manufacturer begins 
his work on the various parts which ^^^^^^^^^^^ 
enter into the equipment, inspectors 

from the railway follow the construction carefully to 
make certain that the material is proper and is used 
as called for in the specifications. 

Preliminary tests are usually made at the manufac- 
turer's plant for determining the fitness of the appara- 
tus for the service conditions to be encountered. These 
commercial tests are intended to locate any defective 
material that may have been used and also to make 
certain that the workmanship is up to the standard ex- 
pected. They are very important and the various manu- 
facturing concerns have provided very complete testing 
facilities. Each separate piece of apparatus which goes 
to make up the complete equipment of an electric car 
is given test after test from the time that its construc- 
tion is first started until it is assembled for the final 
running tests. After it has passed the commercial tests 



The Author Describes the Methods 
of Making Operating Tests and 
Heat Runs, Tells How Sections of 
Test Track Can Be Best Laid Out 
to Represent Actual Service Re- 
quirements, Outlines the Organiza- 
tion Necessary for a Proper Test 
Force and Gives the Results Ob- 
tained in a Specific Test 



at the manufacturer's plant the 
equipment is usually shipped to the 
railway company for installation on 
the completed cars. 

After the equipment is received 
and installed on the cars the offi- 
cials of the road naturally want to 
know if it is going to give the serv- 
ice specified satisfactorily and oth- 
^^^^^^^^^^ erwise meet the operating condi- 
~™~~" = ~" = J tions laid down in the specifications. 
Tests are necessary if this is to be determined 
with any degree of accuracy. These should pref- 
erably be made under actual operating conditions 
approximating as nearly as possible the service as given 
in the specifications under which the equipment was 
purchased. These tests should extend over a consider- 
able period. If made on lines where passenger service 
is maintained they will seriously interfere with regular 
operation. It is therefore preferable where possible to 
to make use of a section of track not used for regular 
service, but very few roads have such track. Sometimes 
by rerouting the cars on a portion of a line temporarily, 
or by using only one track of a double-track section for 
passenger traffic, a short portion of a line can be made 
available for test purposes. Most tests except the serv- 
ice-heating test can be made during the off-peak hours. 



January 18, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



129 



This usually requires from eight to twelve hours of con- 
tinuous operation and if it is interrupted for even a few 
minutes the results become worthless, and the test must 
be made over again. 

Test Runs Should Approximate Actual 
Service Conditions 

With a certain section of track available for the test 
the first thing to be done is to lay out runs along this 
track of lengths so as to reproduce the service specified. 
To illustrate the procedure I shall describe briefly a 
series of tests of which I recently had charge. The 
cars were for operation in both local and express service 
on a high-speed line using train operation. The con- 
trol equipment was of the multiple-Unit type and two 
motors were used per car. 
The tests were carried out 
with a two-car train on a 
section of track about 3 
miles in length. For the 
motor heating tests, local 
and express runs were 
chosen which represented 
the most severe condi- 
tions. Table I gives a 
comparison of the specifi- 
cation distances and the 
distances actually laid out 
for the test of express 
service. A complete trip 
was 43,380 ft. long and 
was made up of six runs 
of varying length. As the 
test track was not long 
enough to make a com- 
plete trip operating in one 
direction, the various runs 
were made by operating 
back and forth over the organization chart 

test section. It was, of 

course, necessary that the point of ending each com- 
plete trip should be the same as the starting point, for 
test operation must be continuous until the apparatus 
reaches constant temperature. In order to bring the 
runs back to the starting point the express runs of 9560 
ft. and 9870 ft. as given in Table I were changed to 
9650 ft. and 9780 ft. respectively by adding and sub- 
tracting 90 ft. from the actual distance of these runs. 
The chart given on page 130 shows the various runs as 
laid out with the different grades of the lines. 

Stopping Signs Are of Great Assistance 

The various stopping points were indicated by large 
white signs with black numerals printed thereon. These 



TABLE I— DISTANCES AND RUNNING TIME FOR EXPRESS RUNS 
IN MOTOR-POWER-CONSUMPTION AND HEATING TESTS 




Specifi- 








Duration 






cation 


Distances 


Running 


of 


Total 




Distances, 


Used, 


Time. 


Stops, 


Time 




Feet 


Feet 


Min. 


Sec. 


Seconds 


Min. £ 




6,770 


6,770 


2 


34 


30 


3 


4 


9,560 


9,650 


3 


32 


30 


4 


2 


3,930 


3,930 


1 


43 


30 


2 


13 


9,870 


9,780 


3 


35 


30 


4 


5 


8,110 


8,110 


3 


4 


30 


3 


34 


5,140 


5,140 


2 


12 


30 


2 


42 


43,380 


43,380 


16 


40 


180 


19 


40 


Average length run, 7,230 ft. 


schedu 


e speed, 25.05 


m.p.h. 







stopping signs were located on the right-hand side of 
the track as they were being approached by the train. 
The motorman's operating cab was located on the right- 
hand side of the car when facing the front end, and 
this location of the signs was most convenient for the 
motormen. All lengths of runs were laid out so that 
the front end of the train would stop opposite the stop 
sign. Where the direction of operation was changed, 
as was necessary in operating back and forth on the 
test section of track, allowance had to be made, of 
course, for the length of the train, so that the motor- 
man at each stop could bring the front end of the train 
to rest opposite the stop sign in each case. By using 
large signs with conspicuous numerals painted on them 
the motorman was able to see where the stop was to 
be made a considerable 
distance in advance of the 
stopping point. An ac- 
companying illustration 
shows one of these stop- 
ping signs in position. 
For the tesit a two-car 
train was used and it was 
loaded with bags of sand 
to give a weight equal to 
that of a standing load of 
passengers. The motor 
equipment consisted of 
two motors per car 
mounted one on each 
truck. By the use of two 
cars the difference in tem- 
perature of the motors at 
the ends and in the cen- 
ter was obtained. For op- 
erating the train two mo- 
tormen were used, one at 
each end of the train. This 
was necessary as the du- 
ration of stop was insuffi- 
cient for the motormen to change ends. The complete 
test force was as follows: One engineer in charge; two 
motormen ; one motorman's coach ; one schedule man ; 
one power, brake and coasting data recorder; one line 
voltage and compressor operation recorder; one motor 
voltage recorder; one wattmeter and motor resistance 
recorder; eight temperature recorders, and two auxili- 
ary apparatus operators. The entire testing force was 
under direct supervision of the engineer in charge of 
the tests. 

In addition to the test force the various manufac- 
turers of the equipment under test had engineering 
representatives present and workmen ready to make 
any adjustment of the equipment that was considered 
necessary. Representatives of the Public Service Com- 
mission and various consulting engineers for the rail- 
way also assisted the engineer in charge of the tests. 
An organization chart of this test force is shown in an 
accompanying illustration. 

Test Instruments Used 
All test instruments were located in one car and the 
connections for the various instruments are shown in 
an accompanying illustration. Three wattmeters were 
connected as follows: The first in the main motor cir- 



OP TESTING FORI MO 



130 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 3 



cuits measured the total power used for propelling the 
car. The second in the battery circuit measured the 
power used for operating the control, air brakes, door 
apparatus, signal system and other auxiliary apparatus 
using battery current. The third was connected in the 
compressor, heater and light circuits and was arranged 
with switches so that the power used by each could be 
measured separately. 

Indicating ammeters and voltmeters were also in- 




CD No. of Run 

(T) Stop Sign marking 
f End of each Run 



HEATING TEST RUNS FOR EXPRESS SERVICE 

stalled as follows: A voltmeter was connected to indi- 
cate line voltage. A second voltmeter was connected to 
show the voltage across No. 2 motor and by the use of 
a single-pole double-throw switch to read the voltage 
across the tapped field of the same motor also. A third 
voltmeter was connected to show the voltage of the bat- 
tery. Ammeters were connected in the main motor cir- 
cuits to give the total current used in propelling the car, 
in auxiliary circuits to show the current taken by the 
compressor, the lamps and the heaters, and in the bat- 




TESTING SET FOR MEASURING RESISTANCE 

tery circuit to indicate the current taken in operating 
the various pieces of apparatus using battery current. 

A Queen's "dial decade" testing set was connected 
across the full field of No. 2 motor on the test car. The 
resistance of this field was measured at the end of each 
complete trip and from these readings the temperature 
of the field winding was computed. As already stated 



this furnished an accurate method of determining when 
the temperature of the field had become constant. 

An indicating lamp was connected in the circuit of 
the compressor governor so that this lamp remained 
lighted while the compressor was running. An observer 
was thus enabled by observing this lamp to record the 
time that the compressor was operating. 

A Johns-Manville speed indicator with a friction de- 
vice on one of the car wheels gave the speed at which 
the cars were operating at all times. 

Thermometers were located inside the car, under- 
neath the car at either end and in the center, and on 




STOPPING SIGN IN POSITION ON TEST TRACK 

station platforms, to give the temperature of the out- 
side air. At the end of the heat test additional ther- 
mometers were placed inside the motors to give the 
temperature of the various windings and of the 
commutator. 

Variations in voltage, current, speed, etc., are more 
accurately recorded where automatic recording instru- 
ments are used. In the particular tests outlined such 
instruments were not available but in a later series of 
tests made on this same equipment graphic recording 
ammeters and voltmeters manufactured by the General 



Heating Test of Electric Car Equipment 

SCHEDULE SHEET 

Recorder. J$t&foz. 

Checked 



Railway 
Date 



Service £ 


x press 


Sheet i 


Vo 










So 


Between 
Stations 


Start 


. Stop 


Schedule 
Time at 


Varia- 


Stop 

Sec. 


Total 
Time 


Schedule 
Stops 


t 


It, 


pHc: 1 














JO 


z 










I » 36, « 








ha 


J 




ir-7 






r» *9» 












'U 


r-i 
















s 










/6»M» 










C 










/9°/o>> 








/So 


/ 


















.10 


z 










4 -J6" 








6o 


3 




S-7 














?o 


¥ 










I2*4#* 








/M 




i. 








/6-Zt» 








/SO 


c 




9-0 






/?"/<?■■ 








/to 



SCHEDULE SHEET FOR ENTERING OPERATING RESULTS 

Electric Company were used. A chronographic mechan- 
ism was employed with these and with some pressure 
recording instruments installed in the air brake system. 
This provided a time record which was the same for 
all instruments and made it easy to transfer the records 
to a common sheet later. A graphic recording ammeter 
with time-marker clock is shown herewith. 



January 18, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



131 



Previous to starting the tests several trial runs were 
made to determine the length of time necessary for 
power to be applied to the main motors to maintain 
the schedule speed desired. From the results thus ob- 
tained tables were made up, showing the time necessary 
to apply power in order to maintain the schedule as laid 
out for the various runs. To enable the motorman to 
maintain the schedule speed as laid out, a schedule man 
kept record of the running time and length of stop and 
also gave the signal for starting the train. These re- 
sults were entered on schedule sheets, a sample of which 
is illustrated herewith. The schedule sheets contained 
the correct running time for comparison with the re- 
sults obtained so that at each stop the 
amount that the motorman was ahead 
or behind schedule could be seen at a 
glance. The information was given to 
a second man who acted as motor- 
man's coach. The coach had a set of 
tables, already referred to above, with 
the time that it was necessary to keep 
power on to maintain the schedule 
speed for the various runs. He was 
thus enabled to tell the motorman when 
to drop off or to resume power and 
where the next stop was to be. If the 
train was behind its schedule time the 
power was kept on slightly longer and 
if it was ahead of time power was 
dropped off sooner than for regular 
operation. 



voltages were read and recorded every five seconds, and 
the time that the compressor was operating was re- 
corded. At the end of each trip the following readings 
were taken and records made: Readings of the watt- 
meters in the motor, compressor and battery circuits ; 
resistance of the full field of No. 2 motor to check the 
temperature rise and determine when this had become 
constant; temperature readings inside the cars, under- 
neath each end of the cars and on the station platform. 
On certain runs records were taken every five seconds 
of the speed of the train, the motor current, the com- 
pressor current, the battery current and the battery 
voltage. At each stop the doors and signal system were 
operated as they would have been in 
regular passenger operation. All parts 
of the equipment were thus subjected 
to operating tests representing the 
most severe conditions. 

In making the temperature tests the 
various runs were continued for at 
least an hour after the resistance 
readings indicated that a constant 
temperature of the windings had been 
reached. When it was certain that 
no higher temperature would be ob- 
tained the runs were stopped and tem- 
peratures were taken by thermometer 
as follows : Air inside cars ; air un- 
derneath each end of the car; air on 
station platform; and, armature coil, 
speed indicator field core, commutator, main field and 





GRAPHIC RECORDING AMMETER AND TIME-MARKER CLOCK 
Letters are used to point out the essential parts. 



This system worked out exceedingly well so that at 
no time there was a variation of more than a minute 
from the schedule. The braking was left entirely to 
the motorman, his only instructions being to make as 
smooth a passenger stop as possible at the point desig- 
nated. He was also permitted entire freedom of opera- 
tion in case of emergency. 

The recorder of "power-on," coasting and braking 
time used a stop-watch and recorded the length of time 
.that power was kept on and the amount of time used 
in coasting and braking. On the runs, line and motor 



interpole field, for each motor of the train. All runs 
were made with the covers on all motors, and in taking 
motor temperatures at the ends of the runs the motor 
covers were removed and the thermometers placed as 
rapidly as possible. 

These cars were each equipped with a 32-volt storage 
battery which was of great assistance in providing light 
for reading the various thermometers. A separate 
32-volt droplight, with a long flexible cord, was provided 
for each motor. These lamps were small so that they 
could be readily inserted in the various spaces inside 



132 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 3 



the motors and temperatures were thus able to be read 
without disturbing the thermometers. While such 
readings are being taken it is very important that all 
danger of shock from coming in contact with live parts 
be eliminated. The use of an auxiliary battery for the 
drop lights has a great advantage in this connection 



mainmotor\ Li - 

CIRCUITS . (t) i 




DIAGRAM CONNECTIONS FOR TESTING INSTRUMENTS 

as all potential can thus be removed from all car 
equipment. 

Before such a temperature test is started it is ad- 
visable to make certain that all covers can be readily 
removed from apparatus on which temperature readings 
are to be taken. In the first test of this nature with 
which I was connected it was almost impossible to re- 
move several of the motor covers. The removal of 
covers out on the line is quite a different proposition 
from their removal in a shop provided with proper 




MAIN-FIELD TEMPERATURE RISE AS COMPUTED FROM 
RESISTANCE MEASUREMENTS 



4500 45 

4000 40 

3500 d 35 
+- o 

o 3000^ 30 
u -?500 a 25 
c 2000 » Z0 
„ I500 z . 15 
° 1000 % 10 
500 m 5 
















































































, 1 





















































































































































































































5 10 15 

ACCELERATION AND DISTANCE GRAPH FOR TEST TRAIN 

facilities. Also such tests are usually made with cars 
loaded and the clearances between the tops of motors 
and the car body are often very small. In the particular 
case mentioned it took twenty minutes to remove the 
covers after the test was discontinued so that there 



was a considerable drop in temperature of the windings 
before the thermometers could be placed. This, of 
course rendered the results worthless. 

Some Results op a Service Test 
In the service heat runs which I have been consider- 
ing in this article, runs corresponding to local service, 
express service and mixed local and express service 
were made on successive days. Constant temperature 
was reached in the main field winding of the motors in 
local service after six hours' operation, in express serv- 
ice after five and one-half hours and in mixed local and 
express service after five and one-half hours. The 
maximum temperature rise as taken by thermometers 
at the completion of the runs was 59 deg. Cent, above 
the surrounding air. This was found in the interpole 



TABLE II — OPERATING DATA FROM TEST RUNS 



Local 
Service 

Average line voltage 537.6 

Per cent of total time of "power on" 26. 4 

Per cent of total time coasting 44. I 

Per cent of total time braking 1 1 . 3 

Per cent of total time used by stops 1 8 2 

Average rate of acceleration I. 5 



550.0 
14. 
53.6 



Mixed 
Local and 
Express 
Services 
551.6 
37.4 
34.6 
11.6 
16.4 



TABLE III— COMI-liESSOl: I 'E I ! I < > I; M A \ ( 'E, KXI'ISKSS SERVICE 





Total 


Time 


Per Cent 






Trip 


Time 


Compressor 


of Total 


Av. 




No. 


of Run, 


Operated, 


Time Comp. 


Line 


Kw.-Hrs. 




Min. 


Sec. 


Min. 


Sec. 


Operated 


Voltage 


Used 




38 


56 


15 


28 


39.72 


529.3 


1.0 


2 


38 




15 


42 


41. 11 


547.3 


1.3 


3 


38 


27 


16 


37 


43.21 


533.5 


1.3 


4 


38 


02 


15 


38 


41. 10 


543.9 


1.0 


5 


38 


16 


13 


35 


35.50 


547.4 


1.2 


6 


38 


43 


13 


30 


34.86 


546.0 


1.0 


7 


38 


30 


16 


16 


42.23 


557.2 


1.2 


8 


38 


36 


15 




39.55 


557.6 


1.2 


9 


38 


50 


15 


05 


38.84 


564.9 


1.4 


10 


38 


44 


14 


22 


37. 10 


556.3 


1.0 


11 


' 38 


52 


16 


08 


41.51 


556.7 


1.2 


12 


38 


21 


15 


32 


40.50 


552.7 


1.2 


13 


38 


39 


15 


12 


39.32 


552.7 


1.2 


14 


38 


42 


16 


00 


41.34 


555.0 


1.3 


Total, 


539 


~49 


214 


21 


39.39 


550.0 


16.5 




Length 


of each 


run 




= 16. 41 miles 






Length of fourteen runs 




= 229.74 miles 






Weight of car loaded 




= 120,000 1b 


= 60 ton 














16,500 








Compressor watt-hours per car- 




71.82 














m 6 _ 229.74 
















71.82 








Compressor watt-hours per ton 




1.197 














60 







field windings after runs corresponding to local service 
were completed. The specification requirements were 
for a rise not to exceed 65 deg. when measured with 
thermometers. The motors thus met the requirements. 
An accompanying graph shows the temperature 
rise for express service as computed from the resistance 
measurements for the main field of No. 2 motor of 
the test car as already described. 

Operating Results Corresponding to Different 
Service Conditions 

In order to compare the operation of the test train 
with that of actual service the records obtained were 
averaged for the various runs. Table II gives the per- 
centages of the various lengths of time that were con- 
sumed in coasting, braking and stops. Information is 
also tabulated for the percentage of total time that 
power was used and the average line voltage. The 
percentage of time taken by "power on" coasting and 
braking represent ideal conditions, as there were no 
extra stops or slow-downs for signals such as is en- 
countered in regular service. Another accompanying 



January 18, 1919 



Electric Railway journal 



133 



graph shows the acceleration of the test train on 
level tangent track up to a speed of 42.5 m.p.h. 

The performance of the compressors on the cars in 
the test train, while operating in express service, is 
shown by the results given in Table III. This table 
will serve as an illustration of the type of data that 
are most desirable for comparing the performances 
of the various pieces of auxiliary apparatus comprising 
a complete car equipment. Similar data were compiled 
for other pieces of auxiliary apparatus making up the 



TABLE IV— POWER CONSUMPTION MAIN MOTORS FOR TEST RUI 
IN EXPRESS SERVICE 

Wattmeter 

When Taken Reading Kilowatt-Hoi 

Start 2,174.2 

After run No. I 2,240.6 66 .4 

After run No. 2 2,300.8 60.2 

After run No. 3 2,362.7 61.9 

After run No. 1 2 2,970.0 66 4 

After run No. 13 3,037.2 67.2 

After run No. 1 4 3,104.4 67 2 

Total kilowatt-hours, fourteen trips, 930.2; multiplier, 1.047. Correct 
total, kilowatt-hours, fourteen trips, 973.9194. Length each run, 86,760 ft 
16.430 miles; length, fourteen runs, 230,020 miles; weight of car loaded 
973.92 

1 20,000 lb.; kilowatt-hours per car-mile = = 4.234; watt-hours p 

230 02 

4234 

ton-mile = 70. 567. 

60 



complete car equipment, such as heaters, door engines, 
signal equipment and lights, this latter being divided 
into head, tail, marker, emergency and main car lights. 

The power consumed by the main motors in propel- 
ling the car in express service is shown by Table IV. 
Similar results were worked out for all the different 
classes of service. These values were used to check the 
results obtained with theoretical values previously com- 
puted and later with tests made in actual service when 
passengers were carried in regular operation. 



Costs of Maintaining Differential Gear 
Drive at Huddersfield 

IN THE issue of the Electric Railway Journal for 
July 3, 1915, page 26, there was described a differ- 
ential drive for electric railway cars which had been 
installed on a number of cars in Huddersfield, England. 
This has now been in use long enough to render data of 
maintenance costs both reliable and interesting. In re- 
sponse to a request for such data, R. H. Wilkinson, man- 
ager of the Bradford Corporation Tramways, has fur- 
nished Tables I and II. In each case ten cars are in- 
cluded and the tables cover two successive years, up to 
the end of September, 1918. The differentially geared 
cars operated on the Honley route, where the track is in 
very poor condition, but the other cars are running on 
good track. 

Mr. Wilkinson calls attention to the fact that the com- 
parison is hardly fair to the differential gears on ac- 



TABLE I— REPAIR COSTS OF TEN CARS EQUIPPED WITH DIFFER- 
ENTIAL AND ORDINARY GEARS, YEAR ENDED SEPTEMBER, 1917 
Differential Gears Ordinary Gears 

Labor Material Labor Material 

Gears $110 $78 $66 $70 

Axles and bearings 289 691 151 582 

Car wheels, bushings and tires. . . 184 935 113 848 

Totals $583 $1,704 $330 $1,500 

Grand total: 

Differential gears $2,287 

Ordinary gears 1,830 

Difference 457 



TABLE II— REPAIR COSTS OF TEN CARS EQUIPPED W ITH DIFFER- 
ENTIAL AND ORDINARY GEARS, YEAR ENDED SEPTEMBER, 1918 

Differential Gears Ordinary Gears 

Labor Material Labor Material 

Gears $179 $507 $168 $317 

Axles and bearings 447 655 271 594 

Car wheels, bushings and tires . . 181 538 138 200 

Totals $807 $1,700 $577 $1,111 

Grand total: 

Differential gears $2,507 

Ordinary gears 1,688 

Difference $819 



count of the difference in track condition. The Honley 
route track is mostly single line with loops, whereas the 
cars with the ordinary gears were run on a double- 
track line with newer rails in first-class condition. 

He states further that the differential gears were in- 
troduced to eliminate rail corrugation trouble. Prior 
to the introduction of the new type gears on the Honley 
section the corrugations were ground out as far as pos- 
sible by means of emery blocks attached to a car truck. 




DIFFERENTIAL GEAR USED ONT HUDDERSFIEED 
TRAMWAYS CARS 

This work was done at night and it is possible that in 
a few places where the track was loose and uneven the 
grinding was not so effectively done as where the track 
was in good condition. Since October, 1914, this section 
has been worked entirely with the differentially-geared 
cars, and with a few slight exceptions corrugations have 
not reappeared. The exceptions are in places where the 
track is very loose on its foundation. Mr. Wilkinson is 
in doubt as to whether the corrugation is in consequence 
of the looseness of the track or vice versa. 

The experience on the Honley section is significant in 
that one of the theories of corrugation is that it is due 
to the slipping and skidding of the wheels. These are, 
of course, absent with the differentially-geared cars. 
There is no difference in energy consumption between 
the cars equipped with the two types of drive. 



The Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway is mak- 
ing a total annual saving due to reclamation work es- 
timated at more than $7,000,000. A special committee 
has recently been at work studying this matter with a 
view to determining whether the procedure could be im- 
proved. Discarded material is reclaimed for remanu- 
facture, reclaimed for salvage or reclaimed for similar 
use. The principal items in the reclamation work are 
rubber hose, babbitt and lead, brass, bolts and nuts, 
waste paper, metal roofing, springs, hammered scrap 
iron, car wheels and lumber. The committee report states 
that materials are commonly reclaimed by means of 
oxy-acetylene welding, electric welding, forging equip- 
ment, rolling mills and miscellaneous means. 



134 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 3 



Collecting Zone Fares in Boston 

Professor Richey Shows That Two-Zone Plan for Bos- 
ton Elevated Railway Is Best First Step Toward the 
Ideal — Proposes a Concrete Plan for Getting the Fares 



THAT a two-zone system of fares is practicable 
for the Boston (Mass.) Elevated Railway is the 
opinion of Prof. Albert S. Richey. The general 
conclusions of his report on this subject to the public 
trustees of the company were published in the Electric 
Railway Journal of Dec. 28, page 1141, but additional 
material from the full report now available will be 
presented below. The new material relates chiefly to 
the reasons for recommending a two-zone plan for 
Boston and the method suggested for handling the col- 
lection of fares. 

Removing Objections to the Zone Idea 
According to Professor Richey, it is generally con- 
ceded that a rate scheme where the fare is in some 
way dependent upon the length of ride is more nearly 
equitable both to the passenger and to the company 
than the flat-rate system. Continuing, he comments in 
part as follows upon the most frequent objections to a 
zone system, i.e., its sociological defects and the difficulty 
of collection: 

The most frequently cited "proof" that a zone system 
produces congestion is the great congestion of European 
cities where the zone system of fares is commonly used. 
While it is true, in general, that most of the European cities 
are more densely populated than most of the large Ameri- 
can cities, this statement is not specifically true, for al- 
though it is impossible to make accurate comparisons, there 
is nevertheless great congestion in some American cities. 
Boston has been shown to have a larger population per 
square mile than Vienna or Paris, and New York, Phil- 
adelphia and Chicago have been shown to have a greater 
population per square mile than London or Manchester. 
As to maximum density of population, Boston has been 
shown to equal London, and New York to be greater than 
either Paris, Vienna or London. The surface lines in 
Berlin and Hamburg have a flat fare, and both of these 
cities are as congested as Cologne or any other city where a 
zone system is used. The argument that the zone system 
has caused congestion in European cities disappears when 
it is realized that these old European cities had their con- 
gested areas long before the first electric railways were 
built and that the operation of these railways under the 
zone system has helped to relieve congestion. 

Among the factors which tend to influence the place of 
residence, in addition to the amount of car fare required 
between place of residence and place of work, are (1) time 
of journey between home and work; (2) amount of rent 
in various localities; and (3) gregariousness, or the hesi- 
tancy of individuals and single families to separate them- 
selves from those with whom they have been associated. 
The latter is especially to be noted in those communities 
where several races are living. 

R. C. Chapin, in his report on Standards of Living in 
New York City to the Russell Sage Foundation in 1909, 
shows that the average expenditure for car fare of families 
in Greater New York having incomes ranging from $400 
to $1,600 is from 1.1 per cent to 2.6 per cent. The rate of 
fare is only one of a number of factors which may affect 
congestion of population, and from such data as are avail- 
able, it does not appear to be one of major importance. 
Furthermore, the objections which may be raised to the 
European zone system of small zones with constantly in- 
creasing rates of fare are not equally applicable to a 
system which divides a city such as Boston into two or 
three relatively large zones with a flat rate of fare in each. 

The chief objections raised by the American electric 
railway operator to any sort of zone system of rates are 



the difficulties of fare collection. Many of these objections, 
however, disappear when instead of a series of short zones 
of a half mile to a mile in length, a modified system con- 
sisting of a fairly large inner zone and one or two outer 
zones is applied to a city such as Boston. 

As to actual experience with the collection of zone fares, 
the following is quoted from a letter dated Oct. 17, 1918, 
from P. N. Jones, general manager Pittsburgh Railways: 

"The only thing wrong with the new system of fares in 
Pittsburgh is that it does not bring in revenue enough. We 
think it is correct theoretically, and we believe it is the only 
practical scheme by means of which fares may be collected 
on large cars, approximately on the basis of the distance 
ridden. The pay-as-you-leave scheme . . . has not 
added to the congestion appreciably in the outer districts 
because the people do not leave the cars more than one- 
half dozen or so at each stop. There has been no confusion 
in the minds of the passengers as to which end of the car 
to board." 

A zone system is also in use on one of the lines of the 
Northern Ohio Traction & Light Company, Akron, Ohio. 
Although this is a much smaller city than Boston, the or- 
dinary type of pay-enter car, having a seating capacity of 
fifty-four passengers, is in use, and during rush hours loads 
of 100 per cent in excess of this number are not uncom- 
mon — "the average maximum number of passengers dur- 
ing rush hours is ninety." A combination of pay-enter-pay- 
leave system is in use, and F. I. Hardy, general superinten- 
dent of railways, states in a letter dated Oct. 18, 1918, that 
there has been no difficulty relative to confusion in the pas- 
sengers' minds as to whether they should pay their fare in 
boarding or alighting, or as to whether they should enter 
or leave the car at the front or rear end. Further, in this 
connection, Mr. Hardy states: 

"Replying to the question, 'To what extent does this 
system of fare collection slow up operation, especially in 
rush hours with heavy loads,' wish to advise that it does 
not slow our operation at all. This system is in effect on 
lines which have the fastest schedules that we operate. We 
have operated this system for many months and are very 
much pleased with its operation. In fact, we have devised 
a system whereby we believe it is perfectly feasible to op- 
erate a zone system of two to five zones without confusion 
or without the passengers being able to beat the company 
out of its revenue." 

A similar zone system, with a combination of pay-enter 
and pay-leave fare collection, is in use between East Liver- 
pool, Ohio and Chester, W. Va., located on opposite banks 
of the Ohio River. The total length of the line is 3.4 miles, 
divided into two 5-Cent zones. The cars have a seating 
capacity of sixty and carry maximum loads of 100 to 135 
people. C. A. Smith, general manager, states that no 
trouble is being experienced with the pay-leave system. 

If a decision be made that a zone system of fares is de- 
sirable from other standpoints, I am firmly convinced that 
the fares can be collected and audited properly by a method 
closely approximating that recommended herein, provided 
the proper spirit of endeavor and co-operation prevails 
throughout the organization. 

The Ideal Rate System 

In Professor Richey's opinion, the ideal rate system 
should, as nearly as it is possible to approach theory 
with practice, provide for each passenger paying his 
proportionate part of the "readiness-to-serve" cost, as 
well as his proportion of the "movement" cost, based 
on the distance traveled. As the "readiness-to-serve" 
charge varies as between the rush and non-rush hours, 
this ideal system should also make a variation in the 
initial charge as between those times. This would 
result in a unit initial fare, varying as between hours 
of the day, and increased by smaller increments for 



January 18, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



135 



each mile or fraction of a mile traveled. The further 
requirements of the ideal rate system are that it should 
not unduly delay traffic, that it should not be unduly ex- 
pensive in its operation, and that it must be adaptable 
to the proper collection of fares. The latter qualifica- 
tion involves the collection of fares so as to avoid both 
error and dishonesty on the part of the passengers 
and the employees. 

Various modifications of the ideal system have been 
used or proposed, each approaching more nearly to an 
equitable charge for the service rendered than the flat 
fare. They include (1) the transfer charge; (2) no 
transfer between surface and rapid transit lines; (3) 
an increased fare for passengers using rapid transit 
lines; (4) a zone system of fares on a strictly distance 
basis; (5) a zone system on a modified distance basis; 
and (6) a two or three-zone system. In regard to these 
Professor Richey says in part : 

1. Transfer Charge: The principal and practically the only 
advantage of the transfer charge, as applied to Boston, 
would be the ease with which it might be effected from the 
fare collection standpoint, if it were applied universally. 
Its universal application would, however, work a substan- 
tial injustice on a large number of passengers. If it were 
applied only at such points and between such routes as to 
make it in effect an additional charge for a ride longer 
than the average, the effect would be: first, to reduce the 
number of transfers for which a charge would be made to 
a very small proportion of the total passengers; and second, 
to involve a segregation between free and charge transfer 
passengers at such points as Park Square as to make its 
actual application almost impossible. 

2. No Transfer Between Surface and Rapid Transit 
Lines: The great disadvantage of a segregation of 
the two systems in Boston would be the tendency of 
such a plan to divert traffic from the rapid transit to 
the surface lines. As the company is at present com- 
mitted to the large fixed charges incident to the ownership 
of the rapid transit lines, and as the operating costs (aside 
from fixed charges) per passenger are so much less on the 
rapid transit lines than on the surface, every endeavor 
should be made to increase the relative use of the rapid 
transit lines rather than to diminish it. The collection of 
two fares for a journey combining rides on both surface and 
rapid transit lines would induce a great number of people 
to make their entire journey, where possible, by surface 
cars. This would involve additional service on the surface 
lines which would be accompanied by no increase in reve- 
nue, and it is quite probable that the net result of the 
change would be a loss unless it was the desire and within 
the power of the company so to route its surface cars as to 
compel passengers from the outlying districts to transfer 
to the rapid transit lines. 

3. An Increased Fare for Passengers Using Rapid Transit 
Lines: This plan, which merely would involve the collec- 
tion of an additional increment of fare from passengers 
leaving all rapid transit stations, probably could be ef- 
fected without involving any great practical difficulties, 
and it probably would be more fair to the passenger than a 
complete segregation of the surface and rapid transit lines. 
It is, however, open to the objection that it would impose 
an additional fare on the passenger who made his whole 
journey, however short, by rapid transit line, even though 
the actual cost to the company was less than that involved 
in carrying him the same distance and over practically 
the same route in a surface car. The objections relative 
to the tendency to divert traffic from rapid transit to sur- 
face lines, mentioned in connection with the previous plan, 
also apply to this. 

4. Zone System of Fares on Strictly Distance Basis: 
This is the European system where (in English cities) 
fares are collected in penny or half penny units for zones 
varying from one-half to 1 mile in length. The cars in use 
there are much smaller than in this country and operate 
at much slower speeds and with much less crowding than 
is the case in rush hours here. The system is not used 
in any American city, and its only serious proponent among 
men with electric railway experience in this country is 
Peter Witt, formerly Street Railroad Commissioner of 
Cleveland. Fielder Sanders, the present Street Railroad 
Commissioner, has recently been doing some checking to 



determine the length of haul on some of the lines, but at 
present he has arrived at no definite conclusion as to the 
merits of such a zone system. Mr. Sanders says in a let- 
ter of Oct. 8, 1918.: "The trend of our investigation leads 
me to suppose that no zone system, the maximum fare of 
which is 5 cents, would bring in for Cleveland as much reve- 
nue as we are now getting on the straight 5-cent fare." 
In other words, Mr. Sanders' investigation does not yet 
indicate to him that the loss in revenue on account of re- 
duction in fare to a large number of passengers will be 
offset by new patrons drawn by the extremely low fares. 
While I am in accord with Mr. Witt in believing that a low 
rate of fare in some districts and under some conditions may 
attract some additional business, I am not willing to agree 



LOCATION OF PROPOSED ZONE LINES, 3, 4 OR 5 MILES 
PROM BOSTON CITY HALL 

that the initial fare should be as low as he suggests [on 
a 1-cent zone basis], for the reason that this does not at 
all recognize the substantial "readiness-to-serve" cost. Fur- 
thermore, it is extremely doubtful whether it would be pos- 
sible to apply such a system of fare collection in Boston as 
is proposed by Mr. Witt, especially as an initial change 
from the present flat-fare system. 

5. Zone System on Modified Distance Basis: Practically, 
the collection of a fare consisting of a flat initial charge 
plus an increment for each unit of distance traveled would 
be surrounded by as many difficulties as that of the strictly 
zone system as practiced in English cities. When it is 
considered, however, that a great proportion of the whole 
number of passengers begin or end their journey in the 
central portion of the city, something of the same order 
may be attained by the introduction of a central flat-fare 
area, with the lines radiating therefrom on a mileage fare 
basis. [Professor Richey's comments upon the use of 
such a system for the Bay State Street Railway and the 
Rhode Island Company were published in the Electric 
Railway Journal of Dec. 28, page 1142. — Eds.] Based on 
the experience of these companies, it is not considered ad- 
visable to recommend such a system for use in Boston, at 
least at present. Should the two or three-zone system be 
adopted and found to be practicable, it is entirely possible 
that the experience thus gained may result in the develop- 
ment of a fare collection scheme under which the plan 
mentioned above may be practically worked out for the 




136 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 3 



city of Boston. If this can be accomplished, it would be 
most desirable and probably the nearest approach to the 
strictly equitable fare system that can be hoped for. 

6. Two or Three-Zone System: The two-zone plan has 
recently been adopted in a number of cities. In Holyoke, 
early in 1918, a large 5-cent flat fare area was considerably 
reduced, with a 5-cent fare for local rides in both the inner 
and the outer area, and a fare by means of tickets of either 
6| cents or 7 J cents for a ride extending through both inner 
and outer areas. 

In Springfield a similar system was made effective on 
May 1, 1918. The 5-cent fiat fare, with universal transfer, 
was retained in the inner area, with a similar 5-cent flat 
fare in the remaining or outer area. Reduced rate tickets at 
the rate of 61 cents were good for a ride between any point 
in the inner area and points in the outer area within about 
5 miles of the City Hall. Other reduced rate tickets at 
8a cents were good between any point in the inner area and 
any point in the outer area. The cash fare was 10 cents 
between any point in the inner area and any point in the 
outer area. The only difficulty which Thas been experienced 
in the collection of fares in Springfield has been that due 
to the complications introduced by the reduced rate tickets. 
The system as a whole has worked out satisfactorily and 
produced nearly the predicted amount of revenue. On ac- 
count of greatly increased wages later awarded to the 
employees by arbitration, it was necessary to increase the 
rates, and in September the unit rates were increased from 
5 to 6 cents and the ticket rates were increased about 1 cent 
in each case. No change was made in the general principle 
or in the zone limits. By use of the reduced rate tickets, 
Springfield practically is a three-zone system, while nom- 
inally, and on the cash fare basis, it is two-zone. 

Through the changes at present proposed in the Bay 
State cities and recently made in Providence, these com- 
panies are proceeding toward this same plan, together with 
a number of outside zones varying with the length of line. 
In only the thickly settled portions of the cities, their new 
systems amount to either the two-zone or three-zone plan. 

It is believed that it will be entirely feasible to establish 
either one or two concentric fare zone limits in the city 
of Boston, thus establishing either two or three zones; that 
a flat initial fare may be charged in any one zone which 
will include transfer privilege within that zone; that an 
additional fare (either the same or smaller than the initial 
fare) may be charged for a ride extending across a zone 
limit line. This is a zone system considerably modified 
by the flat fare idea in concession to the practicability of 
fare collection. While it is open to a great many of the 
same objections as may be urged against the universal flat 
fare, nevertheless this is a matter of degree, and the pro- 
posed system goes a long way toward making the charge 
proportionate to the distance traveled. It is flexible in 
that zone limits may be moved from time to time, the num- 
ber of zones increased or diminished, and either the flat 
initial fare or the additional zone limit fare increased or 
diminished as necessity requires. 

How To Handle the Fares 
Professor Richey's first recommendation is for a two- 
zone system for Boston. To fix the zone boundary he 
considered the distribution of population and of traffic, 
the cost of service, the relation between initial and zone- 
line fares, competition and the method of fare collec- 
tion. A complete check was made of all passengers on 
board and boarding and alighting in the section between 
circles with a 3-mile and a 5-mile radius from the City 
Hall. The map on page 135 shows three possible loca- 
tions for the zone boundary line, at 3, 4 and 5 miles 
from the City Hall. 

The tabulation on page 137 indicates the amount of 
the zone-line fare which will be required with initial 
fares of various amounts in order to produce approxi- 
mately the same total revenue as various flat fares. 
Three such tabulations are shown, corresponding to the 
three possible locations of zone boundary lines. The 
flat fare which would be equivalent to any initial fare 
combined with a zone-line fare not shown in the tabula- 
tions may be obtained by interpolation, 1 cent of zone- 
line fare being equivalent to I cent flat fare if the 



boundary be established at the "inner" location, to i 
cent if at the "middle" location, or to h cent if at the 
"outer" location. 

If it should be agreed, Professor Richey says, that 
it is necessary to include the terminals of the rapid 
transit lines within the interior zone on account of the 
difficulty of the collection of an additional fare from 
passengers on these lines after passing a zone limit, 
the outer zone boundary may be adopted. However, as 
only about 13 per cent of the population served reside 
outside of such boundary, and only about 18 per cent 
of the total number of passengers ride across such 
boundary, it appears more equitable to establish the 
zone boundary line somewhat nearer to the center. 
He believes that the method of fare collection proposed 
will make it possible, at no prohibitive expense, to collect 
a zone-line fare from rapid transit passengers, as well 
as from those on surface cars, at points much nearer 
the center — about 3 miles from the City Hall. 

The proposed fare-collection plan follows in outline: 

Through Surface Car with Fare Box 

Such cars to be equipped with fare box and one over- 
head register. 

Outbound: In inner zone passengers prepay or pay- 
enter the initial fare, with free exit as at present. At 
zone line, conductor announces zone limit. In outer 
zone, passengers boarding pay-enter initial fare and 
receive identification check. All passengers pay-leave 
either zone-line fare or identification check. 

Inbound: In outer zone, passengers pay-enter initial 
or total fare, according to destination as stated; if total 
fare is paid, conductor issues identification check. At 
zone line, conductor announces zone limit and makes 
inside collection of identification checks or zone-line 
fares from passengers without identification checks. 
Zone-line cash and tokens from inside collection are 
rung up on overhead register. On light routes and 
during non-rush hours, with loads such that conductor 
can remember the few local passengers, issuance and 
collection of identification checks might be omitted. On 
some heavy inbound trips, it will be necessary to have 
an extra collector board the car at the zone line and 
make the inside collection as the car proceeds. The 
extra collector should return the identification checks 
to the regular conductor; he should ring up zone-line 
cash or token collections on the overhead register, and 
turn over to the regular conductor the amount col- 
lected,, as evidenced by the register; or, by an alter- 
native plan, he should ring up such fares on a portable 
cash register, in which case he would retain the amount 
collected until the close of his day's work. In inner 
zone, passengers prepay initial fare, as at present. 

Through Surface Cars Without Fare Box 

Such cars to be equipped with two overhead regis- 
ters, one for initial and one for zone-line fares. 

Outbound: In inner zone, initial fare collection as at 
present — either in prepayment station or on car, in the 
latter case the fares being rung up on initial-fare regis- 
ter. At zone line, conductor announces zone limit and 
collects zone-line fare from all passengers then on car, 
using zone-line fare register. In outer zone, he collects 
initial fare from each passenger boarding car, as at 
present. 



January 18, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



137 



initial and zone-line fares equivalent to various flat p a p er Transfers at Zone Line 

FARES UNDER PROPOSED BOSTON PLAN 

zone Boundary 3 Miles from city Hail Transfers from routes in inner zone to routes in 

(5i percent of total passengers subject to zone line fare) outer zone, and vice versa, should be printed on paper of 

?a (eelts) nt . . t0 . flat . fare 5 6 7 8 9 io ii 12 a distinctive color and sold to passengers f or the zone- 

Initial fare (cents) ^ Zone-Line Fare ]j ne f are g ucn cagh W0U 1,J no t be registered but 

5 o 2 "4" '. accounted for by difference in serial numbers of such 

7 2 4 "b transfers issued to and returned by conductor daily. 

8 2 4 6 8 

10 2 4 General Recommendations for Fare Collection 

11 .... 2 

'2 In order to simplify and safeguard fare collection, it 

Zone Boundary 4 Miles from c ity Hail ig recommended that two forms of metal tokens, repre- 
05 per cent of total passengers subject to zone-hne fare) ' H 

Equivalent to flat fare senting the initial and the zone-line fare, be sold at all 

Initial fare (cents) Zone-line Fare prepayment stations and also at other convenient dis- 

\ I 3 - ' 5 : tributing points. These tokens should not be sold by 

6 .... 3 6 ' '.'.y. conductors on cars. Obviously, the zone-line fare token 

8 3 6 should be larger in diameter than the initial fare token. 

9 3 6 9 

10 o 3 6 It is further recommended that if the nominal initial 

12 ° fare is some amount between 5 and 10 cents, it should 
Zone Boundary 5 Miles from City Haii be paid either by a metal token or by 10 cents in cash, 

( 18 per cent of total passengers sul>iect ti> zone-line fare) , , . ,. ,, , .. » . . , . 

Equivalent to flat fare and that " the nominal zone-line fare is something 

initS? ire (cents) 5 6 7 Zone-line 9 Fare ' " ' 2 less than 5 cents, it should be paid by a metal token or 

4 by 5 cents in cash, the intent being that conductors 

6 . °. . o 5 shall not be required to make penny change on the cars, 

g q ■ 5 ■ • ; ; This can be accomplished by a proper wording of the 

iq q 5 published fare schedule, as was done in Cleveland during 

J] ^ the period when the nominal fare was less than 5 cents; 

NOTE. — An initial fare, as listed' in first column, together with a zone-line fare 5 ^nts Cash W3S Collected from those passengers not 

as listed opposite, will produce practically (variation between 1.6 per cent less provided with tickets 

and 1.4 per cent greater) the same total revenue as the flat fare shown at top ^ 

of column, if volume of traffic remains unchanged. It is earnestly recommended that all of the present 

T~ " ~ " — " ~ ~ " 7\77T~, non-prepayment cars be equipped with fare boxes, so 

Inbound: In outer zone, conductor collects initial fare , . ., , , » . , 

. . . ... , , ' . . AJ ,. as to make them suitable for pay-enter or pay-leave 

and rings up on mit,al-f are register At zone line, con- tion Ag a temporary measure, proper fixtures 

ductor announces zone limit and collects zone- line fare be ^ feoth the inside and ^ Qf 

from all passengers then on car, using zone-line fare , , „ , , , , JJ? , , , 

* .„ , „ . ' . . j. , the bulkhead door post, and a fare box can be hung m 

register. (See above for possible necessity for extra ... „ ... ... , . , 

„ , v , . , * . ' , . J either of those positions, the outer position being used 

collectors on heavy inbound trips.) In inner zone, con- . MJ , . . , T1 

, , „,..,.,„ , ' , in mild weather, and the inner in extremely cold weather 

ductor collects initial fare from each passenger board- , ., . , , „ , j 

in car as at resent when it is necessary to operate with the bulkhead door 

mg car, as a presen . closed. A short section of the longitudinal seat can be 

As an alternative, the fare collection on cars without , , - , , , . 

, ' , , , , „ arranged on hinges to fold back to allow space for the 

fare box may be by the same method as proposed tor , , , ... , , - , 

. J1 „ ,r 1 ' r „ , „; conductor s position when necessary to use the fare box 

cars with fare box except for the use of the two over- ^ bulkhead _ It would also be desirable to install 

head registers, as described herein. mechanical operation for the vestibule doors, so that 

Rapid Transit Terminals or Other Prepayment Areas these can be operated from either position of the con- 

at Zone Line ductor. Such changes are entirely practical, it is said, 

Street Entrance and Exit: Collect initial fare from and have been made as emergency measures to convert 

entering passengers, with free exit, as at present. non-prepayment cars for prepayment operation in a num- 

Bodily Transfer Between Surface and Rapid Transit ber of cities - The expense of such changes is small com- 

and Vice Versa: Passengers in either direction pay zone- P ared with the evident advantages of fare box operation, 

line fare in passageway between rapid transit and While at the present time the fare box manufacturing 

surface car platforms. situation is not normal, and one of the two manufac- 

, _ . , _ ., _ . turers of registering fare boxes is at present engaged 

Through, Rapid Transit Trains almost who]Iy in government work> Professor Ricney 

Stations Inside Zone Boundary: Prepay initial fare, states: "I have been informed by the other manufac- 

with free exit, as at present. turer that he is prepared to furnish a registering fare 

Stations Outside Zone Boundary: Inbound boarding box capable of taking dimes, nickels and pennies, regis- 
passengers prepay total fare, or zone-line fare if from tering the total cash amount, as well as two sizes of 
surface car by bodily transfer. Outbound boarding metal tokens, and registering the total number of each 
passengers prepay initial fare. Outbound alighting separately. He has recently equipped the Kansas City 
passengers pay zone-line fare at exit or at passage- Railways with such boxes, and he states that he could 
way to surface cars. Where paper transfers are used, make delivery of such boxes in any quantity in Boston 
boarding passengers may present surface car transfer within about ninety days." The foregoing description 
as initial fare, and pay zone-line fare in addition, of the proposed method of fare collection for the two- 
Alighting passengers may receive surface car transfer zone plan, however, includes a method for use on sur- 
on payment of zone-line fare. face cars which are not equipped with fare boxes, which 



138 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol 53, No. 3 



may be used until such time as all cars can be so 
equipped. 

The total added cost a year from such a method of 
fare collection, according to Professor Richey, will be 
$200,000 for a 3-mile inner zone, $135,000 for a 4-mile 
inner zone and $72,000 for a 5-mile inner zone. To 
balance this cost would require an increase of consider- 
ably less than 1 per cent in the total number of 
passengers carried. The difference in the total number 
of passengers carried as between a flat fare and an 
equivalent two-zone system would, it is said, be without 
much question nearer 5 per cent. Thus the net gain 
may be as great as $1,000,000 per year. While it 
possibly may be greater than that amount, the great 
uncertainty of such estimates is said to lead to the 
more conservative prediction of a traffic gain of about 
3 per cent, or a net gain of about $500,000 a year. 

As the first step toward the ideal system, therefore, 
Professor Richey recommends that the Boston Elevated 
Railway territory be divided into two zones by an 
arbitrary line drawn at a radius of about 3 miles from 
the City Hall. At the present time, about half the 
total passengers cross this zone line. It is estimated 
that an initial fare of 7 cents, with a zone-line fare 
of 5 cents, making a total fare of 12 cents for a 
ride extending across the line, will produce nearly the 
same revenue as a flat fare of 10 cents, which latter 
appears to be necessary to meet the present cost of 
service. | 



Central Traffic Association 

Experience with 2000-Penny Book as Substitute 
for 1000-Mile Book Described — Other Important 
Actions of Year 

THE principal work of the Central Electric Railway 
Traffic Association during the past year was 
summed up in the annual report of Chairman A. L. 
Neereamer, presented at the meeting which was held 
in Fort Wayne, Ind., on Jan. 14. After speaking of 
the five regular meetings held during the year and the 
two extra meetings in June, Mr. Neereamer said, in 
part: 

During 1917 we had a membership of fifty-one lines 
representing 4334 miles, and for the year just ended fifty- 
four lines representing 4432 miles, making an increase of 
three lines and 98 miles. During that period one line was 
dismantled, another partially dismantled and one of the 
larger lines divided into two systems. 

Joint and Local Baggage Tariff No. 9, I. C. C. 26, is 
still in force, although two supplements have been issued 
during the past year, effective July 25 and Oct. 25. One 
of these supplements contains the advance in excess bag- 
gage rates as allowed by the commission in Indiana. This 
tariff will have to be reissued in a short time in order to 
line it up with that of the steam lines. 

Joint Passenger Tariff No. 17, I. C. C. 27, covering the 
interchangeable 1000-mile ticket, was canceled on June 15, 
by Joint Passenger Tariff No. 19, I. C. C. 29, which covers 
the interchangeable 2000-penny coupon ticket. This new 
publication started with nineteen lines, representing 1896 
miles. Supplements have added four lines and 551 miles. 
During the first year of the interchangeable 1000-mile 
ticket, 5600 tickets were ordered and placed in the hands 
of the agents. From June 15 to Dec. 31, six and one-half 
months of the interchangeable 2000-penny coupon ticket, 
8000 have been ordered and placed in the hands of the 
agents, a little more than 1200 per month which, to the 
writer's mind, demonstrates the popularity of this form 
of transportation. 

Official Classification No. 43 has finally been canceled and 



its reissue and supplements are being filed for our member 
companies by R. N. Collyer. Joint Freight Tariff No. 13, 
I.C.C. 18, covering exceptions to official classification was 
canceled on June 1 by I.C.C. 22, Joint and Local Freight 
Tariff No. 14. This publication is participated in by 
thirty-five lines. Application covering a supplement is now 
pending with the Interstate Commerce Commission. Official 
Interurban Equipment Register No. 4, I.C.C. 21, was can- 
celed on Nov. 1 by Official Interurban Equipment Register 
No. 5, I.C.C. 24, and is participated in by thirty-seven 
lines. Although a number of lines dropped out of this issue, 
enough other carriers became party to it to make it a larger 
publication than before. 

Joint Passenger Tariff 18, I.C.C. 28, has been canceled 
for intrastate traffic in Indiana and Ohio. Application for 
cancelation interstate has been pending with the Interstate 
Commerce Commission for a long time and present indica- 
tions are that this will soon be done and the extremely low 
rates eliminated. The association will then be in position 
to start . anew and your chairman recommends that the 
committee having this in charge go over the old publica- 
tion and eliminate as much as possible unnecessary head- 
line points and stations to which tickets never have been 
sold. In this way the size of the publication can be reduced 
without detracting from its value and the expense would 
be kept down to the minimum. 

Several changes have been made in the demurrage rules. 
Joint and Local Demurrage Tariff No. 3 I.C.C. 19 was 
canceled by No. 4, I.C.C. 23 on March 27, and the latter 
publication was canceled by No. 5, I.C.C. 25, on Nov. 
4. This publication is participated in by thirty-eight lines. 
Joint and Local Storage Tariff No. 1, I.C.C. 20, is still in 
force, although the committee in charge is contemplating 
a reissue of this tariff. 

At the meeting held in November the committee in charge 
of the official interurban map was instructed to make ar- 
rangements for all corrections to be made on the map 
plates, and at a meeting of the Central Electric Railway 
Association held in November provision was made for the 
expense of these corrections. It is expected that this com- 
mittee will make a full report at this meeting. 

For the first time during the history of this organiza- 
tion, death has entered our ranks and called to "That 
bourne from which no traveler e'er returns" one of our 
active members, L. W. Henry. Resolutions regarding his 
death have been presented before this meeting and acted 
upon, but the chairman is of the opinion that in addition 
to these resolutions mention should be made of his death 
in the annual report. 



Bureau of Standards Issues Revised 
Circular on Electrolysis Mitigation 

SINCE the now well-known Circular No. 52 of the 
United States Bureau of Standards on "Electrolysis 
and Its Mitigation" was published much progress has 
been made in this field. Consequently a new edition was 
found necessary and copies of this may be had by 
addressing the bureau at Washington, D. C. In the 
revision a rather full discussion of the three-wire 
method of railway power distribution has been added 
and the section on pipe drainage has been modified to 
conform to the latest investigations and observations. 
On the subject of automatic substations the circular 
points out that these have now been developed to such 
a point that they are entirely practicable and depend- 
able for railway use. By making it possible materially 
to increase the number of feeding points they inciden- 
tally produce better electroylsis conditions. 



There was no tramway service on Christmas day in a 
number of cities in Great Britain, and in other cities, 
including London, the service was very greatly reduced. 
This was in conformity with the desire of the men to 
spend as much time with their families on Christmas 
day as possible. 



January 18, 1919 ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 139 



When a Line Pole Needs a Guy 

By CHARLES R. HARTE 

Construction Engineer, The Connecticut Company, New Haven, Conn. 




A DIFFICULT LOCATION FOR SUITABLE GUYIN( 



IN THE issue of the Electric 
Railway Journal for Nov. 16, 
1918, we examined in detail the 
subject of pole-line guys. A logical 
sequel to this is an attempt to 
answer the question : "When should 
guys be used?" From the first the 
Bell Telephone Companies realized 
the importance, from every point of 
view, of standard practice in - 
line work, and early developed 
a scheme of guying. The Western Union Telegraph 
Company, prior to its brief control by the American Tele- 
phone & Telegraph Company, had been somewhat less 
thorough, but as a result of that control went into 
more detail than the "A. T. & T.," varying from that 
company's practice in some respects but not radically. 
In 1914 the National Electric Light Association re- 
ceived from its sub-committee on overhead construction 
its monumental report which established similar stand- 
ards in its field. 

Obviously a guy, or some equivalent if conditions 
bar the guy, should be placed on every pole which 
may be subject to strains approaching its strength. 
Such strains may result from the nature of the 
line, as the pulls at horizontal and vertical angles, 
or from storms, or from both in combination. Those 
due to the nature of the line can be calculated readily, 
but the storm strains are not so easy to determine, since 
they depend upon the kind and severity of the storms 



Practice in Line Guying Has Been 
Standardized by the Telephone, 
Telegraph and Power Companies, 
Hence the Author Summarizes 
Their Experience as a Guide on 
Electric Railway Transmission Line 
Construction — The Desideratum is 
to Keep the Line "Put" Without 
Using Unnecessary Material in the 
Guys and Anchors 



to be anticipated, their direc- 
tion relative to the line, and the 
extent to which the line is shel- 
tered — all of which can only be 
guessed at in the light of previ- 
ous occurrences — in addition to the 
known facts of the details of the 
line itself. The long experience, 
however, with the signal lines, using 
this term in the sense in which it is 
employed in the National Electrical 
Safety Code, has given a good basis to work on, both as 
to the lines themselves, and as to the relation between 
these lines and those of companies using different sizes 
of conductor. 

Considering first the strains due to corners, it is 
customary to measure the angles in terms of the "pull," 
so-called, which is the distance from the corner pole to 
a line drawn between points on the two branches of 
the line. The Bell companies and the N. E. L. A. 
measure out 100 ft. on each side, but the Western 
Union employs 130 ft., which is the standard length of 
span for their seven to sixty-wire lines. As a result, 
for a given angle, the Western Union "pull" is three- 
tenths greater than the value the others use, and 
conversely, the others find for a given angle a "pull" 
which is practically three-fourths (actually ten- 
thirteenths) of the Western Union. 

On a paper layout it is a very simple matter to lay 
off the exact line from which to measure. In the field, 



140 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 3 



unless the adjacent poles happen to be each 130 ft. 
away, it is not so convenient although there is nothing 
complicated about the process. It is easy, however, to 
make a diagram which permits the use of the poles 
adjacent to the corner pole. If they are approximately 
equal distances from it one can, by sighting from one of 
these poles to the other, instantly find a point on their 
line and opposite the corner pole, and the distances from 
this point to the corner pole and from the adjacent 
pole to the corner pole, can be readily measured. The 
"pull" (on the 100-ft. basis) is then found from the 
diagram (see page 142) by locating at the left-hand side 
the distance measured, following this to the right to 
the inclined line marked with the distance between 
corner and adjacent poles, and then following the ver- 
tical line through that point to the bottom of the 
chart where the "pull" is read off. For example, if 
the adjacent poles were 70 ft. from the corner pole 



and the 120-ft., 110-ft., etc., lines downward. By taking 
the pull 39 ft. on the 130-ft. basis we get the ratio 
of 3 to 10 between the distance from corner to line 
and from corner to point fixing the line, and the off- 
sets for that angle will be 36 for 120 ft., 33 for 110 ft., 
etc. 

Strain Must Be Opposed by an Anchorage 
of Some Sort 

Opposed to the strain resulting from the corner we 
need some form of anchorage, the effective value of 
which is modified by the angle it makes with the strain, 
which, except in special cases where it is inclined to 
an extent which necessitates consideration of that fact, 
is taken as horizontal. This angle, it will be remem- 
bered, is measured by the relation of the "lead," the 
horizontal distance from the base of the pole to a point 
on the guy at that level, to the "height," the distance 




and the latter was 30 ft. from the line between the 
adjacent poles, we find 30 at the left, follow it to the 
inclined 70, and drop down vertically at 43 which is 
the "pull." 

If the two adjacent poles are not equally distant 
from the corner pole the correct value for the pull is 
found by measuring from the middle of the line be- 
tween them to the corner, and using the average of 
their distances for the value of the inclined line. 

A similar diagram for the Western Union basis of 
130 ft. is readily made by remembering that the dis- 
tance from corner pole to line for any given angle is 
proportional to the distance from the corner pole to 
the point through which the line goes. If a diagram 
is laid off, except as to inclined lines, just like the 
one shown, the line at an angle of 45 deg., as is 
the 100-ft. line here, would then be the 130-ft. line. 
If we start where the horizontal 39-ft. line cuts this 
and lay off 3-ft. points on each side on the vertical 
39 line, the inclined lines through these points will 
be respectively the 140-ft„ 150-ft., etc., lines upward, 



from the base of the pole vertically to the point of guy 
attachment. 

Coming down to "brass tacks" and business, the 
National Electric Light Association deals with a corner 
on the basis of its "pull" and the size of the line, 
cutting down the strain as the pull increases by shorten- 
ing the adjacent spans, as shown in middle lower dia- 
gram above. This is reproduced from the N. E. L. A. 
Handbook on Overhead Line Construction. The N. E. 
L. A. rule is to head guy and side guy all corner 
poles, whether the turn is made on one or more, the 
side guys on curved lines being installed in line with 
the radius of the curve at that point. 

Side Guying Has Been Fairly Well Standardized 

The particular specifications are characterized as 
covering "construction methods for distributing sys- 
tems as follows: Mechanically, for spans up to and 
including 130 ft.; electrically, for street lighting cir- 
cuits and for constant potential circuits up to and 
including 6600 volts between adjacent wires on the 



January 18, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



141 



same crossarm." While such circuits are sometimes of 
much heavier section, the average line would be of 
about No. 4 weatherproof wire. 

The American Telephone & Telegraph Company calls 
for side guying in accordance with Table I. 

Where the line carries cable as well as open wires an 
additional 6000-lb. -strand side guy is to be placed, under 
the conditions shown in Table II. 

This in turn calls for the open-wire equivalents of 



indicated velocity of wind of 70 m.p.h. (giving a pres- 
sure of 8 lb. per square foot of projected area of con- 
ductor and covering) and ice I in. thick all around. 
However, since the same wind and ice values are used 
on both open wires and cables, the equivalence is sub- 
stantially as true for the higher values as for the lower 
ones. 

The odd pairs which are listed in the "actual" cables 
are the tracer pairs which are used for testing 



At bottom, left, push brace 
on a corner pole where a guy 
Ud not be installed. 
At top, center, a long 
tangent on which failure re- 
sulted from lack of side guys. 

At bottom, center, a case 
where failure resulted from 
lack of side and head guys. 
Note the dragging off of 
crossarms by the pull along 
the line. 



Below, construction involv- 
ing several forms of guy. 
Note side guy for corner and 
head guy from adjacent 
and, on the long tangent, 
side guy to anchor and head 

of pole. As 
is on private right-of-way 
clearance under guy is un- 
necessary. 




telephone cables given in Table III, on page 142, in 
which details of ordinary telephone cable are included. 
The equivalence is for wind of an indicated velocity of 
50 m.p.h. and f-in. of ice on the open wires in one 
case, and on the cable and messenger in the other, 
the cable being at the same height on the pole as the 
open wires, and both weight and wind pressure being 
taken into account. These values are somewhat lower 
than those often used, the more usual figures being an 

TABLE I — SIDE GUYING, A. T. & T. CO. STANDARD 



Number of 

Wires Amount of Pull 

Ten Less than 5 ft. 

Ten 5 to 10 ft. 

Ten 1 ft. or more 

Twenty or more Less than 18 in. 

Twenty to sixty 18 in. or more 

Sixty or more 18 in. or more 

Forty or more 18 in. or more, and lead of 
guy less than one-fifth 
h-ight 

Forty or more 10 f t. or more and lead of 
guy less than one-quarter 
height 



Kind of Guy or Reinforcement 
None 

Ground brace or 6000-lb. strand 
6000-11,. strand 



and are not counted in giving the "nominal" cable 
capacity. 

As a further guide, for use on joint lines, the Amer- 
ican Telephone & Telegraph Company uses these ap- 
proximate equivalents: A No. 2, 4, or 6 B. & S. gage 
weatherproof wire is equivalent to two open wires; a 
No. or 00 wire to three open wires, and a No. 0000 
wire to four open wires. 

As an example of the application of the tables, if 
we take the case of a pole which carries forty telephone 
open wires, one 150-pair nineteen-gage cable and six 

TABLE II— SIDE GUYING FOR POLE LINE CARRYING CABLES 

Distance From Cable Guy 
to Lowest Crossarm 
Is More Than 
9 ft. 
4 ft. 
2 ft. 
4 ft. 
Oft. 
ft. 



Equivalent Numbci 
of Wires 
10 
10 



Pull 
18 in. to 10 ft. 
I Oft. to 15 ft. 
1 5 ft. or over 
18 in. to 10 ft. 
10 ft. or over 
18 in. or over 



142 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 3 



No. 00 weatherproofed lighting wires, we have, for the 
equivalent load in open wires: 



Forty open wires equals 40 open wires 

One 150-paii ninrteen-gage cable equals 20 open wires 

Six No. 00 weatherproof wires < equals 1 8 open wires 

Total 78 open wires 



This is practically an eighty-wire line. 

The above is on the assumption that the several 
groups are at approximately the same level. If there 
was a considerable separation between some of the 
elements, as would doubtless be the case here because 
of the lighting circuits, allowance should be made for 
that fact, and the equivalent value increased or de- 
creased according as the distant member was above or 
below the position which would be occupied by its 
equivalent in telephone wires. 

It is in the matter of storm guying that, up to com- 
paratively recently, there has been so little of definite 
rule that one large company, in a confidential letter 
of instruction to its employees, advised that the loca- 



TABLE III— TELEPHONE CABLE EQUIVALENTS IN OPEN WIRES 

k 3 




10 20 30 40 50 W 70 80 
Feet 

"Pulf Measured on 100' Dis.ta nee 

CHART FOR USE IN FINDING CORNER PULL, 
OF POLE LINE 

tion of guys be left to the judgment of the line foreman! 
The telephone companies, however, go into the matter 
in considerable detail. They do this because the ques- 
tion is of much importance, both before construction, to 
insure the integrity of the line, and after trouble, either 
to prove the sufficiency of the protection against rea- 
sonable contingency, or, by showing to the company 
its insufficiency, to lead to a settlement of any claims 
out of court rather than after a costly suit has estab- 
lished that fact. Obviously it is no less the engineer's 
duty to keep his company from fighting a case in 
which they are bound "to be licked," than to see that 
such conditions do not arise. It will therefore pay to 
consider the telephone practice in some detail. 

The Western Union practice for angle guys is as 
given in Table IV. 

For lines having an ultimate capacity of more than 
12 wires Table V is used. 

It should be remembered that the Western Union 
uses 130 ft. as the basis of measurement of pull, and 
that the values of li, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 as given 
above correspond to the A. T. & T. and N. E. L. A. 
values of 1.17, 7.8, 15.6, 23.4, 31.2, and 39.0 respectively. 















Outs: 
nchet 


per F( 


Number of Pairs 


a c 










s 

3 


tual 


11 

S3 S 


"STa 


H 




S3 

22 


Gage Cable 


25 










26 


I 


97 


30 






50 










51 


15/16 


1 . 33 


60 








76 


1 3/32 


1 65 


90 
100 










101 


11 


2. 13 


120 








150 










152 


n 


2.74 


180 






200 


202 




4.07 


240 








300 










303 


2 1/16 


5.17 


360 








400 










404 


2 11/32 


6.21 




505 


2 21/32 


7.34 



8 & 
So 



6,000 
10,000 
10,000 
16,000 



II 

■ i. a, 

=o 
Wo 

6 
7 



14 
•J6 



11 


21/32 


0.81 


6,000 


2 


16 




0.98 


6,000 


2 


26 




1.23 


6,000 


2 


51 


1 3/16 


2. 01 


6,000 


2 


76 


1 i 




CO 




101 


1 t 


3.76 


10,000 


2i 


152 


1 29/32 


4.78 


10,000 


2i 


202 


2 5/32 


5.72 


16,000 


3 


303 


2 9/16 


7.45 


16,000 


3* 



TABLE IV— STANDARD GUYING PRACTICE OF WESTERN UNION 
TELEGRAPH COMPANY 
Existing Pull 



Ultimate Capa 
of Pole 
2 ' 



2 wires 
2 wires 
6 wires 

6 or less 
6 or less 

6 or less 

7 to 12 
7 to 12 
7 to 12 



Less than 25 feet 

25 feet or more 
Lens than 10 feet 

10 feet or more 
Less than 10 feet 

10 feet to 25 feet 

26 feet to 50 feet 
Less than 5 feet 
5 to 25 feet 

26 to 50 feet 



Size and Number of 

Side Guys 
No guying required 
1— No. 6B. W. G. Steel 
No guying required 
1— 4000-lb. strand 
No guying required 
1— 4000-lb. strand 
1 — 6000 — lb. strand 
No guying required 
1— 4000-lb. strand 
— 6000-lb. strand 



TABLE V— WESTERN 
Pull 
in Feet 
Less than 5 ft. 

5 to 50 
Less than 1 h 
1 1 to 30 
31 to 40 
41 to 50 
Less than U 

i 



Existing 
Load 
1 or less 

1 or less 

1 1 to 20 
1 1 to 20 
1 1 to 20 
1 1 to 20 
21 to 20 
21 to 30 
21 to 30 
21 to 30 
21 to 30 
31 to 40 
31 to 40 
31 to 40 
31 to 40 
31 to 40 
31 to 40 
41 to 50 
41 to 50 
41 to 50 
41 to 50 
41 to 50 
41 to 50 
51 to 60 
51 to 60 
51 to 60 
51 to 60 
51 to 60 
61 to 80 
61 to 80 
61 to 80 
61 to 80 
61 to 80 



21 to 30 
31 to 40 
41 to 50 

Less than 1 -J 

H to io 
1 1 to 20 
21 to 30 
31 to 40 
41 to 50 

Less than 1 \ 
H to 10 
1 1 to 20 
21 to 30 
31 to 40 
41 to 50 

Less than 1 
1 to 20 
21 to 30 
31 to 40 
41 to 50 

Less than 1 
1 to 20 
21 to 30 
31 to 40 
41 to 50 



UNION GUYING FOR 
Ratio of Lead of 
From I to \ i to i 
None None 
1— 6,000 1— 6,000 
None None 
i,000 1— 6,000 
),000 1—10,000 



-10,000 1 — 10,000 

-10,000 2—10,000 
None None 

— 6,000 1— 6,000 



HEAVY POLE LINE 
Guy to Its Height 

4 to I 
None 



None 
- 6,000 
-10,000 



2—10,000 
2—10,000 
2—10,000 

1 — 10,000 
2—10,000 

2— 10,000 

3— 10,000 
None 

1 — 10,000 

2— 10,000 

3— 10,000 
3—10,000 



None 
I— 6,000 
1— 6,000 
1 — 10,000 
None 
1— 6,000 



1 — 10,000 

1— 6,000 
1— 6,000 



1 — 10,000 
2—10,000 
2—10,000 
None 
1 — 10,000 
2—10,000 

2— 10,000 

3— 10,000 
None 

1— 10,000 

2— 10,000 

2— 10,000 

3— 10,000 



or more 
None 
— 6,000 
None 



— 6,000 
None 

— 6,000 

— 6,000 

— 6,000 

— 10,000 
None 

6,000 
6,000 
6,000 
10,000 

— 10,000 
None 

— 6,000 

— 6,000 

— 6,000 

— 10,000 

— 10,000 
None 

— 10,000 

— 10,000 

— 10,000 

— 10,000 
None 

0,000 



January 18, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



143 



Some Mysterious 

Car Ailments 



Little but Important Troubles That Tend to 
Keep Equipment Men Interested 
in Their Work 

CONTRIBUTIONS ARE INVITED FROM THE FIE 




Another Remedy for Ice on 
Control Contacts 

IN THE Nov. 16 issue of the Journal there was 
printed in this department the experience of one rail- 
way company with automatic control operated on a 
storage-battery circuit in extremely cold weather. In 
the case described the formation of ice on the control 
contacts insulated them enough to prevent the current 
at a battery potential of 14 volts from flowing from 
fingers to segments, making the control inoperative. 
The trouble was remedied by prick-punching the con- 
tact segments so as to raise sharp points on them. The 
pressure of the fingers caused the ice to break away at 
these points and allow the fingers to make contact. 

On a large Eastern property similar troubles were 
experienced last winter with automatic control operat- 
ing on a 24-volt battery and, as a different remedy was 
used, it will no doubt be of interest now as we are just 
beginning to experience severe winter weather. 

The operating conditions were similar to those in 
the case mentioned in the previous article. That is, 
cars in making their regular trip, spent about one-third 
of the time in the subway and the remainder of the 
time on the surface, and to make matters worse most 
of the cars were out of doors all night. On cold days 
■cars, after having been started from the barn without 
trouble, would frequently be reported "dead" or "losing 
power" and when they were brought into the carhouse 
for inspection nothing could be found. At the com- 
pany's carhouse some of the pits were outside and this 
afforded the opportunity of examining the controllers 
reported "dead" without bringing them into the warmer 
atmosphere of the carhouse. 

It had been the practice to use a small amount of 
grease on the control segments to prevent excessive 
wear and it was found that the grease mixed with dust 
and dirt, had formed a black, sticky film on the seg- 
ments. This in extremely cold weather would harden 
and insulate the fingers from the segments and make the 
control inoperative. It was also found in many cases 
that the segments were coated with a thin film of ice 
due to the condensation of moisture when the warmer 
air of the subway came in contact with the cold metal 
parts. 

For awhile attempts were made to improve the opera- 
tion of the control by running it without grease on the 
segments, and all contact parts were cleaned at every 



inspection, but there was little, if any, improvement. 
It was then decided to try oiling the segments with a 
thinner oil, and the results were very gratifying. A 
thin engine oil with a good "cold test" was obtained 
and, after the segments were thoroughly cleaned of the 
sticky substance, the oil was applied freely to them with 
a brush. Although this did not prevent the black film 
from accumulating it kept the film soft so that the 
finger plowed through and maintained contact, instead 
of riding up on the hard black film as was the case be- 
fore the thin oil was used. The oil also lessened the 
trouble due to the formation of ice on the segments. 
Ice will not adhere to a greasy surface as it will to a 
clean, dry one, and although it may have been formed 
on the segments, it is easily pushed off by the fingers. 
This point will be appreciated by automobilists who 
grease their windshields before driving in a sleet storm, 
as ice forming on a clean glass is difficult to remove, 
while that forming on a greasy glass can be easily 
knocked off with a stick. The use of the oil had a 
further advantage in making it very easy to clean the 
contact segments. Where it was usually necessary to 
use gasoline in cleaning them, the black substance can 
now be easily wiped off with a cloth. It should be borne 
in mind that if line potential is used on the control 
circuits, such free use of oil would probably cause short- 
circuits due to the collection of dust and dirt on insu- 
lating parts. On the other hand, however, very little 
control circuit trouble is caused by cold weather con- 
ditions when line potential is used, and the use of oil 
as described is for circuits of low potential only. 



Sympathetic Behavior of Motors 
Had a Reason 

ON A CERTAIN large property equipped with third- 
rail and operating trains with cars equipped with 
line-operated, non-automatic, multiple-unit control, con- 
siderable trouble was experienced with motors flashing 
over. A large percentage of the cars were equipped 
with non-interpole motors, and a common bus line ran 
throughout the trains. The third-rails were connected 
in parallel so that a voltage disturbance on one rail 
would be communicated to the others. The flashing 
would frequently occur without any apparent reason 
and often when one motor of a train flashed over others 
in the same train would also flash. This led the engi- 
neers of the equipment manufacturer, who were co- 



144 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 3 



operating with the company's representatives, to believe 
that the trouble might be due to voltage fluctuations 
on the line. 

Tests to determine the cause were begun and it was 
found that sudden voltage variations were occurring. 
These were due primarily to grounding of motors, 
flashing of motors and more particularly to intermittent 
application of current to the motors due to sleet on 
the third-rail. Further tests on the trains in operation 
showed that if the voltage was suddenly reduced from 
600 to about 400 and restored with the train running at 
high speed (motors in parallel), the motors would flash 
over. Other cars in the train and other trains in that 
particular third-rail zone would sympathetically flash 
over and blow the main motor fuses. 

The engineers decided that the trouble could best be 
overcome by installing a line switch in the main motor 
circuit set to drop out promptly whenever an excessive 
drop in voltage occurred. Accordingly a train was 
equipped with pneumatically-operated line switches, 
with their operating coils connected to line through an 
external resistance. The resistance was so proportioned 
as to give the coil a range in voltage of from 600 to 400, 
corresponding to the minimum drop that would cause a 
flash-over. The pneumatic details of the switch were 
enlarged so as to provide an especially quick action, as 
it was, of course, imperative that the switch should be 
fully opened before the voltage was restored to normal. 
Results proved that the quick-break switch with large 
air ports was sufficient to take care of the trouble ex- 
perienced and accordingly the additional switch was 
added to each equipment. 

Preventing Flashing of Reversers on 
Multiple-Unit Control Equipments 

A CONSIDERABLE number of multiple-unit cars on 
a well-known railway system were wired up in 
such a manner that when the master controller was 
moved entirely to the off position the reverser would 
break the circuit. There was a point on the controller 
which would hold the reverser in and allow the motor 
current to be broken in the controller, but occasionally 
a motorman would return his controller rapidly to the 
off position, and if the motors were drawing a heavy 
current the reverser would flash over. As these re- 
versers were located under a seat in the interior of the 
car these flashovers caused a flash and flame in the 
inside of the car and generally the passengers sitting 
in the seat over the reverser would have their clothing 
scorched or otherwise damaged. 

This condition had existed for some time and the 
company was seriously considering the installation of a 
circuit breaker to break the motor circuit and reduce 
the duty on the reversers. A careful study of the 
connection of the leads on the reverser, however, showed 
that the positive finger and the negative finger were 
adjacent to each other, with only a fraction of an inch 
clearance between the two fingers. There was thus a 
difference in potential of 600 volts between two adjacent 
fingers with but a very small insulating space. It was 
found that the connections on the reverser could be 
changed so that the voltage between adjacent fingers 
would be very materially reduced. This change in the 
wiring was made and since then the flashing over of 
the reversers has been entirely eliminated. 



An Emergency Stop That Was Not on 
the Schedule 

A CERTAIN large railway system operates multiple- 
unit trains in elevated service. On one occasion 
one of its motormen, on arriving at the terminal, re- 
ported his train as acting very erratically. He said 
that while running along with everything apparently 
working "O.K." the train would suddenly make an 
emergency stop and force all the passengers to the front 
end of the cars. On examining the equipment of his 
train immediately after such a stop, he found the brakes 
had not been applied but the emergency stop appeared 
to be due to a sudden reversal of the motors. 

The electrician stationed at the terminal rode on the 
train the next trip but nothing unusual happened. He 
continued to stay on the train, however, for he said 
he had a premonition that if he stuck long enough the 
trouble would occur again. Sure enough, while leaving 
the opposite terminal of the line and ascending a slight 
grade there was a sudden flash from the reverser on the 
head car and all motors on the train were reversed. 

A rapid examination was made by the electrician and 
he found that all the reversers had been thrown to 
the reverse position with the multiple-unit control 
switches closed for multiple operation. A thorough ex- 
amination was impossible at that time and in order to 
avoid a long detention to passenger service he pulled 
out the jumper connecting the first and second cars, 
then with the motorman operating from the first car 
and himself operating from the second the train com- 
pleted the remainder of its trip and was then taken 
out of service for a more careful examination. 

At the inspection shop all of the equipment of the 
train was carefully inspected and tested, but other than 
that the reversers were burned and smoked up no 
defects were found that would properly explain the 
trouble. The jumpers were removed and were given a 
breakdown test, which consisted in passing a large cur- 
rent through the various wires and connections. This 
test was also met satisfactorily. The electrician who 
had helped bring the train in off the road insisted on 
making another inspection of the equipment, as he felt 
there must be some obvious cause for the trouble. A 
small black spot was found on the insulation in the 
head of the jumper which had been removed from be- 
tween the first and second cars. This jumper was then 
entirely dismantled and it was found that the insulating 
compound inside the jumper head was cracked and that 
a strand from the positive battery train line wire 
had broken and was projecting through this crack 
and touching the reverser operating wire. The twisting 
of the jumper as the train passed around a curve had 
caused the contact to be made and the throwing of the 
reversers had caused the trouble. 

While trouble of this particular nature was somewhat 
uncommon, some precautions in filling the jumper heads 
with the insulating compound were considered advisable. 
It was found that by forcing the compound into the 
heads under considerable pressure small interstices 
were more properly filled and there was less danger 
of the compound cracking away from the insulating 
head. To prevent air bubbles from forming in the com- 
pound inside the head, two holes were drilled in the 
casting. One was used for filling and the other allowed 
the air to escape readily. 



January 18, 1919 Electric Railway Journal 145 



Some Emergency Special Work Construction 

Indianapolis Company Utilizes Acetylene Cutting and Thermit Welding 
in Building Up Curve Crosses 

By THOMAS B. McMATH 



THE maintenance-of-way department of this com- 
pany has found it necessary to make emergency 
renewals of girder rail curve crosses and frogs, 
and has been very successful in making a fairly good- 
looking and serviceable job without any machine-shop 
work. The only tools used were an acetylene cutting 




tMIT WELDIN< 



14 FT. LONG. 8 FT. WIDE 



Made of concrete flush with ground. Old rails set with bases 
projecting 1J in. above concrete. All rail bases set to perfectly 
level plane surface. Holding-down bolts used to bolt parts to be 
welded. 



The abutting ends of the arm rails are coped as 
accurately as possible by means of an acetylene cutter, 
but this coping is at best a rough approximation. The 
guard of the through rail is next cut by means of the 
torch to permit the arm on the guard side to come 
within about an inch of the gage of the through rail. 
The through rail is then cut away for a length of 2 in. 
through the base and web up as far as the bottom of 
the guard. The photograph reproduced in Fig. 2 shows 
the job at this stage. One of the coped arms is shown 
lying on its side to indicate the general shape after 
coping. The other arm is in its final position. It will 
be noted that the webs are not in contact, but the 
weld will include all webs, although they are separated 
by not less than a half inch. The coped arms are 
adjusted to the template and are firmly bolted to the 
bed by U-washers and T-bolts as shown. 

The openings are now all filled with wax and the 
wax is molded to the shape of the desired weld. The 





-THROUGH RAIL AND ABUTTING ENDS OF ARM RAILS CUT READY FOR WELDING. 

INTERSECTION WELD COMPLETE 



torch, a thermit welding outfit and an Atlas track 
grinder. 

After making a few welds and finding the operation 
a success, we built a concrete bed for doing such work. 
This proved to be very convenient and insured the 
making of curve crosses true to angle and surface. 
Fig. 1 shows the welding bed. As we use thermit 
for all combination joints we do all such work on this 
same bed. 

In fabricating a curve cross, we first make a template 
to correspond with the ball of the rail of the desired 
cross. The edges of the template that correspond with 
the gage line are painted red. In laying out the tem- 
plate we take as the through rail the one having the 
maximum traffic. This is bent to the proper curvature 
and bolted to the welding bed with the point of inter- 
section over the pit. The rail for the intersecting arms 
is first bent accurately to the proper radius and then 
the pieces are cut of ample length to make the arms. 




wax mold must be extended under the bearing parts of 
the intersecting rails to provide support for the load, 
and the weld must extend under the acute-angled points 
so as to support them. The wax when worked slightly 
warm is not at all difficult to handle or to work to 
the required shape. 



146 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 3 



We have found a small trowel and a farrier's knife 
to be the best tools for working the wax pattern into 
final shape. By knowing how much the wax weighs 
before starting and how much it weighs after the 
pattern is finished, it is easy to determine just how 
much thermit is required. 

The flask is made up of four pieces of sheet iron 
cut at the ends to the shape of the rail. This flask 
must extend down 4 in. below the base of the rail 
and must permit 4 in. of sand to intervene between 
the flask and the weld. The sand used must be silica 
sand with sufficient fire clay added to make it tamp 
to a solid mass. It is not necessary to give any details 
of the thermit welding process here as these are so 
well known. After the pouring operation the frog 
should be allowed several hours to cool before removing 
the sand. 

Most of our frogs take about 36 lb. of thermit and 
we find it most desirable to use two small crucibles 
rather than one big one. The frog is finished by grind- 
ing the tread of the rails if necessary and by grind- 
ing out the flangeway crossing. 

Fig. 3 shows a close-up view of a finished intersection. 
The cross shown here, however, is for a "jump" or un- 
broken main line, with wheel opening for 4£-in. tread 



tenance-of-way department were to order repair re- 
newals sufficiently in advance to have them on hand 
when needed there would be too much money' tied up 
in the storage yard. 

Home manufacture permits one to hold on to the old 
job until it is gone and still be able to supply only the 
pieces wanted without tying large amounts of money in 
the supply yard. We do not know how long this kind 
of work will last, but we have had it in use for several 
months and have had no indications of failure. 



Selecting Electrodes and Holders 
for Electric Arc Welding* 

Definite Characteristics for Electrodes Are Being 
Studied and Marked Improvement 
Is Expected 

AT PRESENT the question of electrodes for arc 
welding is in such a state of development that it is 
very difficult to set forth any definite data. Various 
treatments are being applied to electrodes of many 
kinds. Special electrodes with varying compositions are 
being made up and their welding characteristics are 
being studied. No doubt in the near future some defi- 




-tfk-J-H 

f ? U,L Body. Connector. ^/ua'sr^s. 

^MZff g \, 4'L «| \JH^ Brass. * 

Body g'jtg'stee/ Tubing. 

CONSTRUCTION DETAILS OF ONE TYPE OP ELECTRODE HOLDER 



S0. «/ Oen. Flee. Cos. J &". OOTStranded 
Fx Ira Flexible Double Covered Braided 
/Ire Welding Cable. 



wheels. Such a weld will cost some $30 or $40 exclud- 
ing the rail cost. We have had to make some thirty of 
these frogs, and we have had only two that we con- 
sidered "missed," and even these were usable. A frog of 
this kind can be turned out in two days, or even more 
rapidly if conditions are such that a more rapid con- 
struction is required. Fig. 4 shows a view of a finished 
crossing. 

Our men are intelligent laborers educated on our own 
work. With about three days' instruction from the 
manufacturers of the thermit, these men have gradually 
acquired their education with the acetylene cutter. They 
had had some experience with it and with the grinder 
before they began making frogs. 

During these strenuous times when it is difficult to 
obtain special work, and when the cost is so great, we 
find this home manufacture to be advisable to enable us 
to tide over till normal conditions return. If the main- 



nite information will be available as to the proper com- 
positions of electrodes for various operations. 

Wire for metallic arc welding must be of uniform 
homogeneous structure, free from segregation, oxides, 
pipes, seams, etc. The commercial "weldability" of elec- 
trodes should be determined by means of tests by an 
experienced operator, to demonstrate that the wire flows 
smoothly and evenly through the arc. 

The following list indicates the maximum range of 
the chemical composition of bare electrodes for electric 
welding in connection with mild steel: Carbon, trace up 
to 0.25 per cent; manganese, trace up to 0.99 per cent; 
phosphorus, not to exceed 0.05 per cent; sulphur, not to 
exceed 0.05 per cent ; silicon, not to exceed 0.08 per cent. 
The composition of the mild steel electrodes, commonly 
used, is around 0.8 per cent carbon, manganese not ex- 

*From 1918 report of committee of Association of Railway Elec- 
trical Engineers. 



January 18, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



147 



ceeding 0.05 per cent, and only a trace of phosphorus, 
sulphur and silicon. 

The ordinary sizes required are ^ in., i in., ^ in. 
and j\ in., with only a small demand for the ^\ in. 

The following table will serve to estimate the amount 
of wire in pounds required per operator: 



of Bare 
Mild-Steel 
Electrode, 
In. 



Actual 

Inch 

0.0925 
0.0925 
0. 1259 



1865 
1865 
1865 



Weight 
Time to Depositee 



A in. ) 
A in. : 
A in. i 



The weight deposited for pound per hour is the 
amount of metal that could be deposited in one hour if 
it was possible to maintain the arc continuously without 
interruption for this period. In actual practice, how- 
ever, it has been found that an operator will keep the 
arc going approximately 50 per cent of the time on 




SIMPLE, LIGHT TYPE OF ELECTRODE HOLDER 

average work, the remainder of the time being used in 
cleaning the metal, changing electrodes and preparing 
and handling the work. 

Coated Electrodes Prevent Oxidization 

A coated electrode is an electrode which has had a 
coating of some kind applied to its surface for the pur- 
pose of improving the metal in the weld by totally or 
partially excluding the atmosphere from the metal while 
in a molten state when passing through the arc and 
after it has been deposited. By the employment of such 
a coating the use of electrodes of special alloy steel has 
been made possible. For example, manganese steel, car- 
bon steel, nickel steel, vanadium steel and tungsten tool 
steel have all been deposited successfully with the 
metallic arc. 

Until recently there was only one kind of a coated 
electrode in commercial use, which is commonly known 
as the "quasi-arc" electrode. This electrode gives some 
wonderful results, but owing to its cost its use has been 
limited in most cases to special high-grade steels. A 
cheap simple coating not only for the special steels but 
also for the commoner mild steel electrodes as well has 
always been needed, not only to improve the metal in 
welds made with the present grade of welding wire but 
also to make possible the use of a better grade of weld- 
ing wire for some of the more important operations. 
Progress in this direction is being made. 

An electrode holder should be designed to hold the 
electrode firmly in order that a good contact will be 



provided for the flow of the current between itself and 
electrode. 

The holder for metallic electrode welding should be 
designed to permit the changing of electrodes with 
the least possible delay. It is also important that at 
least 5 ft. of the cable extending from the electrode 
holder be extra flexible, in order that an operator can 
readily change the angle of the electrode (with relation 
to the work) without having to twist a stiff cable. An 
operator's hand should be as free to move as that of a 
painter, if he is to accomplish his work properly. 

There are many designs of holders on the market 
which are satisfactory, one of which is shown in an 
accompanying illustration. Holders for carbon arc 
welding where a heavy current is used are necessarily 
much larger than those used for metallic arc welding. 
Another simple, light and easily operated holder is 
shown in another illustration. This consists of a clamp 
designed to avoid overheating and to protect the oper- 
ator's hand. 

Holders for carbon arc welding should be designed to- 
grip carbons of various sizes. The holder for carbon 
arc welding is two or three times as long as that re- 
quired for metallic arc welding to permit the operator to 
be sufficiently far from the work. A fiber disk is provided 
also between the carbon and the handle to keep the heat 
of the arc away from the operator's hand. 



1918 Fires Have Their Lessons for 1919 

DURING the year just closed many fires were 
caused by carelessness in burning leaves, brush 
and general trash. Electric railways were not free from 
loss due to this cause. The following information 
regarding 1918 fires is given by the Fire Underwriters 
Electrical Bureau and is cited as proof of the reality 
of this hazard. 

Fire occurred on April 7, 1918, at 6.30 p.m., at the 
plant of the Elevated Railway, Somerville, Mass. The 
cause of the fire as given in a statement of the general 
adjustment bureau and the sworn statement of the as- 
sured was the burning of grass in close proximity to a 
wooden building. The loss amounted to $300,000. Fire 
occurred on April 6, 1918, at 1.10 p.m., in the frame 
earhouse occupied as a storage house for out-of-season 
cars by the Ithaca (N. Y.) Traction Corporation. This 
earhouse was located outside the city limits. The fire 
was caused supposedly from burning grass, as fires had 
been noticed near by on the day of the damage. The 
loss paid was $27,000. On Nov. 8, 1918, a fire is re- 
ported to have occurred on the property of the street 
railways of Augusta, Ga. The possible insurance loss 
was $100,000. The fire is said to have been caused by 
a spark from burning trash which ignited some com- 
bustible material near by. 

Park properties and outlying carhouses and shops are 
particularly exposed to the hazards of fire from the 
burning of grass, leaves, brush, etc., and from the 
flying sparks due to the careless burning of trash. 
The remedy, of course, is to keep leaves, high grass and 
brush well away from buildings, to burn trash only 
in wire-mesh covered receptacles, and to store all trash 
which cannot be immediately removed in covered bins 
well away from buildings. 



148 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 3 



Snow Sweepers Made from Open Cars 

Emergency Conditions Made Unusual Procedure 
Necessary — Cost Was Less than $900 
Per Sweeper 

By J. W. Hulme 

Superintendent of Equipment International Railway Company, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 

THE loss of four snow sweepers in a carhouse fire 
which occurred on this property early last spring 
made it necessary to provide the same number of equip- 
ments before the present winter set in. As the car 
builders could not give absolute assurance that they 
could make deliveries of new sweepers early in the fall, 
on account of the scarcity of labor and the difficulty in 
securing material, the company decided to equip some 
open cars as snow sweepers. The writer has always 
felt that a scheme of this kind could be worked out 
practically and would enable the rolling stock to be 
used to better advantage than otherwise. 

It was decided to use four fourteen-bench cars which 
operate on the belt lines of the Niagara Falls division 
of the International Railway. These open cars are of 
double-truck type and are equipped with four GE-57 
three-turn motors each. The cars weigh enough to 
insure good tractive effort, a necessary condition in any 
snow sweeper. The overhang of the platform on this 
type of open car is very small, making it possible to 
install the sweeper on the front end and still leave 
ample clearance on all curves. 

In order to minimize the cost of converting the car 
from open car service to a snow-fighting unit and back 
again it was decided not to alter the bulkhead or bonnet 
of the open car, but merely to remove the vestibule and 
dasher. Of course the location of the controller and 
engineer's valve had to be changed. 

The construction decided upon is shown in the ac- 
companying photographs. The cab is portable and is 




DEVIL-STRIP SIDE OF VESTIBULE AND SWEEPER, AND 
FRONT OF OPEN CAR EQUIPPED WITH BROOM 
FOR SNOW SWEEPING 



built up in five sections, as follows : The roof, which fits 
over the open car bonnet, the two sides and the two sec- 
tions of which the front is composed. The broom is sup- 
ported by a triangular frame made of f-in. x 5 in. x 5 in. 
angle iron, and it is bolted on top of the two side sills. 
In order to stiffen the apparatus and eliminate vibra- 
tion a 1-in. truss rod was run from the front end of the 



framework supporting the broom and extended back to 
the center of the car. 

The broom is driven by a modern-type ventilated 
60-hp. motor, being direct connected with it by means 
of shafts and bevel gears. This drive was used to obvi- 
ate the chain troubles which so frequently occur with 
chain-driven brooms. A first-class motor' was selected 
for the drive because experience has shown that delays 
and tie-ups are often due to the use of obsolete types 
of motors for the broom drive. To permit lowering of 
the broom as the rattan wears out, a set of levers is pro- 
vided with control from the cab through an adjusting 




CLOSE-UP VIEW OF BROOM AND LEVERS, SHOWING CHAIN 
CONNECTION TO ADJUSTING HAND WHEEL 



screw. This is turned by means of a hand wheel with 
gear and chain connections. The controller and en- 
gineer's valve for the use of the motorman who operates 
the car is located back of the front window on the 
devil-strip side of the car. This location insures that 
the motorman will have a clear view of the track ahead 
when the broom is in operation and will not be blinded 
by the snow. At the same time the man who operates 
the broom is able to look out of the other front window 
_u see where he is delivering the snow. 

The cost of equipping the car exclusive of the motor 
and controller for operating the broom was less than 
$900. Since the cabs are built in portable sections the 
cost of converting at the end of each season will be less 
than $30 per car. Up to date we have not experienced 
any severe snowstorms but we have had sufficient op- 
portunity to assure us that the use of an open car as 
a snow sweeper is entirely practicable. The motormen, 
conductors and broom operators are greatly pleased 
with this reconstructed equipment. Heaters are in- 
stalled in both the front and the rear end cabs for the 
comfort of the crews. 



In paying a tribute to the service of women conductors 
in Leeds, England, J. B. Hamilton of the tramways 
committee said that the employment of women had en- 
abled the committee to maintain a service which, if not 
altogether adequate, had met the convenience of the 
public fairly well. It had been found, however, that with 
women the same standard of regularity cannot be ob- 
tained as with men and this increased the possibility 
of interruptions to service above what they otherwise 
would have been. 



January 18, 1919 



Electric Railway Journal 



L49 



Supreme Court Decides D.U.R Case 

Says City Could Have Ordered Tracks From Street After 
Franchises Expired But Cannot Compel Company 
to Continue Business at Loss 



A DECISION of importance as bearing on the right 
f-\ of public service corporations to a reasonable re- 
X M~ return on their investments was handed down by 
the United States Supreme Court on Jan. 13 by a 6 to 3 
vote, in the case of the Detroit United Railway against 
the City of Detroit. 

The case. came up on appeal from the District Court 
for the Eastern District of Michigan, which had dis- 
missed proceedings instituted by the railway company 
to restrain the enforcement of a city ordinance which 
sought to fix the rate of street car fares in Detroit. 
This ordinance (see footnote*) was passed by the City 
Council after it had turned down petitions from the 
company for permission to increase its fares. 

It was contended by the company that the rates 
sought to be established were confiscatory and prevented 
the company from earning a fair return on its invest- 
ment. The city authorities challenged this contention. 

"An Ordinance to fix and establish maximum rates of fares ana 
charges which may be exacted and received! by persons, corpora- 
tions, or partnerships operating street railways for the carriage 
of passengers within the City of Detroit, and to fix a penalty for 
the violation thereof. 

It is Hereby Ordained by the People of the City of Detroit: 
Section 1. No person, partnership or corporation operating a 
street railway on the streets of the City of Detroit, for the car- 
riage of passengers for hire, shall charge more than five cents 
for a single ride, or six tickets for 25 cents, per person for one 
continuous trip within the city over any line which is now operated 
or shall hereafter be operated without a franchise fixing the rate 
of fare. 

Section 2. No such person, partnership or corporation shall 
charge a higher rate of fare upon any line now or hereafter oper- 
ated under a franchise contract than is fixed by such franchise. 

Section 3. Eetween the hours of five and six-thirty a. m. and 
four forty-five and five forty-five p. m. tickets in strips of eight 
for twenty-five cents shall be sold on all cars on all lines except 
where such sale would be contrary to the terms of a franchise 
contract, which tickets shall entitle the holder to the same rights 
between said hours as the payment of a five cent fare would. 

Section 4. Where a trip is over two or more lines, whether 
franchise lines or not, the maximum fare shall be five cents, and 
no transfer fee shall be exacted which raises the total charge to 
more than five cents or six for 25 cents. 

Section 5. V continuous trip means one journey from point to 
point within the city, whether the same is made upon one car or 
one line or by means of transferring from car to car or from 
line to line. Each such person, partnership or corporation, and the 
officers, agents, servants and employes thereof, shall, upon de- 
mand, furnish proper transfers to carry into effect the pro- 
visions of this section. The provisions of this Ordinance shall not 
be construed as an attempt to impair the obligation of any valid 
contract, but si all apply to and givern all such street railway 
passenger trafac in the city, except where the same is governed 
by the provisions of such contract. 

Section 6. Any such person, partnership or corporation which 
shall violate the provisions of this Ordinance, or shall attempt 
to do so, and any officer, agent, servant or employe who shall 
order or direct any such violation or attempted violation of the 
provisions of this Ordinance, shall be guilty of an offense, and 
upon conviction shall be fined not to exceed five hundred dol- 
lars, or imprisoned in the Detroit House of Correction for not to 
exceed ninety days, or shall be both fined and imprisoned in the 
discretion of the court, for each violation. 

Section 7. This Ordinance is passed for the public welfare in 
the case of an emergency involving the peace, health and safety 
of the people of the city, and it is ordered to take immdiate effect. 
It may be amended or repealed at any time by the Common Coun- 
cil of the City of Detroit. Unless so amended or repealed it shall 
remain in force for one year from August 9, 1918. 



The district court in dismissing the proceedings held 
that the remedy of the company was to abandon its 
service and take its property from the streets, and that 
the exception of the fifth section of the ordinance saved 
the company's contract rights from impairment. 

In its decision rendered by Justice Day, the United 
States Supreme Court reversed the decree of the district 
court with costs and ordered a new trial. Justices 
Clarke, Holmes, and Brandeis dissented. 

The Court holds that : "There can be no question that 
it was within the city's power to compel the company 
as to its non-franchise lines to remove its tracks from 
the streets of the city. This was settled in Detroit 
United Railway Company vs. Detroit, 229 U. S. 39. The 
city did not do so. Instead of taking such action it 
passed the ordinance in controversy, providing for the 
continued operation of the company's system." Where, 
however, it required certain duties of the company the 
latter was entitled to make a reasonable return upon its 
investment. Hence the District Court should have 
heard the case on its merits. 

Company Entitled to a Reasonable Return 

On this point the Court said: 

"The allegations of the bill, which for the pres- 
ent purposes must be taken as true, are ample to the 
effect that the enforcement of this ordinance will result 
in a deficit to the company. We cannot construe the ex- 
ception of section five, having reference to existing 
franchise contracts, in such way as to modify the re- 
quirements of section four which in explicit terms fixes 
the fares for trips over two or more lines whether 
franchise lines or not, and limits the maximum fare 
without charge for transfers. This must be read in 
view of the definition of a continuous trip in section 
five as meaning a journey from one point to another 
point in the city whether the same is made on one car 
line or by means of transfers from car to car or from 
line to line. The exception in section five can have no 
further effect consistently with the other provisions of 
the ordinance, particularly section four, than to regulate 
fares where trips are wholly upon franchise lines. 

"A principal ground upon which the bill was dis- 
missed by the District Court was the view of the learned 
judge that the power to compel the company to remove 
its tracks from the streets involving the non-franchise 
roads included the right to fix terms of continued oper- 
ation upon such lines, whether remunerative or not. We 
cannot agree with this view. In our opinion the case in 
this respect is ruled in principle by Denver v. Denver 
Union Water Company, 246 U. S. 178. In that case the 
franchise of a water company had expired, and the city 
might have refused the further use of the streets to the 
company. Instead of doing this it passed an ordinance 
fixing rates and requiring certain duties of the com- 
pany. We held that in that situation the company was 
entitled to make a reasonable return upon its invest- 



150 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 53, No. 3 



ment. So here, the city might have required the com- 
pany to cease its service and remove its tracks from the 
non-franchise lines within the city. Instead of taking 
this course the city enacted an ordinance for the con- 
tinued operation of the company's system, with fares 
and transfers for continuous trips over lines composing 
the system whether the same had a franchise or not. 
This action contemplated the further operation of the 
system, and fixed penalties for violations of the ordi- 
nance. 

"By its terms the ordinance is to continue in force 
for the period of one year, unless sooner amended or re- 
pealed. This was a clear recognition that until the city 
repealed the ordinance the public service should con- 
tinue, with the use of the streets essential to carry on 
further service. Within the principles of the Denver 
case this service could not be required without giving 
to the company, thus affording it, a reasonable return 
upon its investment. In the Denver case we said: 'The 
very act of regulating the company's rate was a recog- 
nition that its plant must continue, as before, to serve 
the public needs. The fact that no term was specified 
is, under the existing circumstances, as significant of 
an intent that the service should continue while the 
need existed as of an intent that it should not be per- 
petual.' 

"In the present case the service upon the terms fixed 
in the ordinance is continued for a year, the city reserv- 
ing the right to repeal the ordinance at any time. 

"It is clear that the city might have taken a different 
course by requiring the company to remove its tracks 
from the non-franchise lines, it elected to require con- 
tinued maintenance of the public service; doubtless be- 
cause it was believed that it was necessary in the exist- 
ing conditions in the city to continue for a time at 
least the right of the railway company to operate its 
lines. This amounted to a grant to the company for 
further operation of the system, during the life of the 
ordinance. For this public service it was entitled to a 
fair return upon its investment. Elements to be taken 
into consideration in valuing the property of the com- 
pany in estimating a fair return are not involved in 
this case. If the allegations of the bill are true, and for 
present purposes they must be so regarded, the con- 
tinued operation of the railroad system of the company 
upon the fares fixed in the ordinance will result in a 
deficit, and deny to the company due process of law 
within the meaning of the Federal Constitution. 

"As rates of fare are fixed on some of the existing 
franchise lines at 5 cents without transfers, it would 
follow as to continuous trips over such franchise and 
non-franchise lines, such trips comprehending much of 
the transportation required, the latter lines would be 
without compensation for the service rendered. Fur- 
thermore, when a continuous trip begins on a non- 
franchise line and is over a franchise line and a non- 
franchise line, the former having the right to charge 
five cents for a trip over it, the effect would be to im- 
pair the obligation of the franchise contract. Detroit 
United Railway v. Michigan, 242 U. S. 252. 

"In our view the allegations of this bill for the pur- 
poses of the demurrer sufficiently alleged violations of 
the Constitution of the United States in the action of 
the city in passing and enforcing the ordinance in con- 
troversy. The District Court should have entertained 



the bill, heard the application for a temporary injunc- 
tion, and proceeded to a hearing and determination of 
the case in due course." 

DISSENTING OPINION 

In the dissenting opinion, presented by Justice Clarke, 
it was held that the ordinance did not require the 
company to operate its franchise lines at a loss, but it 
was an offer to the company of a right to operate its 
lines in the non-franchise streets, in which it had no 
rights, in conjunction with its other lines at what was 
alleged to be a non-compensatory rate for the entire 
system. The opinion of Justice Clarke also quoted, as 
applicable to the case, the language which Justice 
Holmes used in a dissenting opinion in the Denver case, 
already mentioned, as follows : "In view of that right of 
the city, which, if exercised, would make the company's 
whole plant valueless as such, the question recurs 
whether the fixing of any rate by the city could be 
said to confiscate property on the ground that the return 
was too low. . . . The ordinance of the city could 
mean no more than that the company must accept the 
city's rates or stop — and as it could be stopped by the 
city out and out, the general principle is that it could 
be stopped unless a certain price should be paid." 



Some Additional Track Statistics 

SINCE the publication of the statistics on new track 
constructed and track rebuilt in the statistical issue 
of January 4, reports have been received from seven 
additional railways as follows: 

Miles of 

. New Single Track Mileage Track Rebuilt 

City Interurban Electrified City Interurban 
Name of Railway State Track Track Steam Road Track Track 

Bay State Street Ry Mass.1.80 ... 4.14 

Galveston-Houston Elec- 
tric Ry Texas ... 0.76 

Houston Electric Co Texas . 30 .... 

Illinois Light & Traction 

Co Ill .... 0.76 

New York Connecting 
R.R... N.Y 10.6 

Philadelphia Rapid Tran- 
sit Co Pa. 1 49 7 1,6 . ... 14 77 0.12 

St. Paul Southern Elec- „ „„ 

trie Ry Co Minn 9.00 

Total 3 59 7 92 10 6 19.67 9.12 

With these figures added to those previously pub- 
lished the total mileage for new electric railway track 
built in 1918 becomes 325.33, the electrified steam line 
mileage 286.3 and the total new electric mileage 611.63. 
The revised mileage of track rebuilt is 184.22. 



Report on Tramways in Chosen, Corea 

For the fiscal year ended March 31, 1917, according 
to the latest report of the Railway Bureau of the Gov- 
ernment General of Chosen (Corea), the light railways 
and tramways opened to traffic totaled 84.4 miles, while 
those not yet open totaled 134.6 miles. The result of 
traffic on the operating lines was said to be very good. 
Private lines already in operation amount to 32.6 miles, 
while those not yet worked cover 34.7 miles. Since 
1914 an annual subsidy sufficient to insure the payment 
of 6 per cent on the paid up capital, in case the net 
profit does not reach this amount, has been allowed to 
companies planning to lay down and work light rail- 
ways, so as to encourage the development of the work. 



News of the Eledxic Railways 

FINANCIAL AND CORPORATE • TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION 
PERSONAL MENTION 



St. Louis Tax Adjusted 

Agreement Reached Between City and 
United Railways for Payments 
Since Recent Court Decision 

An adjustment of the United Rail- 
ways mill tax suits, amounting to $2,- 
300,000, was reached on Jan. 11 at a 
meeting of the Board of Estimate and 
Apportionment of St. Louis, Mo., com- 
posed of Mayor Kiel, City Comptroller 
Louis Nolte and Louis P. Aloe, presi- 
dent of the Board of Aldermen. 
Charles H. Daues, city counselor, 
represented the city, and Thomas H. 
Francis the United Railways. 

Payments in Installments 

The United Railways agreed that it 
would pay every dollar that it owes 
the city in mill taxes, including both 
principal and interest, and, also, a 
judgment against the St. Louis Tran- 
sit Company for about $250,000. The 
obligations are to be paid in ten install- 
ments, with interest, amounting to 
approximately $250,000 a year. The 
company also binds itself to pay the 
mill tax in the future without contest 
as it falls due. 

The company, it was stated, would 
go before the Circuit Court and con- 
test judgment. 

On April 4, 1903, a measure known 
as the mill tax ordinance became 
effective. This ordinance provided for 
a license tax of 1 mill per passenger 
on street railways doing business in 
St. Louis. The United Railways from 
the very beginning contested the va- 
lidity of this tax, and litigation between 
the city and the company ensued, which 
ended, in so far as the original cases 
were concerned, by a decision of the 
Supreme Court of the United States in 
1916 in favor of the city. As the re- 
sult of this thirteen years' litigation the 
United Railways Company paid into the 
treasury of the city approximately $1,- 
800,000. No tax has since been paid 
under the ordinance. 

Another Suit Was Proposed 

Immediately upon the final deter- 
mination of the 6-cent fare case by the 
Supreme Court the Mayor instructed 
the law department to proceed to col- 
lect, if possible, the balance of the mill 
tax, not in judgment, and which 
amounts, in round figures, with interest, 
to $2,500,000. Suit for the major por- 
tion of this amount has been pending 
awaiting the fate of the rate case and 
was also passed awaiting the result of 
franchise compromise ordinances and 
settlements which were being suggested 
and proposed from time to time. Ac- 
cordingly, the city counselor a few 



days ago made demand upon the com- 
pany to file its answer in these cases 
so that steps could be taken by the 
city to force the tax claims under this 
ordinance to a judgment. 



Seattle Wants Authority 
Established 

A complaint has been filed in the 
Superior Court of the State of Wash- 
ington, by F. A. Twichell, against the 
city of Seattle and the Puget Sound 
Traction, Light & Power Company, in 
which it is alleged that under present 
conditions the purchase of the railway 
property by the city from the traction 
company would be illegal. The plain- 
tiff asks that the city and company be 
restrained by the court from proceeding 
with negotiations now under way to 
complete the purchase, and that a court 
injunction be issued forthwith. It is 
further alleged that the city, in making 
a part of the purchase contract a pro- 
vision permitting the company to fur- 
nish power for the operation of the 
railway, has gone outside its jurisdic- 
tion. These actions are in final pro- 
ceedings to establish the authority of 
the city to conclude the municipal own- 
ership negotiations which have been un- 
der way for some months past. 



Louisville Wages Again a 
Problem 

The Louisville (Ky.) Railway and 
Amalgamated Association have been 
unable to agree on demands made by 
the men for a further increase of 7 
cents an hour, with the result that the 
union has taken the matter up with 
the War Labor Board. 

On Dec. 12 an ultimatum was sent 
to the company. The latter announced 
that the question would be discussed, 
and an answer returned by Dec. 23. 
The directors met on Dec. 20, but no re- 
port was made of the proceedings. 

President Minary in a letter to the 
union stated that when the former la- 
bor schedule was arranged it was to 
have held until Jan. 1, when the union 
could reopen the question. 

Mr. Minary calls attention to the 
fact that the company has been hoping 
to secure an increase in fares, but has 
been unable to secure any advance. 
Another increase in wages of 7 cents, 
or to a maximum of 45 cents an hour, 
is impossible under a 5-cent fare, with 
the present operating expenses. It is 
said that the company, aside from the 
considerations just mentioned, feels that 
the demands of the men are unjusti- 
fied, particularly in the light of the 
lessened demand for labor in the war 
industries. 



Service-at-Cost Now 

Buffalo Veers Around from Municipal 
Ownership Talk to Cleveland Serv- 
ice Plan — Valuation Arbitration 

An agreement has been reached be- 
tween the International Railway and 
the municipal authorities of Buffalo, 
N. Y., whereby both parties will ar- 
bitrate the question of the valuation of 
the company's properties within the 
city of Buffalo. The valuation figures 
will be used in reaching an agreement 
between the company and the cit